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地理科学    2018, Vol. 38 Issue (10): 1597-1605     DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.10.003
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人类福祉视角下中国生态效率时空演化研究
王耕(),李素娟,马奇飞
辽宁师范大学城市与环境学院, 辽宁 大连 116029
Spatial-temporal Evolution of Chinese Eco-efficiency from the Perspective of Human Well-being
Geng Wang(),Sujuan Li,Qifei Ma
College of Urban and Environmental Science, Liaoning Normal University, Dalian 116029, Liaoning,China
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摘要 

基于非径向、非角度的SBM模型和Malmquist生产率指数模型,对2000~2015年中国30个地区的生态效率进行测度,对中国生态效率的时空动态变化特征及其驱动因素进行研究。结果表明:2000~2015年中国生态效率呈缓慢波动上升的特点,但整体处于中等水平;生态效率的高值区主要集中在东西部,中部生态效率相对较低;除北京、天津、上海、山东、海南外,其余地区都需要调整配比关系来改善生态效率;人类福祉在某些地区已成为制约生态效率的第一影响因素;中国生态效率的全要素生产率、技术进步变化指数以及纯技术效率变化指数均呈波动中缓慢上升的特点,规模效率变化指数则呈下降趋势,除四川全要素生产率的提高完全得益于规模效率外,科技进步对其他地区均具有正向作用。

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王耕
李素娟
马奇飞
关键词 人类福祉生态效率SBM模型全要素生产率及其分解指数 
Abstract

In today’s development of the concept of "people-oriented", it is not only the pursuit of resources, economy and environment sustainable development, but also human sustainable development. Therefore, the ecological efficiency can not only reflect the resources, economy, environment coordination, and it’s better to pursue the sustainable development of people, resources, economy and environment. The sustainable development of human beings is aimed at improving the human well-being and enhancing the happiness of people. Improving people’s livelihood and well-being is the basic starting point and goal of regional economic and social development in China. Therefore, based on the the concept of "people-oriented", we construct human well-being index, which reflects the livelihood and happiness of people, and integrate it into the evaluation system of Eco-efficiency. In order to reflect the ecological efficiency of our country from four aspects of resources, economy, environment and human well-being. Therefore, from the perspective of human well-being, the evaluation index of human well-being will be integrated into the measurement and evaluation of ecological efficiency in China, which can fully understand the changes of ecological efficiency and the statue of comprehensive, coordinated and sustainable development of resources, economy, environment and human in China. We measure the ecological efficiency from year 2000 to 2015 based on non radial and non angle SBM model in China, analyzing temporal and spatial variation characteristics of ecological efficiency in China, and studying its driving factors. The main results are summarized as follows: In 2000-2015, the ecological efficiency of China has been rising slowly and fluctuating, but the overall level is still at a moderate leve. There is a lot of space for improving ecological efficiency. The high value areas of ecological efficiency are mainly concentrated in the East and the West. The ecological efficiency is relatively low in the middle of the region, so the ecological efficiency of the central region needs to be further promoted. In addition to Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Shandong, and Hainan, the rest of the region needs to adjust the mix ratio to improve ecological efficiency. Human well-being has become the first factor in restricting ecological efficiency in some areas. Therefore, human well-being can not be ignored for the promotion of ecological efficiency. The total factor productivity, the change index of technological progress and the pure technical efficiency index of ecological efficiency all show characteristics of fluctuations in the slowly rising, and the scale efficiency change index show a downward trend. The total factor productivity of Sichuan increases entirely due to scale efficiency, and technological progress has a positive impact on other areas excepting Sichuan.

Key wordshuman well-being    ecological efficiency    SBM model    total factor productivity and its decomposition index
收稿日期: 2017-09-20      出版日期: 2018-12-14
基金资助:国家自然科学基金项目(41771132)、教育部共建人文社会科学重点研究基地项目(15JJD790039)资助
引用本文:   
王耕, 李素娟, 马奇飞 . 人类福祉视角下中国生态效率时空演化研究[J]. 地理科学, 2018, 38(10): 1597-1605.
Geng Wang, Sujuan Li, Qifei Ma . Spatial-temporal Evolution of Chinese Eco-efficiency from the Perspective of Human Well-being[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA, 2018, 38(10): 1597-1605.
链接本文:  
http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.10.003      或      http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V38/I10/1597
指标 类别 具体指标构成 说明
投入
指标
资源
消耗
能源消耗 煤、石油、天然气、电能等则折合成万吨标准煤量
水资源消耗 农业、工业、生活、生态用水总量
土地消耗 建设用地面积
人力消耗 第一、二、三产业劳动力就业总数
财力消耗 资本存量
产出
指标
期望
产出
经济发展总量 地区GDP
人类福祉指数 借鉴了黄甘霖等的研究构建人类福祉评价指标体系
非期望
产出
环境污染指数 工业固体废物排放量,SO2、烟(粉)尘排放量,废水排放总量,COD排放量
Table 1  生态效率投入产出评价指标体系
目标层 一级指标 二级指标 指标类型
人类福祉
评价指数
物质生活
质量指数
城镇居民恩格尔系数 成本型
农村居民恩格尔系数 成本型
科教事业费占财政支出比例 效益型
万人医生数 效益型
医院床位数 效益型
人类发展
指数
预期寿命 效益型
人均GDP 效益型
文盲率 成本型
万人本专科以上学历人数 效益型
城市发展
指数
非农业人口比例 效益型
建成区面积 效益型
城镇居民可支配收入 效益型
65岁以上人口比重 成本型
人口自然增长率 成本型
Table 2  人类福祉评价指标体系
Fig.1  生态效率时空分布演化
省份 投入冗余率(%) 期望产出不足率(%) 非期望产出冗余率(%)
劳动力 资本存量 能源消耗 水资源消耗 土地消耗 GDP 人类福祉指数 环境污染指数
北京 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
天津 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
河北 -18.15 -17.11 -35.74 -2.51 -33.53 0.00 13.65 -1.22
山西 -11.83 -9.02 -19.78 -4.29 -14.82 0.00 0.00 -0.78
内蒙古 -10.15 -23.52 -44.75 -36.94 -54.69 0.00 0.00 -5.47
辽宁 -3.71 -3.92 -10.86 -2.41 -13.60 0.00 2.70 0.00
吉林 -36.04 -19.56 -23.60 -29.72 -60.11 0.00 31.63 -9.25
黑龙江 -23.95 -16.38 -35.27 -58.00 -59.18 0.00 67.22 -1.73
上海 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
江苏 -2.89 -6.06 -1.47 -8.30 -9.51 0.00 12.53 0.00
浙江 -1.30 -1.64 -1.83 -13.26 -6.95 0.00 0.65 -1.30
安徽 -52.85 -6.70 -11.90 -38.72 -57.80 0.00 21.24 -9.62
福建 -17.56 -12.50 0.00 -19.37 -0.89 0.00 40.89 -8.18
江西 -55.35 -24.34 -22.96 -58.81 -56.76 0.00 3.22 -15.88
山东 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
河南 -52.29 -28.89 -36.73 -7.75 -59.97 0.00 18.69 -2.08
湖北 -35.91 -17.83 -21.73 -33.21 -42.28 0.00 88.30 0.00
湖南 -49.60 -16.08 -30.98 -52.29 -52.10 0.00 14.05 -12.22
广东 -0.62 -0.26 -1.43 -1.68 -3.33 0.00 7.92 0.00
广西 -17.64 -10.57 -3.23 -21.21 -18.27 0.00 0.00 -2.75
海南 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
重庆 -18.88 -1.04 -4.16 -0.45 -15.44 0.00 0.00 -5.22
四川 -7.14 -0.03 -3.29 -1.52 -8.70 0.00 2.04 -2.14
贵州 -9.48 -4.43 -5.84 -8.68 -5.56 0.00 0.14 -2.14
云南 -60.33 -28.40 -31.46 -43.98 -45.39 0.00 0.00 -4.72
陕西 -54.34 -22.16 -30.44 -12.47 -59.01 0.00 0.00 -9.83
甘肃 -50.11 -8.08 -28.12 -38.81 -48.72 0.00 2.43 -3.76
青海 -14.95 -9.31 0.00 -10.11 -9.68 0.00 4.78 0.00
宁夏 -41.60 -1.21 -9.28 -31.27 -25.19 20.96 0.00 -3.97
新疆 -26.57 -30.83 -46.77 -72.70 -62.61 0.00 0.00 -10.33
全国 -22.44 -10.66 -15.39 -20.28 -27.47 0.70 11.07 -3.75
东部 -5.16 -4.34 -4.55 -5.73 -7.17 0.00 6.53 -1.12
中部 -36.44 -18.04 -27.52 -35.53 -50.86 0.00 27.15 -6.34
西部 -31.49 -11.72 -17.71 -24.44 -31.14 2.33 1.04 -4.68
Table 3  生态效率投入和产出的优化结果
Fig.2  中国生态效率全要素生产率及其分解指数
Fig.3  中国生态效率全要素生产率及其分解指数的空间格局
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