地理科学 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (5): 842-850.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.05.012

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吉林省村域尺度下居民点空间分布特征及优化重组模式

李静1(), 张平宇1,2, 郭蒙3,4,*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所,吉林 长春 130102
    2.中国科学院大学资源与环境学院,北京 100049
    3.东北师范大学地理科学学院,吉林 长春 130024
    4.吉林省自然资源研究院,吉林 长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2020-09-19 修回日期:2021-01-26 出版日期:2021-05-10 发布日期:2021-07-15
  • 通讯作者: 郭蒙 E-mail:lijingsara@iga.ac.cn;guom521@nenu.edu.cn
  • 作者简介:李静(1983−),女,内蒙古赤峰人,副研究员,博士,主要从事土地利用、城市与区域发展研究。E-mail: lijingsara@iga.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41771179);国家自然科学基金项目(42071162);国家自然科学基金项目(41871103);中国科学院重点部署项目(KSZD-EW-Z-021-03);中国科学院重点部署项目(KFZD-SW-314);中国科学院东北地理与农业生态研究所“一三五”规划项目资助(Y6H2091001)

Spatial Distribution and Optimized Reconstructing Mode of Rural Settlement at the Village Scale of Jilin Province

Li Jing1(), Zhang Pingyu1,2, Guo Meng3,4,*()   

  1. 1. Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Science, Changchun 130102, Jilin, China
    2. College of Resources and Environment, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
    3. School of Geographical Sciences, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
    4. Jilin Natural Resources Research Institute, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
  • Received:2020-09-19 Revised:2021-01-26 Online:2021-05-10 Published:2021-07-15
  • Contact: Guo Meng E-mail:lijingsara@iga.ac.cn;guom521@nenu.edu.cn
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41771179);National Natural Science Foundation of China(42071162);National Natural Science Foundation of China(41871103);The Key Deployment Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(KSZD-EW-Z-021-03);The Key Deployment Projects of the Chinese Academy of Sciences(KFZD-SW-314);Strategic Planning Project From Institute of Northeast Geography and Agroecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences(Y6H2091001)

摘要:

乡村聚落的空间优化与重构是提高土地资源利用效率,改善农村生产生活条件,促进乡村可持续发展的重要手段。以吉林省为例,采用核密度估计方法和景观形状指数分析了农村居民点空间分布特征,基于农户调查数据估算了吉林省不同区域的农村宅基地闲置情况,将农村居民点长期存在的“破碎化”和日益突出的“空心化”相结合,提出了在行政村尺度下农村居民点优化重组的“整小填大”新模式。结果表明:① 吉林省农村居民点规模小且零散分布,尤其中部呈破碎化分布,形态不规则,具有较大的整治潜力;② 吉林省农村宅基地平均闲置率为18.32%,西部地区最高(24.48%),分别高于东部和中部地区约6%和12%;③“整小填大”模式可使农村居民点数量减少44.6%,增加有效耕地面积1 046.66 km2

关键词: 农村居民点, 景观形状指数, 居民点优化重组模式, 村域尺度, 吉林省

Abstract:

The spatial optimization and reconstruction of rural settlements is an important means to enhance the utilization efficiency of land resources, to improve rural production and living conditions and to promote the sustainable development of rural areas. Taking Jilin Province in Northeast China as an example, we analyzed the spatial characteristics of rural settlements using kernel density estimation method and landscape shape index, estimated vacancy rate of rural housing land in different regions based on peasant household survey data and piloted a new optimization and reconstruction mode of “Reclaiming small to fill large” at a village scale driven by the increasingly prominent rural hollowing and long-standing fragmented layout. Results indicated that rural settlements were generally smaller and had a relatively sparse distribution in Jilin Province especially in central Jilin, which had a high density of small settlements with irregular morphologies, and thus had a high potential for consolidation. Second, The average vacancy rate of rural housing land was 18.32% and vacancy rate in the western Jilin was high (24.48%), followed by the eastern Jilin (18.47%) and central Jilin (12.02%). Third, our approach can decrease the number of total rural settlements by 44.6%. Moreover, it will increase the effective amount of arable land by a total of 1046.66 km2. This study put forward with spatial optimization and reconstruction idea and mode of regional characteristics at the village scale. And it is an important way to increase cultivated land and enhance the intensive use level of construction land, provide feasible scientific guidance for rural land consolidation plan, coordinate rural man-land relationship and promote rural sustainable development.

Key words: rural settlement, landscape shape index, settlement optimization and reconstruction mode, village scale, Jilin Province