地理科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (4): 596-605.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.04.009

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13世纪以来中国海洋盐业动态演变及驱动因素

鲍俊林1(), 高抒2()   

  1. 1. 复旦大学历史地理研究中心,上海 200433
    2. 华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2018-03-26 修回日期:2018-06-11 出版日期:2019-04-10 发布日期:2019-04-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:鲍俊林(1979-),男,安徽枞阳人,博士,青年副研究员,主要从事区域历史地理、气候变化与传统适应、环境变迁与社会经济可持续研究。E-mail: baojunlin@fudan.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目 (18BZS156)、教育部人文社科青年基金项目(17YJC770001)资助

The Dynamic Evolution and Its Driving Factors of China's Marine Salt Industry Since the 13th Century

Junlin Bao1(), Shu Gao2()   

  1. 1. Institute of Chinese Historical Geography, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2018-03-26 Revised:2018-06-11 Online:2019-04-10 Published:2019-04-10
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Foundation of China (18BZS156), The Youth Fund of the Humanities and Social Science of the Ministry of Education in China (17YJC770001)

摘要:

海洋盐业是中国海洋经济的重要部分,也是沿海传统产业之一,13世纪以来不断发展演变。将沿海分为北、东、南3个地带,搜集整理与海盐经济相关的多种历史文献及方志资料,运用地理学方法分析评估了海洋盐业百年尺度的动态演化过程,并比较了资源环境与管理政策的驱动作用及其差异。研究表明: 沿海盐业表现为传统煎法长期主导、逐步废煎改晒的过程,不同盐区的演化进程存在显著差异,北部盐区最快,东部次之,南部整体发展缓慢; 海盐生产重心长期位于东部的两淮盐区,19世纪后期向北部盐区快速迁移; 资源环境与生态差异促进了各岸段海盐生产演化分异,垄断性管理政策迟滞了海洋盐业的空间集聚进程,未来沿海开发与海洋盐业的可持续发展将主要依靠基于资源生态约束的管理政策与技术。

关键词: 海盐经济, 海岸资源环境, 海洋盐业

Abstract:

Sea salt production was an important part of coastal economy; China’s sea salt industry had a long history. Since the 13th century, sea salt economy had a rapid process of development and became the center of China’s salt industry. Under the background of industrialization and urbanization, sea salt production gradually declined and salt area gradually reduced. How to improve the sustainable development of China’s coastal salt industry and enhance its international competitiveness is one of important issue of coastal economic development in the current. Based on historical documents analysis and within the perspective of sea salt production, we analyzed spatial and temporal variations of sea salt production and the driving mechanism through combing historical process of coastal salt industry development, and discussed the impacts of regional environmental differences and management policy. This study is helpful to better understand the current historical stage of coastal salt development and the environment impact, and to provide theoretical and historical reference for coastal development and planning. In this paper, the coast was divided into three areas, i.e., north, east and south coast. Through geographical approach and according to a variety of historical documents and local chronicles associated with sea salt industry during the 13-20th centuries, we evaluated sea salt industry development and its evolution mechanism, and revealed spatial-temporal changes of sea salt industry and its driving factors. The research shows that: 1) Sea salt industry in historical periods was characterized by decocted salt production had become the focus of salt industry for a long time, which was gradually replaced by the solar salt industry; the evolution process was significant differences in different salt area: the northern salt area had the fastest progress than eastern salt area and southern salt area. 2) The focus of sea salt production had a migration changes from eastern to northern coast, and the Huainan saltworks of eastern salt area was the sea salt production center during the 13-19th centuries. 3) Natural and social-economic factors were the important driving factors resulted in the changes of spatial-temporal distribution of sea salt production; the differences of coastal natural environment promoted the different evolution process of salt production, and the monopolistic management policy in salt industry was the key to changes of sea salt industry. Thus, follow the regional difference, coastal development need to break through the limit of local interests and improve efficiency of sea salt production in coastal area with the resources and ecological advantage, and promote production agglomeration from disadvantage coast to advantage coast. This is not only the result of sea salt industry of long-term historical development in China, but also the current urgent need of the international competitiveness of coastal development. In addition, on January 1, 2017, China began formally implement the salt industry management system reform, and the old salt management system lasted for more than two thousand years will gradually open. It was predictably that the reform will have a profound impact to sea salt industry and coastal development, which the location and resources advantages will be highlighted, and will also improve the international competitiveness of China’s sea salt industry. The sustainable development of future sea salt industry will depend on management policies based on resources and ecological constraint in coastal region.

Key words: sea salt economy, costal resources and environment, sea salt industry

中图分类号: 

  • K901.9