The coast areas of China took the lead in developing and exporting computer products based on comparative advantages. However, with the rising of wage, land price and environmental standards, as well as strong incentives of local governments, a large number of enterprises started to relocate to the inland areas of China. Thus, the spatial pattern of Chinese computer manufacturing had changed dramatically. On the base of export data compiled by the Chinese Customs Trade Statistics, this article investigated the spatial patterns of upstream and downstream computer industry during 2004 to 2013. Based on panel data method this research revealed the role of agglomeration economy and incentive policy in affecting the pattern of computer exportation. The results indicate that: 1) The exportation of upstream computer industry is concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta while the downstream industry is concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and Chengdu-Chongqing region. The distribution of the upstream industry is more dispersed. 2) From a dynamic perspective, the exportation of upstream computer industry shows agglomeration-scattered-agglomeration feature as it decreased in the Pearl River Delta while increased in inland areas. Exportation of downstream computer industry is initially concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. After 2010, the downstream industry grew rapidly and Chengdu-Chongqing region became the second biggest (after the Yangtze River Delta) export areas in 2013. 3) The influence of agglomeration on both upstream and downstream computer manufacturing was reduced while the impact of policy increased significantly. 4) The developing routines of computer manufacturing in the coastal and inland regions are different. The rise of the former is mainly stimulated by agglomeration under the background of marketization, and the latter is influenced by both agglomeration and policy. 5) Due to the difference of industrial characteristics, the impact of agglomeration on the upstream industry is more than the downstream. This article suggests that with the increasing of cost, agglomeration is gradually becoming not economical. Policy development should be consistent with the evolution of agglomeration economy to realize expected economic performance.
. 集聚经济、政策激励与中国计算机制造业空间格局——基于贸易数据的实证研究[J]. 地理科学,
2018, 38(10): 1579-1588.
Yinghui Kong et al
. Agglomeration Economy, Incentive Policy and the Spatial Pattern of Chinese Computer Manufacturing Industry: A Case Study Based on Export Data[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA,
2018, 38(10): 1579-1588.
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Aligning the interests of local governments with market development is an important issue for developing and transition economies. Using a panel data set from China, we investigate the relationship between provincial government's fiscal incentives and provincial market development. We report three empirical findings. First, we find that during the period of 渇iscal contracting systemthe discrepancy between ex ante contracts and ex post implementation was relatively small, suggesting that the fiscal contracts were credible. Second, we find a much higher correlation, about four times, between the provincial government's budgetary revenue and its expenditure during 1980s and 1990s as compared to 1970s, demonstrating that provincial governments faced much stronger ex post fiscal incentives after reform. Third, we find that stronger ex ante fiscal incentives, measured by the contractual marginal retention rate of the provincial government in its budgetary revenue, are associated with faster development of the non-state sector as well as more reforms in the state sector in the provincial economy. This holds even when we control for the conventional measure of fiscal decentralization. Finally, we compare federalism, Chinese style, to federalism, Russian style.
This paper explains industrial agglomeration by combining industrial attributes and provincial characteristics. Based on data from the first economic census in 2004, this study found that industrial agglomeration significantly varied by industry and across province. Overall, industrial agglomeration in the western provinces is much higher than that in the coastal provinces. Indidvidual industries however show significant different patterns. Statistical analysis indicates that provincial characteristics such as per captita GDP, road and raiway density, ratio of non-state-owned economy, ratio of governmental expenses to GDP, number of development zones, social capital and law enforcement, and trade barrier indeed influence the extent of industrial agglomeration. Controlling for provincial dummies, industrial attributes such as agricultural input intensity, labor input intensity, average enterprises size, industrial linkages, ratio of foreign capital in total capital, ratio of exports in gross output, ratio of profits and value added taxes in total sales, ratio of state capital in total capital, transportation input intensity and planned key industries are associated with industrial agglomeration. The significance of many interactions between industrial attributes and provincial characteristics suggests that industrial agglomeration is not only industry-specific but also province-specific. The policy implication is that local governments shall carefully choose industries to develop industrial clusters.
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Global economic restructuring and technological change are transforming the map of global production and the global division of labor. Based on the perspectives of global value chains and global production networks, this study analyzes the production networks, value chains, and spatial organization of the computer industry in China. It was found that the notion of a symmetric, bell-shaped smiling curve is a highly idealized conceptual framework, and for a developing country like China where leading firms have yet to become top-tier transnational corporations, the smiling curve more likely exhibits a flattened saucer shape. China is also increasingly being integrated into global production networks, and a new form of spatial organization, centered on emerging global cities and globalizing cities, is emerging. An investigation of the global-local networks of the computer industry showed that the embeddedness of transnational corporations (TNCs) is heavily influenced by industrial characteristics and geographical/institutional contexts.
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As a leading sector, electronic information industries in Beijing have strong strength and good prospects.The present studies focus on the analysis of the spatial distribution of high technology industries and electronic information industries.There have been relatively few studies on the spatial distribution of electronic information industries from the perspective of enterprises, especially on the spatial distribution of main value chain parts.This paper selected 30 large electronic information enterprises to do study based on the research on spatial distribution of electronic information industries.We collected its information about spatial distribution in Beijing by reading 2011 Report of Transnational Corporations in China, browsing official websites and so on.This article analyzed the spatial distribution of headquarters, research departments, production departments, sales and marketing departments in Beijing.The conclusions are as follows.The electronic information industries were obviously suburbanized and agglomerated in suburban areas.The main value chain parts of large electronic information enterprises were also agglomerated and the suburbanization of production departments most obvious.The spatial distribution of electronic information industries and enterprises exhibited a polycentric spatial structure. The functional division among main electronic information industries agglomeration areas and the regional division based on value chain of large electronic information enterprises had emerged.