地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (5): 853-862.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.05.020

• • 上一篇    

青海喇家遗址地层划分及齐家文化废墟覆盖层成因分析

王海燕1(), 庞奖励1(), 黄春长1, 周亚利1, 炊郁达1, 查小春1, 郭永强2, 张玉柱3, 尚瑞清1, 王兆夺1   

  1. 1.陕西师范大学地理科学与旅游学院,陕西 西安 710119
    2.中国科学院成都山地灾害与环境研究所,四川 成都 610041
    3.西北大学城市与环境学院,陕西 西安 710127
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-07 修回日期:2019-09-19 出版日期:2020-05-10 发布日期:2020-08-18
  • 通讯作者: 庞奖励 E-mail:wanghaiyansx@126.com;jlpang@snnu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:王海燕(1989-),女,山西晋中人,博士研究生,主要从事资源开发与环境演变研究。E-mail: wanghaiyansx@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771110);国家自然科学基金项目(41971116);国家自然科学基金项目(41801060);中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金(2019TS021)

Stratigraphic Subdivisions and Formation of the Sediment Overlying the Lajia Ruins of the Qinghai Province

Wang Haiyan1(), Pang Jiangli1(), Huang Chunchang1, Zhou Yali1, Cuan Yuda1, Zha Xiaochun1, Guo Yongqiang2, Zhang Yuzhu3, Shang Ruiqing1, Wang Zhaoduo1   

  1. 1. School of Geography and Tourism, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119, Shaanxi, China
    2. Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, Chinese Academy of Science, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan, China
    3. College of Urban and Environmental Science, Northwest University, Xi’an 710127, Shaanxi, China
  • Received:2019-05-07 Revised:2019-09-19 Online:2020-05-10 Published:2020-08-18
  • Contact: Pang Jiangli E-mail:wanghaiyansx@126.com;jlpang@snnu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771110);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41971116);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41801060);Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities(2019TS021)

摘要:

对喇家遗址进行了全面的野外考察,在其北部发现完整连续的全新世黄土-古土壤地层剖面。通过系统采样、粒度和磁化率等多种指标测试,结合OSL技术测年断代,建立了完整的土壤地层序列。深入分析土壤沉积物性质与地表过程,揭示了覆盖齐家文化废墟的沉积物的成因。研究结果表明:喇家遗址土壤沉积物地层层序自地表向下依次为:现代土壤(MS,0~1.50 ka B.P.)→全新世晚期风成黄土(L0,1.50~3.10 ka B.P.)→全新世中期古土壤(S0,3.10~8.50 ka B.P.)→全新世早期过渡性风成黄土(Lt,8.50~11.50 ka B.P.)→晚更新世晚期马兰黄土(L1,>11.50 ka B.P.)。其中全新世中期黑垆土古土壤(S0)被3组红色粘土质泥流(RC3、RC2和RC1)和山洪沙土(FFD)沉积层穿插分隔为4个亚层(S0上、S0中上、S0中下和S0下)。这证明黑垆土发育过程中,在OSL年龄3.96~3.65 ka,对应于14C年龄3.85~3.60 ka B.P.出现一个山洪泥流盛行期,来自于盆地北侧沟谷的大规模暴雨山洪泥流,在大红山前古洪积扇前沿溢出沟槽、扩散覆盖了黄河第二级阶地面的土地。其中与大地震相伴随的第一期暴雨山洪泥流过程,摧毁了喇家遗址齐家文化聚落,造成居室内人群的死亡。

关键词: 喇家遗址, 全新世, 地层序列, 黑垆土, 史前灾难

Abstract:

During detailed field investigations, a complete and continuous Holocene soil and sediment profile (SLJ) was identified in the northern part of the Lajia Ruins. On the basis of field pedo-sedimentological observation and descriptions, as well as physic-chemical analysis and OSL dating on the soil and sediment samples, a complete pedo-stratigraphic sequence was established in the ruins. Meanwhile, the cause of sediment overlying the Lajia Settlement of the Qijia Culture was revealed through in-depth analysis of soil sediment properties and surface processes. The results show that the pedo-stratigraphic sequence of the profile includes the modern soil (MS, 0-1.50 ka B.P.) -the recent loess (L0, 1.50-3.10 ka B.P.) -a composite palaeosol layer (S0, 3.10-8.50 ka B.P.)-transitional loess (Lt, 8.50-11.50 ka B.P.)-the Malan Loess (L1, >11.50 ka B.P.). The mid-Holocene palaeosol (S0) is intercalated by three thin intervals of red clay (RC3, RC2, RC1) and the flashflood deposit (FFD), and thus subdivided into four sub-layers (S0-upper, S0-upper middle, S0-lower middle, S0-lower). This proves that there was a prevailing period of flashfloods and mudflows in the development of palaeosol, which is dated by OSL as 3.96-3.65 ka, corresponding to14C ages of 3.85-3.60 ka B.P.. During this period, the large-scale rainstorm-induced flashfloods and mudflows were thus triggered in the headwaters of the gullies, and overflowed the trenches at the front of the ancient diluvial fan of Great Red Hills and spread over the land of the second terrace of the Yellow River. The Lajia Settlement of the Qijia Culture and the adjacent farmland were overtaken by the first rainstorm-induced flashfloods and mudflows during which women and children were killed in their dwellings.

Key words: Lajia Ruins, Holocene, stratigraphic sequence, palaeosol, pre-historical catastrophes

中图分类号: 

  • P534