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地理科学    2018, Vol. 38 Issue (10): 1731-1739     DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.10.018
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松花江区气象水文干旱演变特征
吴燕锋1,2(),章光新1()
1.中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,吉林 长春 130102
2.中国科学院大学,北京 100049
Spatio-temporal Patterns of Meteorological and Hydrological Drought in the Songhua River Area from 1961 to 2010
Yanfeng Wu1,2(),Guangxin Zhang1()
1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130102, Jilin, China
2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
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摘要 

采用标准化降水蒸散指数和径流干旱指数分析了1961~2010年研究区水文干旱和气象干旱时空演变特征,并探讨了水文干旱与气象干旱的关系。结果表明: 1961~2010年松花江区呈总体干旱化且又有明显时段性的特征,其中1967~1983年和1996~2010年气象干旱频发、覆盖范围广、持续时间长且强度大;其它时段气象干旱少有发生。其次,气象干旱空间分布差异明显,东部的平均干旱频次和强度都大于西部地区,中部(嫩江流域中下游)平均干旱持续时间最长;但在嫩江流域和黑龙江上游地区干旱略有减弱趋势。 松花江流域和挠力河流域水文干旱呈加剧的趋势,尤其是近15 a干旱化趋势明显;挠力河流域干旱频发、强度大且持续时间很长。松花江流域水文干旱程度弱于挠力河流域,但极端水文干旱事件频发。 松花江区气象干旱与水文干旱密切相关,嫩江流域水文干旱滞后于气象干旱2个月,而第二松花江流域和松花江流域水文干旱滞后于气象干旱3个月;挠力河流域水文干旱与气象干旱无明显的时滞相关性。

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吴燕锋
章光新
关键词 气象干旱水文干旱标准化降水蒸散指数径流干旱指数松花江区 
Abstract

Climate change is likely to lead to an increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events, including floods and droughts. To investigate spatiotemporal variation of meteorological and hydrological drought as well as the correlation between the two types of droughts, we calculated the standard precipitation evapotranspiration index and streamflow drought index for characterizing variability of drought frequency, coverage, duration and intensity in the Songhua River Area. The results indicate that: 1) Meteorological droughts exhibited an insignificant increasing trend at the annual scale from 1961 to 2010. The meteorological drought experienced higher frequency, wider coverage, longer duration and greater intensity during 1967-1983 and 1996-2010, while occurred rarely in 1961-1967 and 1984-1995. Spatial analysis showed that drought had higher frequency and greater intensity in east region than that in west region, longer duration in central region than other regions. 2) Hydrological drought also showed an increasing trend and have similar temporal-variation characteristics with meteorological droughts. The severity of hydrological drought towards more intensive in the Songhua River Basin and Naoli River Basin during the past fifty years, especially more significant during the past fifteen years. The hydrological drought experienced higher frequency, wider coverage, longer duration and greater intensity in the Naoli River Basin, while less severe in the Songhua River Basin. Therefore, it is necessary to take mitigation measures involving integrated water resources management and regulation to minimize losses caused by the increasing extremely hydrological droughts. 3) Hydrological drought has close relation with meteorological drought, which not only reflected by significant positive correlation but also indicated by 2, 3 and 3 months’ lags response between them in the Nenjiang River Basin, the Songhua River Basin and the Main Stream Basin of the Songhua River, respectively. However, the hydrological drought has no significant correlation with meteorological drought as a result of intensive human activities in the Naoli River Basin.

Key wordsmeteorological drought    hydrological drought    standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index    strean flow drought index    the Songhua River Area
收稿日期: 2017-09-07      出版日期: 2018-12-14
基金资助:中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所特色所项目(IGA-135-05)、国家重点研发计划(2017YFC0406003)、水利部公益性行业科研专项经费项目(201401014)资助
引用本文:   
吴燕锋, 章光新 . 松花江区气象水文干旱演变特征[J]. 地理科学, 2018, 38(10): 1731-1739.
Yanfeng Wu, Guangxin Zhang . Spatio-temporal Patterns of Meteorological and Hydrological Drought in the Songhua River Area from 1961 to 2010[J]. SCIENTIA GEOGRAPHICA SINICA, 2018, 38(10): 1731-1739.
链接本文:  
http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2018.10.018      或      http://geoscien.neigae.ac.cn/CN/Y2018/V38/I10/1731
Fig.1  松花江区地理位置及气象、水文站点分布
Fig.2  1961~2010年松花江区SPEI-12时间变化特征
Fig.3  1961~2010年松花江区气象干旱覆盖范围(a)和干旱强度(b)的时间变化特征
Fig.4  松花江区干旱频次(a)、强度(b)、持续时间(c)和变化趋势(d)的空间分布特征
Fig.5  1961~2010年松花江区的SDI-12时间变化特征
Fig.6  松花江区水文干旱频次(a)、平均持续时间 (b)和平均强度(c)
Fig.7  1961~2010年松花江区SPEI-12和SDI-12变化的比较
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