地理科学 ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (10): 1579-1588.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.10.001

• •    下一篇

集聚经济、政策激励与中国计算机制造业空间格局——基于贸易数据的实证研究

贺灿飞(), 朱向东, 孔莹晖, 李伟   

  1. 1.北京大学城市与环境学院,北京 100871
    2.北京大学-林肯研究院城市发展与土地政策研究中心,北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-20 修回日期:2017-12-10 出版日期:2018-12-12 发布日期:2018-12-12
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:贺灿飞(1972-),男,江西永新人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事经济地理、产业与区域经济研究。E-mail: hecanfei@urban.pku.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家杰出青年科学基金项目(41425001)、国家自然科学基金重点项目(41731278)资助

Agglomeration Economy, Incentive Policy and the Spatial Pattern of Chinese Computer Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study Based on Export Data

Canfei He(), Xiangdong Zhu, Yinghui Kong, Wei Li   

  1. 1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871,China
    2. Peking University-Lincoln Institute Center for Urban Development and Land Policy, Beijing 100871,China
  • Received:2017-09-20 Revised:2017-12-10 Online:2018-12-12 Published:2018-12-12
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Funds for Distinguished Young Scholar (41425001), Major Program of National Natural Science Foundation of China (41731278)

摘要:

利用中国海关贸易库数据,对计算机上游和下游出口源地的空间格局演变进行对比分析,以面板数据方法揭示产业集聚和政策激励的作用。研究发现:计算机上游出口集中在长三角和珠三角,下游出口集中于长三角和成渝,上游出口格局更分散;从动态看,上游出口从珠三角逐步向内陆扩散呈现集聚-分散-集聚的过程,内陆地区承载大部分出口增长;下游出口增长态势更为明显,最初集中分布在长三角和珠三角,2010年以后内陆地区增长迅速,成渝成为继长三角后最为重要的集聚区;研究时段集聚经济对计算机上下游制造业的推动作用降低,政策激励的影响显著增加;沿海和内陆计算机制造业发展模式不同,前者的兴起主要是市场化条件下的集聚经济,后者则受到集聚经济和政策激励的共同影响;由于产业特征的差异,集聚经济对计算机上游的影响高于下游。在计算机制造业的发展中,要素成本增加造成的集聚不经济和地方政府的政策激励使得集聚效应逐步让位于政策支持。不同区域不同阶段产业对政策的敏感程度并不相同,政策制定应顺应产业演变规律。

关键词: 计算机, 集聚, 政策, 空间格局, 上下游产业

Abstract:

The coast areas of China took the lead in developing and exporting computer products based on comparative advantages. However, with the rising of wage, land price and environmental standards, as well as strong incentives of local governments, a large number of enterprises started to relocate to the inland areas of China. Thus, the spatial pattern of Chinese computer manufacturing had changed dramatically. On the base of export data compiled by the Chinese Customs Trade Statistics, this article investigated the spatial patterns of upstream and downstream computer industry during 2004 to 2013. Based on panel data method this research revealed the role of agglomeration economy and incentive policy in affecting the pattern of computer exportation. The results indicate that: 1) The exportation of upstream computer industry is concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta while the downstream industry is concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing region. The distribution of the upstream industry is more dispersed. 2) From a dynamic perspective, the exportation of upstream computer industry shows agglomeration-scattered-agglomeration feature as it decreased in the Pearl River Delta while increased in inland areas. Exportation of downstream computer industry is initially concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. After 2010, the downstream industry grew rapidly and Chengdu-Chongqing region became the second biggest (after the Yangtze River Delta) export areas in 2013. 3) The influence of agglomeration on both upstream and downstream computer manufacturing was reduced while the impact of policy increased significantly. 4) The developing routines of computer manufacturing in the coastal and inland regions are different. The rise of the former is mainly stimulated by agglomeration under the background of marketization, and the latter is influenced by both agglomeration and policy. 5) Due to the difference of industrial characteristics, the impact of agglomeration on the upstream industry is more than the downstream. This article suggests that with the increasing of cost, agglomeration is gradually becoming not economical. Policy development should be consistent with the evolution of agglomeration economy to realize expected economic performance.

Key words: computer, agglomeration, policy, spatial pattern, upstream and downstream industries

中图分类号: 

  • F129.9