1.College of Geography and Environmental Science, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, Gansu, China 2. Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, Liaoning, China
Water Poverty and Agricultural Modernization are two important issues that affects Chinese security and economic development. Studying the coupling relationship between them contributes to promoting the sustainable development of resources environment and economy. The paper selected 30 provincial areas of China including autonomous regions as the research unit. Firstly, the water poverty and agricultural modernization’s evaluation index system was set up, the poverty model and the agricultural modernization index were used to calculate the poverty value and agricultural modernization value of each province, and the time series map was established respectively. Then, the spatial distribution of the two was carried out by ArcGIS. Finally, using the coupling coordination model and the coupled coordination Gini coefficient analyze rural water poverty and agricultural modernization coupling coordination and regional differences, as well as using spatial antocorrelation to analyze the spatio-temporal relationship of rural water poverty, agricultural modernization and coupling coordination from 2005 to 2014. The results are obtained as follows: ① The degree of rural water poverty in China decreases by 14.68%.The reason for the decline is mainly the implementation of the 10th Five-year Plan. The central water conservancy work attached great importance to solving the water problem in an important position and made a series of major arrangements and water conservancy investments to maintain a high level. But the degree of water poverty fluctuated in that period due to natural disasters of some areas such as rare historical rainfall, typhoons and droughts. The decreasing amplitude in eastern and western China is smaller than that in central China, maintaining the decreasing tendency of “central-west-east”. The degree of rural water poverty in China was positive spatial autocorrelation within a decade. ② Agricultural modernization level slowly increases by 5.5%. The eastern provinces of the agricultural modernization level are kept above the national average, while the central and western regions are kept below the national average. Although the western China increases by 26.88%, the degree of rural water poverty continues the decreasing trend of “east-central-west”.③ The coordination degree of rural water poverty and agricultural modernization are fluctuating, indicating that the corresponding spatial scale keeps the rising trend. In recent years, the increase of coordination degree is 8.03 %.The regional differences of coordination degree between water poverty and agricultural modernization level tend to decline and the Gini index increases by 31.62%. The index in the western region is much higher than eastern region, but the coordination degree has maintained the increasing tendency of “east-central-west”. ④ The “cold-spot” areas of the coordination degree between water poverty and agricultural modernization level shows the contraction tendency while “hot-spot” areas shows the expansion tendency. Finally, this paper makes suggestions how to reduce the rural water poverty, improve the level of agricultural modernization and coordinate them.
. 2005~2014年中国农村水贫困与农业现代化的时空耦合研究[J]. 地理科学,
2018, 38(5): 717-726.
Yanyan Ma et al
. Spatio-temporal Coupling Between Rural Water Poverty and Agricultural Modernization in China from 2005 to 2014[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA,
2018, 38(5): 717-726.
OkiT, KanaeS.Global hydrological cycles and world water resources[J]. ,2006,313(5790):1068-1072.
Water is a naturally circulating resource that is constantly recharged. Therefore, even though the stocks of water in natural and artificial reservoirs are helpful to increase the available water resources for human society, the flow of water should be the main focus in water resources assessments. The climate system puts an upper limit on the circulation rate of available renewable freshwater resources (RFWR). Although current global withdrawals are well below the upper limit, more than two billion people live in highly water-stressed areas because of the uneven distribution of RFWR in time and space. Climate change is expected to accelerate water cycles and thereby increase the available RFWR. This would slow down the increase of people living under water stress; however, changes in seasonal patterns and increasing probability of extreme events may offset this effect. Reducing current vulnerability will be the first step to prepare for such anticipated changes.
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SullivanCaroline.The water poverty index: Development and application at the community scale[J]. , 2003,27(3): 189-199.
The article details the development and uses of the water poverty index (WPI). The index was developed as a holistic tool to measure water stress at the household and community levels, designed to aid national decision makers, at community and central government level, as well as donor agencies, to determine priority needs for interventions in the water sector. The index combines into a single number a cluster of data directly and indirectly relevant to water stress. Subcomponents of the index include measures of: access to water; water quantity, quality and variability; water uses (domestic, food, productive purposes); capacity for water management; and environmental aspects. The WPI methodology was developed through pilot projects in South Africa, Tanzania and Sri Lanka and involved intensive participation and consultation with all stakeholders, including water users, politicians, water sector professionals, aid agency personnel and others. The article discusses approaches for the further implementation of the water poverty index, including the possibilities of acquiring the necessary data through existing national surveys or by establishing interdisciplinary water modules in school curricula. The article argues that the WPI fills the need for a simple, open and transparent tool, one that will appeal to politicians and decision makers, and at the same time can empower poor people to participate in the better targeting of water sector interventions and development budgets in general.
PanA, BoschD, MaH.Assessing water poverty in China using holistic and dynamic principal component analysis[J]. , 2015, 130:1-25.
Abstract The Water Poverty Index (WPI) expands the analysis of China water crises from hydrology to a broader focus on integrated water resources management including economic and social factors. This index was revised by principal component analysis (PCA) to avoid arbitrariness of weights and collinearity between variables. However, the traditional PCA is primarily oriented for static data, and it fails to reveal the evolutionary trend of data over time. Moreover, the conventional normalization methods are not adequate when the dimension of time is added to the data. In this study, the transformation of centralized logarithm of initial variable and holistic and dynamic principal component analysis are firstly proposed, then the improved methods are applied to assess water poverty in China using panel data from 2004 to 2012. The estimated WPI shows the growing scale and the clustering trend of regional water poverty. The analysis of influential factors reveals that aquatic environmental pollution is a vital driver of water poverty. Water resource endowment is the second important factor concerning regional water poverty. Inability to adapt to water scarcity, which leads to weak physical water access and low efficiency of water use, is still a critical driver of regional water poverty. Finally, the regional disparities and alleviation strategies of water poverty are discussed.
Garriga RG, Foguet AP.Improved method to calculate a water poverty index at local scale[J]. , 2010,136(11):1287-1298.
The Water Poverty Index (WPI) was created as an interdisciplinary indicator to assess water stress and scarcity, linking physical estimates of water availability with the socioeconomic drivers of poverty. This index has found great relevance in policy making as an effective water management tool, particularly in resources allocation and prioritization processes. Two conceptual weaknesses exist in the current index: (1) inadequate technique to combine available data and (2) poor statistical properties of the resulting composite. The purpose of this paper is to propose a suitable methodology to assess water poverty that overcomes these weaknesses. To this end, a number of combinations to create the WPI have been considered, based on indicators selection criteria, simple aggregation functions and multivariate analysis. The approach adopted has been designed for universal application at local scale. To exemplify the utilization of each alternative method, they have been piloted and implemented in the Turkana District (Kenya) as a case study. The paper concludes that the weighted multiplicative function is the most appropriate aggregation method for estimation of water poverty. It is least eclipsing and ambiguous free function, and it does not allow compensability among different variables of the index.
ManandharS, Pandey VP, KazamaF.Application of Water Poverty Index (WPI) in Nepalese Context: A case study of Kali Gandaki River Basin (KGRB)[J]. , 2012,26(1):89-107.
AbstractThis article details an application of Water Poverty Index (WPI) to evaluate state of water resources in the context of Nepalese river basins with a case study of Kali Gandaki River Basin (KGRB) located in western Nepal. Considering that water poverty issues and indicators to represent them are location-specific, selecting suitable indicators with due care of local context and data availability is essential to apply the WPI, a holistic tool for water resources planning and management. In this study, it suggests and describes a set of ten WPI indicators and twelve variables suitable in the Nepalese context. The selected set of indicators and variables is used to discuss water poverty situation in the study basin as a whole, spatial variation within the basin and variation at different spatial scales in the basin, that is, basin, sub-unit of the basin (district) and sub-unit of the district (Village Development Committee (VDC)). The study result shows that WPI varies widely (from 37.1 to 56.5) within the study basin suggesting the need of location-specific policy interventions. At different spatial scales, there is no clear trend; however, analysis of the WPI components shows higher resources and access at basin level; higher use, environment and capacity at sub-sub-unit of the basin level. Such variations suggest the need of scale-specific policy interventions and management plans to improve overall water poverty situation in the study basin. Overall, the WPI helped to examine the water poverty situation and recommend priority areas of policy interventions for the improvement of water-poverty situation in the basin.
WilkJ, Jonsson AC.From water poverty to water prosperity—A more participatory approach to studying local water resources management[J]., 2013,27(3):695-713.
Abstract). The WPI6565score was contrasted with the WPI at community level. It was also calculated for two community areas with different caste and socio-economic characteristics and weighted separately according to water issues prioritized by men and women. The WPI6565revealed a great difference in water access between the two areas and in prioritized issues between men and women illustrating the importance of appropriate spatial representation and gender sensitive assessments for revealing important disparities. Results also showed that highly aggregated data hide these differences making it more difficult to target the most vulnerable groups when planning measures to increase equitable water allocation. While quantitative data reveal an important perspective of the water situation, qualitative data about adequacy of resources, services or institutions, improve understanding of which issues to prioritize. A valid and useful community water index must be based on representative participation, transparency and local influence on the methodology and subsequent results.
Water poverty is defined as the lack of water in nature or the capacity to use water, and can be divided into two levels : natural level and eco-social level. With The author treated watershed as a basic unit, this paper has for study to builtd a reasonable water poverty assessment index system, use WPI model and made appropriate modifications based on the watershed situation, which. The assessment of water poverty is decided by multiple ingredients. The new index system includes natural resource, access, capacityital, usage and environment to assess the water poverty in Ganjiang Basin. Among them, natural resource Access sub-system refers to the use of groundwater and surface water resources. The access use sub-system reflects the degree of public access to clean water and water security. The capacity sub-system reflects the impact of socio-economic conditions onto the water industry by, considering all aspects of integrated water management. The usage sub-system reflects the efficient use of water use efficiency in industry, agriculture and other departments and the environment sub-system includes potential pressure suffered by water quality and ecological environment, which reflects the impact of resource utilization on environmental impact of resource utilization. In this paper, weights of the indexes in each sub-system werewere determined by PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method. The theory of WPI was used in Ganjiang Basin and data for analysis were collected from Jiangxi Province Statistic Yearbooks (2008-2010), Jiangxi Province Environment Statistic Yearbooks (2008-2010), Jiangxi Province Environmental Comprehensive Improvement Examination Results (2008-2010), Jiangxi Province National economic and social development Statistic Yearbooks, and field survey results fromin Jiangxi Province Environmental Protection Office. In terms of regional exploratory spatial data analysis, the basin could be classified into three categories. The assessment rResults showed that the situation of water poverty inof Ganjiang Basin wasere better in 2007-2009, but while slightly a little worsereduce in 2009 due to, there are problems in management; the situation in Nanchang city was relatively severer, because of the pressure of population and polluting enterprises, while. Whereas thatat in Xinyu city, Pingxiang city, which are which located in the middle of the basin, wasere better. This coincides with water pollution situation in Ganjiang Basin. The bad water poverty situation sudden fall into a bad situation in Jian city mainly results from, its deep reason is the decrease plummeted of environmental protection investment index and, the pollution control investment, while reducing the environmental protection investment index is the main manipulative indicator for while the growth of the GDP, which further causes water poverty aggravated.Tthe good situation of water poverty in Ganjiang Basin was getting better, and the environmental protection investment index is the main manipulative indicators. Therefore, Tthe government needs to increase investment and effortsstrength in environmental protection, to better protect the environment and control pollution.
[CaoQian, LiuRui.Assessment of water poverty in Ganjiang basin based on WPI model. ,2012, 34(7):1306-1311.]
The water poverty theory has created opportunities and inspired ideas to provide a theoretical basis of mitigating water shortage. Water poverty is defined as the lack of water in nature or the lack of capacity or power to use water. Water poverty can be divided into natural level and eco-social level. To build a reasonable index system, the sub-systems of Water Poverty Index (WPI) were appropriately adjusted, deviating from the original WPI. The new index system includes natural resource, access, capital, usage, and the environment. Access sub-system was expanded with supply, usage, and sewage treatment of water. The use sub-system was expanded with pressure and anti-reverse zone. The capacity sub-system was enriched by government capacity, economic capacity of citizen, and technological level. The environment sub-system was enriched by governance. Weights of the index in each subsystem were determined by the combination weighting method, which synthesized the results of the analytic hierarchy process and entropy method. The dynamic analytic hierarchy process was used to determine the weights of five subsystems to respond the current situation that the capability of adaption to water resource scarcity is enhancing with the development of economy and society. The theory of WPI was used in China and data for analysis were collected from China Statistical Yearbooks, China Water Resources Bulletins, and China agricultural Statistic Yearbooks. Results showed good coupling of water resource and human development. Specifically, situations of water poverty of Gansu, Shanxi, Henan, Ningxia, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Jilin and Shandong were relatively severer, whereas that of Guangdong, Hainan, Fujian, Zhejiang, Guangxi, Jiangxi, Shanghai, Chongqing, Sichuan, and Hunan were better. Radar chart was used to illustrate which aspect of the subsystems was weak in each province. The quantity of water in the southeastern China is more than the northwest in general. The situation of access and capacity in eastern coastal areas is generally better than other regions. Most of top 10 access and capacity is in eastern provinces. Most of areas which show good results in the use sub-system have limited natural water resources. The pressure of population and economy forces those areas to improve the efficiency of water use and enhance the realization of saving water. Most of provinces having good scores in the environment sub-systems have relatively developed economy. The government has more experience and strength to protect the environment and control pollution. Results of ESDA show that the global spatial association of water poverty in China was significant in both natural water poverty and eco-social water poverty. The natural water poverty is slightly mitigated in some regions in China. In terms of regional exploratory spatial data analysis, these provinces could be classified into four categories. The patterns of water poverty were almost the same for both natural water poverty and eco-social water poverty. The result demonstrates that the capacity of social adaption still seems weak for most regions.
[SunCaizhi, WangXueni.Research on the assessment and spatial correlation pattern of water poverty in China based on WPI-ESDA model. ,2011,33(6):1072-1082.]
The modernization of agriculture is a crucial symbol of the progress of social civilization, and an essential part of China's "four modernizations" of the simultaneous development. From the geographic perspective, this paper tries to comprehensively evaluate the development level of agricultural modernization in China by building index system with multi-index comprehensive evaluation method and Delphi method. Besides, it uses some spatial analyses and type researches to explore the regional differentiation law about the development of agricultural modernization in China in order to provide reference for its rapid and steady development. The results indicate that: (1) From the national level, Chinese agricultural modernization development level can be categorized into the eastern and western parts according to Hu's line, presenting a pattern of "high east and low west". At the same time, Chinese agricultural modernization development level improves on the whole with the increase of distance from Hu's line, presenting a pattern of slightly flattened "S" curve; (2) From the local perspective, there are obvious regional differences in the development level of agricultural modernization among the eastern, western and central regions and Northeast China, and in space a trend of decrease is found in the development level of agricultural modernization from the east, north-east, center to the west; (3) The four sub-dimensions indicators of the development level of Chinese agricultural modernization in the geographical space also reveal some regional differentiation pattern, and how to break the stereotype and path dependence of agriculture development will become the practical problem and scientific issue for government at all levels and geographers; (4) The development level of Chinese agricultural modernization can be divided into five types of areas and different areas should have clear present and future development ideas and strategies.
The modernization of agriculture is the most fundamental one of "the four modernizations", and it has significant differences among the east, middle and west China, the same problems are also existed in the medium and micro level. The time-space analysis on the modernization of agriculture can help us to understand the mechanism of the changes about agricultural modernization. Computing the composite scores based on the figures about the modernization of agriculture in Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia region, using various methods to describing it's characters of the space changing and reveal the reasons. The results show that scores of the agricultural modernization in 3 provinces are increased dramatically. The speed of development about modernization of agriculture in 2005-2010 is faster than that in 1996-2000 and 2000-2005 periods, and the trend of development is more and more balanced. It indicates that the policies have carried out by the government already play important roles to foster the agricultural modernization. The changing of the pattern about 28 cities in 2005-2010 is faster than the previous two periods, and the cities in Shaanxi province change more notable. The traditional agriculture changed slowly, but the modern agriculture is becoming more and more complicated, so it changes more frequently. Besides the factors existed in the system itself, there are also some other factors affect the pattern changing about the modernization of agriculture, such as financial support for agriculture, agricultural loans, regional traffic net, rural human capital and the application of the agricultural technology et, and play an more important role. In order to improve the development level of agricultural modernization in northwest region, we should increase the financial investment, promote the spread of agricultural technology and science, enhance the transportation network, and practice water-saving agriculture.
New industrialization, new urbanization and agricultural modernization are the three strategies of modernization construction in the 21st century in China, the coordination development of which will effectively promote the process of national modernization and regional coordination development. The supporting guidance of state council of China on the speeding up constructing the Zhongyuan economic region of Henan Province is issued on September 29th, 2011, which marks the rise of official national strategy of Zhongyuan economic region. In state guidance, the way of actively exploring the coordination development of industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization (IUAM for short) will be not done at the expense of agriculture and food, while ecology and the environment is the key construction task. How to make the coordination of the three-process is an important proposition, so we give a theory for explaining IUAM coordination development based on urban-regional system model. According to internal mechanism, interactive principal of urbanregional system, this article proposes a trinity social engineering system model of IUAM coordination development. It gave a basic analysis on industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization from the national strategy requirement, and makes a quantitative analysis on IUAM coordination development process through overall coordination evaluation model, urbanization comparative analysis model and urban-rural coordination development model. The results show that the industrialization contributes to economic development weakly, the urbanization level lags the industrialization level and industry structure in the same period, and the urban-rural relation is in an unstable fluctuating status.
[DingZhiwei, ZhangGaisu, WangFazeng.The internal mechanism and quantitative analysis of coordination development of industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization of Zhongyuan Economic Region. , 2013, 33(4):402-409.]
Taking the Jilin Province as a study case, this article used the methods of coupling coordination degree model, exploratory spatial analysis and obstacle degree model to study the spatio-temporal pattern and obstacle indicators of four modernizations coordination development at the level of county in 2003 and 2012. Conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) The level of four modernizations is volatile and non-equilibrium, and the level of agricultural modernization shows an increasing trend. The spatial difference of industrialization and urbanization keeps reducing, and the spatial difference of informatization and agricultural modernization increases gradually. 2) The coupling degree of four modernizations development in Jilin Province is at low level on the whole, and the coupling degree in urban agglomeration of central Jilin and eastern border area is high relatively, the coupling degree in western inland is low. The coordinating degree mainly shows the serious disorder, moderate disorder and mild discord, and the sync phenomenon is obvious. 3) The similar region of four modernizations coordination changes from discrete distributions to weak agglomeration state. The hotspots of four modernization coordination are centralized in the regions of Changchun-Jilin, Yanbian and Tonghua. The hotspot counties have been decreased remarkably, and coldspot counties are increased gradually. 4) The output value proportion of tertiary industry, per capita GDP, the proportion of non-agricultural population, number of medical beds per ten thousand people and total turnover of postal and telecommunication services per capita were verified to be the first five obstacle indicators for further improvement of four modernizations coordination in 2003, and the output value proportion of secondary industry, the employment proportion of secondary industry, per capita gross industrial output value, average agricultural production per counties and average agricultural production per employee were verified to be the first five obstacle indicators for further improvement of four modernizations coordination in 2012. The order of sub-system obstacle degree is urbanization> agricultural modernization> industrialization> informatization. Finally, 3 driving forces of four modernizations coordination in Jilin Province have been drawn: regional policies, economic and industrial foundation, physical geography condition, and we put forward the main pathway to improve the level of four modernizations coordination. Generally speaking, the four modernizations coordination is complicate system engineering, and promoting the new urbanization development is also very long at the same time, therefore, some efforts should be made in the choices of index, methods and scale in the future.
[JiangHuiming, WangZhenhua.Empirical analysis on the relationship among industrialization, urbanization and agricultural modernization in Jilin Province. ,2012,32(5):591-595.]
ForouzaniM, KaramiE. Agricultural water poverty index and sustainability[J]. , 2011,31(2):415-431.
AbstractWater resources are declining at an alarming rate in the world. The use of water resources for agricultural production has contributed to the rapid decline in quantity and degradation of water quality. Though sustainable agriculture must be economically viable, ecologically sound and socially responsible, water scarcity has challenged the sustainability of agriculture, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. There is a relative consensus among professionals that the increasing water scarcity through excessive use of water and mismanagement of the available water resources are major concerns for agricultural sustainability. Agricultural sustainability is assessed using various indicators, but the contribution of the water factor in those indicators is limited. Therefore, we review the role of sustainable water management in achieving agricultural sustainability. We propose an agricultural water poverty index (AWPI) as an instrument to provide a holistic picture of vital issues for sustainable water management. We also distill key components of the agricultural water poverty index and discuss its applications. The agricultural water poverty index can be used to assess the agricultural water poverty among farmers and regions and to provide guidelines for sustainable water management. This article uses the case of Iran to illustrate the application of the agricultural water poverty index in analyzing agricultural water poverty and providing recommendations for sustainable water management.
WardJ.Water, agriculture and poverty in the Niger River basin[J]. , 2010,35(5):594-622.
Livelihoods in the Niger River basin rely mainly on rainfed agriculture, except in the dry extreme north. Low yields and water productivity result from low inputs, short growing seasons, dry spells, and excessive water. The overlap of traditional and modern rules impedes secure access to water and investments in agriculture by generating uncertain land tenure. Improved agriculture and water management require technical, sociological, and regulatory changes to address the wider causes of poverty. Illiteracy and poor water quality, both correlated with high infant mortality, are pressing problems. Rapidly increasing population, climatic changes and dam construction contribute to rural vulnerability.
Agricultural Water Resources system is an intricate socio-economy ecosystem, thus, factors affecting Sustainable Utilization of Agricultural Water Resources (SUAWR) is complicated.Intricate connotation of SUAWR can only be assessed by applying indicators system(IS) properly.Being too many indicators in indicators system to assess SUAWR, it will be complicated due to information overlap of indicators.While, if deleting indicators at random, information reflecting SUAWR will be cut, and evaluation results will be wrong.Factor Analysis is a rather well method in reducing redundance information.The magistral information can be separated from numerous Factors effecting on SUAWR spatial variation by factor Analysis, thereby, analysis of spatial variation of SUAWR will be simplified.Study shows that spatial variation pattern of SUAWR in Northeast China displays as capacity of SUAWR decreasing inwards as an arc from North, Northeast and East on the whole.The dominant factors influencing the spatial variation pattern are water resources, ability of eco-environment reserving and accommodating water resources, and income from water resources use in Northeast China.The indicators reflecting the three dominant factors and being distinctly correlative to the spatial variation pattern are water resources quantity and crop season rainfall per hectare of tilth, gap between average annual rainfall and average annual evaporation, aridity index, runoff coefficient, the proportion of paddy field to tilth, rice yield per stere of irrigation water.According to SUAWR contribution of the 7 principal components retrieved from indicators system by factor analysis, the key of entire improvement of SUAWR of the whole evaluating area depends on adjustment of anthropogenic activities to lessen bad human impact on SUAWR.
[HuangChulong, DengWei.Factor analysis on spatial variation of sustainable utilization of agricultural water resources. , 2006, 26(3):284-291.]
ChartzoulakisK, BertakiM.Sustainable water management in agriculture under climate change[J]. ,2015,4:88-98.
Water is considered as the most critical resource for sustainable agricultural development worldwide. Irrigated areas will increase in forthcoming years, while fresh water supplies will be diverted from agriculture to meet the increasing demand of domestic use and industry. Furthermore, the efficiency of irrigation is very low, since less than 65% of the applied water is actually used by the crops. The sustainable use of irrigation water is a priority for agriculture in arid areas. So, under scarcity conditions and climate change considerable effort has been devoted over time to introduce policies aiming to increase water efficiency based on the assertion that more can be achieved with less water through better management. Better management usually refers to improvement of water allocation and/or irrigation water efficiency. The former is closely related to adequate pricing, while the latter depends on the type of irrigation technology, environmental conditions and the scheduling of water application. Agricultural practices, such as soil management, irrigation and fertilizer application and disease and pest control are related with the sustainable water management in agriculture and protection of the environment. Socio-economic pressures and climate change impose restrictions to water allocated to agriculture. The adoption of sustainable water management in Mediterranean is not only a technological problem but involves many other considerations relative to social behavior of rural communities, the economic constrains, or the legal and institutional framework that may favor the adoption of some measures and not others. Sustainable water management in agriculture, which has a multi-functional role in Southern Europe, can be achieved by adopting improvements in irrigation application, soil and plant practices, water pricing, reuse of treated wastewater, farmers participation in water management and capacity building.
OrganizationA.The state of the world’s land and water resources for food and agriculture[J]. , 2011,66(4):418-419.
Allen SL.Connections between poverty, water and agriculture: Evidence from 10 river basins[J]. , 2011,36(1):125-140.
The authors analysed livelihood conditions in 10 river basins over three continents to identify generalizable links between water, agriculture and poverty. There were significant variations in hydrological conditions, livelihood strategies and institutions across basins, but also systematic patterns across levels of economic development. At all levels, access to water is influenced by local, regional or national institutions, while the importance of national versus local institutions and livelihood strategies vary with economic development. The cross-basin analysis suggests a framework for thinking about water–agriculture–poverty links that can inform future research and policy development.
[LiYurui, WangJing, Liu Yansuiet al. Spatial pattern and influencing factors of the coordination development of industrialization, informatization, urbanization and agricultural modernization in China: A prefecture level exploratory spatial data analysis. , 2014, 69(2):199-212.]
[National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2006-2015.]
[National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2006-2015.]
[National Bureau of Statistics of the People's Republic of China. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2006-2015.]
[National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2006-2015.]
[National Bureau of Statistics of the People’s Republic of China. Beijing: China Statistics Press, 2006-2015.]
[ZhangWang, ZhouYueyun, HuGuangwei.Coupling mechanism and space-time coordination of new-approach urbanization, New-approach industrialization and service industry modernization in Megacity Behemoths: A case study of ten cities in China. ,2013,33(5):562-569.]
[MaLi, JinFengjun, LiuYi.Spatial pattern and industrial sector structure analysis on the coupling and coordinating degree of regional economic development and environmental pollution in China. , 2012,67(10):1299-1307.]
The coordinated development degree is based on the mutual dependence of the system and realizes the development of positive and harmonious development, reflecting the level of the system's coordination on the basis of the coordination of the situation. Tourism economic system and traffic system are two subsystems and there is a significant coupling between the two. Urban tourism economy and transportation system influence each other and promote each other. Based on the mechanism of mutual coordination development between tourism economy and transportation, by establishing the evaluation system of the coordinated development about tourism economy and transportation and employing coordinated development degree model, this article, taking Chizhou as an example, quantitatively measures its coordinated development degree about tourism economy and transportation. The outcome shows that the efficiency index of Chizhou's tourism economy and transportation tends to rise and the tourism economy-transportation system of Chizhou City from 2002 to 2012 is in the process of continuous development of coupling and coordination;the coordinated development degree of tourism economy and transportation system has increased from 0 in 2002 to 0.678 in 2012, remaining in the primary coordinated development class. The trend of coordinated development about tourism economy- transportation system of Chizhou City is better. Promoting to the excellent coordinated development, it needs transportation system to play a better role in following: 1) promoting tourism economy, 2) gradually enhancing the development level of air and rail in Chizhou, to improve the level of tourism reception service, 3) strengthening the regional cooperation to promote international marketing strategy actively, 4) accelerating the transformation and upgrading of tourism for promoting the sustainable development of tourism, and 5) strengthening cooperation between the two major departments of tourism and transportation. Under the double opportunities that the construction of the industrial transfer demonstration zone of the cities along the river in Anhui Province and international cultural tourism demonstration area in the south of Anhui Province, which are the national strategy, the development of tourism economy in Chizhou should speed up the upgrading of tourism industry with the rapid development of tourism, and the traffic system should strengthen the cooperation of tourism development, and provide a more efficient and comfortable traffic environment for the tourism economy.