地理科学 ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (8): 1365-1376.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2020.08.016

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19612017年华北地区高温日数及高温热浪时空变化特征

邢佩(), 杨若子, 杜吴鹏*(), 党冰, 轩春怡, 熊飞麟   

  1. 北京市气候中心,北京 100089
    北京城市气象研究院,北京 100089
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-29 出版日期:2020-08-10 发布日期:2020-12-07
  • 通讯作者: 杜吴鹏 E-mail:20042143xp@sina.com;duwupeng@sina.com
  • 作者简介:邢佩(1987−),女,河北赵县人,博士,高级工程师,主要从事应用气候和气候变化研究。E-mail: 20042143xp@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    中国气象局气候变化专项项目(CCSF201914,CCSF202009)、国家自然科学基金项目(41901017)、国家重点研发计划项目(2018YFC1507701)资助

Spatiotemporal Variation of High Temperature Day and Heat Wave in North China During 1961−2017

Xing Pei(), Yang Ruozi, Du Wupeng*(), Dang Bing, Xuan Chunyi, Xiong Feilin   

  1. Beijing Municipal Climate Center, Beijing 100089, China
    Institute of Urban Meteorology, CMA,Beijing, 100089, China
  • Received:2019-11-29 Online:2020-08-10 Published:2020-12-07
  • Contact: Du Wupeng E-mail:20042143xp@sina.com;duwupeng@sina.com
  • Supported by:
    Climate Change Special Foundation of China Meteorological Administration (CCSF201914, CCSF202009), National Natural Science Foundation of China (41901017), National Key Research and Development Project (2018YFC1507701)

摘要:

利用华北地区85个气象站1961—2017年逐日最高气温资料,统计分析了华北地区高温日数及高温热浪(频次、持续时间、强度)的时空变化特征。结果表明:① 华北地区年高温日数整体呈增加趋势,自20世纪90年代中期之后年均高温日数明显增多;高温多出现在华北地区的南部和西部,华北地区大部分站点的高温日数呈增加趋势。② 就气候平均态而言,高温初日有略提前趋势,高温终日则明显推迟;空间上,绝大多数台站的高温终日呈推迟的趋势,其中京津冀中北部地区尤为明显。③ 累计高温热浪次数、轻度和中度热浪次数均整体增加,并在1990年左右明显由少变多,重度热浪次数增加趋势更为显著;1987年之后,平均每次高温热浪事件的高温有效积温明显增加,表明高温热浪的平均强度增大。④ 不同等级高温热浪总频次的空间分布特征相近,高频次区域均集中在内蒙古西部、山西西南部和河北南部;热浪累计频次的变化趋势在内蒙和山西以增多为主,在京津冀地区以减少为主。除山西南部和河北南部的个别站点以外,绝大多数站点的热浪平均持续天数和平均高温有效积温的变化呈增多增强趋势。总体来看,华北大部分区域自20世纪90年代以来,高温日数及热浪事件明显增强,同时存在明显的空间差异,研究结果将有助于进一步认识华北高温的区域性特征。

关键词: 高温日数, 高温热浪, 频次, 持续时间, 高温有效积温

Abstract:

The spatiotemporal variation characteristics of high temperature days (HTDs) and heat wave (HW) events (frequency, duration, intensity) in North China were analyzed, using the daily maximum temperature data of 85 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2017. The results showed that the annual average HTDs had an increase trend, and increased significantly since the mid-1990s. The high temperature often appeared in the southern and western parts of North China, and HTDs of most stations were increasing. In terms of climate on average, there was slight advance trend in the first day of high temperature, and obvious delayed trend in the last day of high temperature; in space, the last day of high temperature for most stations was postponed, especially in the central and northern of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The accumulative frequency of total HW events, mild and moderate HW events was increasing overall, which obviously changed from less to more around 1990, while the increasing trend for severe HW events was more significant. Since 1987, the average effective accumulated high temperature obviously increased, indicating strengthened intensity of HW events. The spatial distribution of the total HW frequency for different grades was similar, and the high-frequency areas were concentrated in western Inner Mongolia, southwestern Shanxi, and southern Hebei. The trend of the cumulative HW frequency mainly increased in Inner Mongolia and Shanxi, and decreased in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region. The average duration and effective accumulated high temperature in most parts of North China showed increasing trend, except for individual stations in southwestern Shanxi and southern Hebei. Overall, since 1990s, the HTDs and HW events in North China were enhanced evidently , but also with obvious spatial differences. The results of this study contributed to further understanding of the regional characteristics of high temperature in North China.

Key words: high temperature day, heat wave, frequency, duration, effective accumulated high temperature

中图分类号: 

  • P467