基于创新价值链视角,将创新过程分为知识凝结阶段和市场转化阶段,运用网络DEA-SBM模型、核密度分析、自然断裂点和空间面板计量模型等方法分析了2008~2015年中国省际创新总效率及两阶段效率演化动态及其成因,得出以下结论： 中国创新总效率、知识凝结效率和市场转化效率整体处在低位水平,呈波动上升趋势,近年来增速放缓; 创新效率存在明显的阶段性和区际差异,创新知识凝结、市场转化、总过程的效率值分别呈现低值集聚、离散发展和多峰分异格局,在空间上自东向西大体呈阶梯式递减分布,存在空间相关性,空间溢出效应显著; 科研队伍水平、政府政策支持力度与创新效率有显著的正相关关系,研发经费投入强度的持续增加对创新效率起到一定抑制作用,市场化发育程度和对外开放程度对创新效率的影响不显著。现阶段亟需解决企业自身研发能力不足,高校、研究机构科研评价体系不健全与成果转化收益分配不合理,基础研究投入不足和区际间知识生产能力与市场吸纳能力不匹配等问题。
From the perspective of the innovation value chain, the innovative process was divided into two stages in this article: knowledge condensation and market transformation. This article analyzes on the overall innovation efficiency, dynamic efficiency evolution and cause in the knowledge condensation stage and market transformation stage on a provincial scale in China from 2008 to 2015 with the methods of network DEA-SBM model, kernel density analysis, natural breaking point and Spatial Panel Econometric Model. We can draw the following conclusions: 1) The overall innovation efficiency, knowledge condensation and market transformation efficiency in China were in the low level with the slower fluctuating rise in the recent years; 2) There were obvious differences between different stages and inter regions. The innovative knowledge condensation efficiency presented a low value cluster, the market transformation efficiency presented a discrete development, and the overall efficiency showed us a double-peak pattern. From east to west, it was generally decreasing step by step in space. Spatial correlation can be seen and spatial spillover effect was remarkable; 3) The level of scientific research team and the support of government policy had a significant positive correlation with innovation efficiency. The continuously increased R&D expenditure depressed the innovation efficiency to a certain extent. While the impacts of degree of marketization development and opening up were not significant. The enterprises lacked of R&D ability; scientific research evaluation system of colleges, universities and research institutes is imperfect and the income distribution of achievement transformation is unreasonable; the investment on basic research is insufficient; the knowledge productivity does not match the market absorption capacity properly. All the above problems are urgently to be solved.
基于2000年、2005年、2010年和2015年人口普查与1%人口抽样调查数据以及相关年度制造业统计数据,利用重心模型和地理探测器对2000年以来的不同类型制造业转移空间格局、人口流动空间格局及其二者相互作用关系进行分析。研究发现： 2000年以来特别是2005年之后中国制造业呈现出明显转移态势,但不同类型制造业转移幅度和空间区域具有明显差异,能源密集型、技术密集型、资本密集型制造业由东部向中西部转移的空间区域大,劳动密集型产业转移空间还十分有限,仍集中于东部地区。 虽然人口迁移的整体格局变化不大,仍是“中间低、周边高”的格局,但是人口迁移的空间特征正在趋于弱化,中西部地区分享的迁入人口份额在不断提高。 制造业重心与人口迁移重心变动轨迹呈现出“偏离-趋同”关系,人口迁移滞后于产业转移的效应已逐渐消失,人口与产业的空间匹配程度趋于提高。 地理探测器定量识别人口迁移与制造业转移之间的空间关系发现,人口迁移格局变化对制造业空间转移的响应程度较制造业转移对人口迁移格局变化的响应程度高。
Based on the data of censuses and 1% sample survey in 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2015 and related annual manufacturing statistics, this article illustrates the temporal and spatial patterns of manufacturing transfer and migration and analyzes the interaction between migration and manufacturing transfer by introducing gravity center model and Geo-detector. The results show that: 1) There has being a significant trend of manufacturing industry transfer since 2000, especially after 2005, characterized by differences in transfer scales and spatial areas among manufacturing industries. Energy-intensive, technology-intensive and capital-intensive manufacturing industries present clear transfer trend with broad spatial areas from the coastal to the inland area, in contrast, the transfer trend of labor-intensive industries which are concentrated in the coastal is uncertain yet. 2) There is little change in the migration pattern featured by minus net-migration in the middle of China and plus in some areas from eastern and western China, but the feature is less prominent with the bigger share of immigrants in the inland area. 3) The change tracks of both manufacturing industry and migration gravity center shows a relationship characterized by deviation and convergence. The migration lagging-behind effect compared with the industrial transfer has gradually disappeared and the spatial population-industry matching degree tends to improve. 4) The Geo-detector is applied to quantitatively identifing the spatial relationship between migration and manufacturing transfer. It is found that the change of migration pattern is more responsive to the spatial transfer, but the latter is less responsive to the former.
根据城市统计中存在大量属性数据的特点,基于无尺度网络方法,根据2002~2014年中国城市医疗统计数据变化的相似性来建立城市之间的联系,得到中国城市医疗软件网络和硬件网络。在对两个网络对比和测试分析后得到：① 中国城市医疗网络是由20%高度城市代表的具有圈层聚类结构的无尺度复杂网络。② 中国城市医疗硬件网络比软件网络复杂和稳定。③ 中国城市医疗网络的结构和功能主要由强关系城市决定,弱关系城市对网络没有实质影响。可见,以无尺度网络方法来分析城市网络可以发现很多隐藏的问题。
According to the characteristic of large amounts of attribute data in urban statistics, this paper uses the scale-free network method to get the networks of urban medical software and hardware in China, which is based on the similarity of changes in medical statistics from 2002 to 2014. After comparing and analyzing the two networks, the conclusions can be drawn: 1) China's urban medical networks are scale-free complex networks with circle cluster structure represented by 20% of high-dgree cities. 2) Chinese urban medical hardware networks are more complex and stable than software networks. 3) The structure and function of China's urban medical networks are mainly determined by strong relationship cities, and weakly related cities have no real impact on it. It can be seen that analyzing the urban network by the scale-free network method can find many hidden problems.
The pattern of Chinese tourism industry is the result of comprehensive development of regional tourism, while tourism investment is a driving factor for regional tourism development. In order to investigate extent and mechanism of tourism investment and its impact on tourism development, the paper analyzed evolution of tourism investment during 2000-2015 in China, based on the fixed assets and human resources investment data in hotels, tourist attractions and travel agencies. Hotels, tourist attractions and travel agencies are known as the three core departments in tourism industry. Conclusions can be concluded as followings. 1) The evolution of tourism investment present characteristic of coordination with tourism development. Thus, the fixed assets investment showed increase tendency in slow speed and the human resource investment firstly increased and then decreased. At the same time, tourism investment in hotels was the largest, which was followed by tourist attractions, and tourism investment in travel agencies was the least. From the perspective of spatial difference, the Eastern China held advantage over the Central and Western China. Meanwhile, the spatial difference of tourism departments among provinces was obvious. Hotels present apparent mostly and travel agencies held small difference. 2) According to the impact index of tourism investment, it was higher for hotels than tourist attractions and travel agencies. The difference of impact index among provinces presented that there were two investment effects, namely the ‘time abrasion effect’ and ‘the performance cumulative effect’, about tourism investment in the three core departments of tourism industry. The time abrasion effect played an important role in the hotels’, tourist attractions’ fixed assets investment and the human resources investment in the whole tourism industry. While the performance cumulative effect only exerts an influence on the fixed assets investment in travel agencies. 3) Based on ‘the spatial traction effect’, the tourism investment led the pattern of tourism development transferring from discrete nuclear polarization to continuous regional diffusion. The paper, at last, analyzed mechanism of the tourism investment’s spatial influence on tourism development and found that the investment was the drive of regional tourism development, and the circulatory accumulation mechanism promoted the sustainable increase of tourism industry.
As an integral part of comprehensive strength, the soft power of culture has become an important support for the basic kernel and scientific development of regional competitiveness. Cultural industry is the hard power of cultural construction, and also an important means to enhance the soft power of culture. As the core part of cultural industry, radio and TV industry is also an important part of soft power of regional culture. Through the literature review, it is found that the research on radio and TV industry at home and abroad is mostly concentrated in enterprises, industrial clusters or urban internal scales, and there are few studies based on regional scale. Mainly on the method is based on the traditional measurement method, using spatial econometric methods of research is not much, ignore the spatial correlation effect, and it is not about influence factors and its role in the study of spatial heterogeneity of various areas. Based on this, this paper is based on the statistical data of 31 provinces in China 2008-2014, using factor analysis to comprehensively evaluate the development level and regional differences of provincial radio and TV industry, and combining with the exploratory spatial data analysis（ESDA）and the spatial constant coefficient model, to further analyze the spatial effect and the influencing factors of the development of China's provincial radio and TV industry. The study found that the highest level of development of provincial radio and TV industry in China was distributed in the eastern coastal regions, in which some eastern and central regions developed generally, with low development levels in the northwest and southwest regions, and the overall trend of gradual change from east to west, but the overall development level of the whole country showed a significant upward trend. In addition, the development of radio and television industry in the region has the phenomenon of competition and polarization effect, and the development of radio and television industry in the low-gradient region has the tendency of “polarization” in the high-gradient region.Economic development level, consumer demand, finances, and information technology level is positively related with radio and TV industry in our country, and the industrial structure and the broadcast television industry present negative correlation, and geographic space of the adjacent provinces showed no spillover effect. Because the OLS and SLM models are both “average” or whole domain estimation, the estimated results can only show the national average, but not the differences in the regional influence of each factor. Therefore, on the basis of this article, the spatial variable coefficient model can be used to analyze the local area (Local), to further explore the variation of the influence of each variable on the development level of radio and television industry.
A contention about whether extensive Quaternary glaciation exited or not in middle and low mountainous areas in Eastern China (east of 105°E) has been lasting for about a century, and many scholars in Chinese and overseas contributed their knowledge to it and published many results in print. With the development of glacial geomorphology, sedimentology, archaeology, the Quaternary science discipline has made significant progress, the wrong idea about extensive glaciation in middle and low mountainous areas in Eastern China has been denied and systematically corrected in the 1980s. There are undisputed glacial landforms that formed in the last glacial cycle well preserved in Mt. Helan, Mt. Taibai, Mt. Changbai and high alpine in Taiwan in Eastern China. However, the mortar shape landforms, diamictons, and rock or bedrock with striations were taken as evidence of glaciation since the 1990s. In the past two decades, many so-called new glacial evidence has been reported in the middle and low massifs. Are they real glacial landforms? Fieldwork and comprehensive analysis indicate that the so-called glacial vestiges in Mt. Meng, Shandong Province, were not glacial landforms, because the speculative timing and snowline (or equilibrium-line altitude) from these questionable landforms are conflicted with the surrounding environmental variation. The new so-called discovery and facts are not necessary and sufficient conditions to prove the existence of glaciers in the middle and low massifs of Shandong Province. The characteristics of the so-called moraines, palaeo-cirques, stratifications, and chatter mark also not agree with the standard identification of them. Many strange names and classifications that have been used in their studies are also not systematical and specific. The speculated low elevation palaeo-glaciers and intrusive alien snowline could not be used to illuminate their assumed glacial theory. In a word, the low elevation glaciation is not a correct hypothesis. There are no glaciations in middle and low massifs in Shandong Province during the whole Quaternary.
As the critical influence factor for the sustainable development in arid and semi-arid region, water resources carrying capacity is an important parameter during spatial planning. Based on the case study of Xiji-Haiyuan-Guyuan area of Ningxia, an approach of multi-scale evaluation of water resources carrying capacity oriented to spatial planning is put forward, which refers to the loading index and carrying state index of water resources based on evaluation of administrative unit and the spatial comprehensive index of water resources carrying capacity based on raster calculation. The empirical analysis and calibration results show that: 1) It is feasible to realize the multi-scale evaluation of water resources carrying capacity in arid and semi-arid region, and the evaluation results among different scales have strong complementarities; 2) Overall, with a high degree of load index of the water resources, the regional water resources present the state of critical overloading in Xiji-Haiyuan-Guyuan Area of Ningxia, and the overload ratio is 4.15% in general. The pumping irrigation projects of the mainstream of the Yellow River significantly alleviate the overload situation of overall water resources as a whole, particularly in the middle area of mountains and piedmont plains; 3) According to the spatial comprehensive index of water resources carrying capacity at 90 m×90 m grid unit, it is generally divided into five levels: very strong, strong, medium, weak and very weak. The valley plain area of the Qingshuihe River is characterized by very strong and strong levels, where is a typical superposition region of the irrigation area of major pumping projects and the enrichment area of groundwater resources, while the Loess Hilly Region and the Liupan Mountain Region are featured by the weak and very weak levels. 4) Based on the spatial disparities of water resources carrying capacity, the guarantee system of water resources should be established on the concept of economizing water all-around and exploiting new water resource in accordance with local conditions.
研究使用经济和环境多源大数据,建立包含人口、GDP等经济指标和空气质量等环境指标的中国经济-环境关联体系,识别各指标的热点、冷点时空变化特征,采用人工神经网络聚类方法对中国现阶段经济-环境进行综合分区。研究结果如下：① 灯光平均强度较高的省份主要集中在沿海地区,经济以长三角、珠三角和环渤海区域为主要拉动引擎,呈东南高西北低的发展态势,东部沿海地区经济发展优于东北、中部和西南地区。② PM2.5浓度呈现先增后减趋势,高污染区主要集中在华北、华中等区域;东北方向逐步扩散,污染热点地区从辽东半岛、山海关一线向东北扩张;南方地区基本保持稳定态势。③ 采用自组织特征映射模型对2015年全国各地级市OLS灯光指数、人口、城市自然边界和年均PM2.5浓度4类指标进行聚类,第I类为经济极发达-环境恶化地区,主要位于华北平原和长江三角洲;第II类为经济发达-环境趋恶化地区,主要分布在第I类区域周边,特别是京津冀周边地区;第III类为经济发达-环境良好地区,广东、海南、江西、福建以及重庆等省市多属此类型;第IV类为经济不发达-环境优质地区,主要分布于东北地区北部、内蒙古、甘肃、贵州、新疆、青海、西藏等地。
In the past 40 years, China's economy has developed rapidly but has paid a heavy environmental cost. China's environment and economy have undergone tremendous changes. The imbalance in regional economic development has intensified, while the various kinds of environmental problems have taken place in different area. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate environmental policies in a targeted manner. To this end, big data methods should be applied to reveal the relationship between the environment and economy, which forms the basis of comprehensive zoning. In this study, multi-source big data such as nighttime light remote sensing, spatialized population data, urban natural boundary and simulated PM2.5 concentration was used to establish an economic-environmental linkage system. The time and spatial variation rules of economic and environment hotspots were identified by Getis-Ord index. The provincial administrative areas of China were divided into four groups by using an artificial neural network (Self-Organizing Feature Map, SOFM) clustering of both economic and environmental indicators. The results show that: 1) The provinces with higher average light intensity in China are mainly concentrated in coastal areas. The economy is mainly driven by the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and the Bohai Rim. It is a developing trend that is low in the southeast, high in the northwest and the eastern coastal areas. The economic development of coastal area is superior to the northeast, central and southwest regions. 2) The concentration of PM2.5 in China shows a trend of increasing first and then decreasing. Highly polluted areas are mainly concentrated in the North China and Central China regions. In northeast China, the pollution hotspots expand from the Liaodong Peninsula and Shanhaiguan to the northeast, while the south China maintains stability. 3) Based on OLS light index, population, urban natural boundary, and annual average PM2.5 concentration in 2015, the prefecture-level cities can be grouped into four types by using the self-organizing feature mapping model. Type I region is highly economic developed and environment deteriorating areas, mainly located in the North China Plain and the Yangtze River Delta. Type II region is the economic developed and environment deteriorating areas, which is mainly distributed in the periphery of the Type I region, especially around Jing-jin-ji area. Type III region is economically developed and environmentally friendly, such as Guangdong, Hainan, Jiangxi, Fujian, and Chongqing. Type IV is economically underdeveloped and high environment quality areas, which are mainly distributed in the north of the Northeast, Inner Mongolia, Gansu, Guizhou, Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Tibet. The research results are hoped to provide reference for balancing economic development and environment conservation in different regions of China.
引入技术机会理论,解释大城市内部不同行业创新活动的空间分布差异,以北京市为例进行实证检验。研究发现：① 不同技术层次产业的创新活动在城市内部表现出不同的区位选择。除汽车制造业外的大多数高技术产业的创新活动高度集聚在中心城区;中技术产业的创新活动开始由中心城区向近郊区扩散,低技术产业的创新活动主要分布在远郊区。② 行业间创新活动空间分布的差异主要由技术机会来源差异造成。大部分高技术产业的技术源于基础研究、产业间知识溢出、高技术劳动力,往往靠近大学或中心城区;对中技术产业来说,基础研究的影响并不像对高技术产业那样显著;对低技术产业来说,技术机会主要源于本产业的技术反馈,创新部门更倾向于分布在郊区的制造业集群中。
The innovation activities are mainly concentrated in large cities, but the existing studies can not explain the differences of distribution of innovation activities in particular intrametropolitan spaces well. In order to solve this problem, using the technology opportunity theory, this study put forward an agglomeration formation mechanism of the intrametropolitan innovation activities from the perspective of industry heterogeneity. Taking Beijing as an example, we examined the mechanism of the relationship between technological opportunities and innovation distribution empirically. According to the study, the general rule of innovation agglomeration of different industries in large cities is found: 1) The innovation activities of most high-tech industries other than automobile manufacturing are highly concentrated in the central urban area; But to the mid-tech industries, their innovation activities begin to spread from the central urban area to the suburbs, and the large industrial park in the suburbs become the main gathering places. The innovation activities distribution of low-tech industry are mainly distributed in the outer suburbs and presents the characteristics of “total dispersion and local concentration”. 2) The differences in spatial distribution of innovation activities among industries are mainly caused by the differences in the source of technological opportunities. Most high-tech industries’ technological opportunities come from basic research, knowledge spillover among industries and high skilled labour pool, so it is often close to universities or downtown, except automobile manufacturing industry, whose technological opportunities are mainly get from the technical feedback of itself; To the mid-technology industry, the influence of basic research is not so significant as to the high technology industry, but knowledge spillover among industries, high skilled labour and the technical feedback from itself have an obvious effect on their innovation, so they begin to spread from the universities and central urban area. At the same time, technical opportunities of the low-tech industries are mainly derived from the technical feedback of the industry, so its innovation department is more inclined to locate in the suburban manufacturing clusters.
In this article, we analyze the geographical distribution of the countries which transfer technology to China via technology introduction contracts and the factors influencing the amount of technology introduction contracts from 2003 to 2016, based on a large database compiled from World Bank, USPTO and China Statistical Bureau. We find out that, 1) Historically, the total amount of transnational technology introduction contracts to China showed a U-shape development trajectory: it increased dramatically from 2003 to 2013, and then decreases gradually due to the implementation of national endogenous innovation policy from 2013. 2) Geographically, the Gini index fluctuated between 0.85 and 0.90, indicating a high spatial concentration of transnational technology introduction contracts. Among all the source countries, the United States, Japan, Germany, Finland, the UK and France have been the main sources in the whole period; while India, Malaysia, Thailand and other Asian countries are becoming increasingly important in recent 5 years. 3) Three main aspects, namely technical capability gap, geographical distance and technology pipeline, influence the amount of transnational technology transfer to China. Countries geographically closer and of the greater the technical capability are more important sources which transfer technology to China. The transnational technology pipeline in terms of overseas Chinese community and multinational companies also facilitate the technology transfer to China. However, the imports of goods show a negative relationship with transnational technology introduction contact, because the countries which import low-tech goods to China usually have comparatively low technical competitiveness. It is reasonable that China avoids importing technology from those countries.
基于2000年和2010年人口普查数据,运用高龄人口比重等指标和空间自相关等方法,分析东北地区县域老年人口高龄化的空间分异特征,并利用地理探测器方法分析其驱动因素。研究表明：① 10 a间高龄化水平升级的态势明显,高龄化区域呈蔓延式扩散。高龄化在省级行政区间、城乡间、民族自治地区与非民族自治地区间、贫困与非贫困地区间存在显著差异。② 10 a间高龄化的变动趋势差异显著,但长期以来形成的高龄化的总体空间格局较为稳定。③ 县际间高龄化呈现较强的正的空间自相关性,空间聚集特征明显。高龄化的空间格局具有以热点区为中心,逐渐向边缘区过渡的“中心-外围”的空间梯度差异特征。④ 高龄化是老年人口年龄结构继承性和迟滞性的体现,自然环境和社会经济是影响高龄化空间分异的基础性因素,可以引导和制约高龄化空间分异的程度和方向。
Advanced age is not only a reflection of the original intention of aging, but also a new form of aging that reflects the phenomenon of human longevity. It is an inevitable outcome of the aging process to a certain stage. A profound understanding of the scientific connotation of aging and revealing the evolutionary characteristics of the aging of time and space have important theoretical and practical values for us to actively respond to challenges and grasp development opportunities in an aging society. Northeastern China is one of the most prominent areas of population structural problems, and the aging population is becoming more and more obvious, which is representative in the whole country. Therefore, this article uses the data from the 2000 and 2010 census to analyze the temporal and spatial pattern of the elderly population in Northeastern China through the methods of proportion of the advanced age population, concentration, and spatial autocorrelation. We also use geographical detector-based and coefficient of variation methods to examine the variability of the driving factors. Research shows that: 1) In 2000, the advanced age population accounted for 11.32% of the Northeastern China. In 2010, however, the advanced age population accounted for 15.84% of the Northeastern China. The advanced age population proportion upgrade trend obviously, aging area spread type diffusion. There are differences between different levels of the provincial level administrative regions, between urban and rural areas, between ethnic autonomous areas and non-ethnic autonomous regions, between poverty and non-ethnic autonomous areas, and the direction of difference changes. 2) There is a significant difference in the variation trend of the advanced age population in 10 years, but the overall spatial pattern of the advanced age population has been stable for a long time. 3) There is a strong positive spatial autocorrelation and spatial clustering features. The spatial pattern of the advanced age population has the characteristics of the spatial gradient difference between the center and the periphery. 4) The spatial pattern of the advanced age of counties in the Northeastern China is the result of multiple factors driving together. The intrinsic role of population age structure, the basic role of natural geographical environment and the complex role of social and economic environment enhance their driving function through interaction. Population age structure has the characteristics of historical inheritance and hysteresis, natural geographical environment to guide and restrict the advanced age space differentiation pattern, the basis of social and economic development can change the aging degree and direction of spatial differentiation.
The global-local relationship generated in the process of innovation and transnational innovative mechanism has become a new topic of regional development. The research on the impact of globalizing forces on the innovation of host countries is mainly based on the perspective of technology spillover and the impact on the evolution of economic and innovation consequence of host countries has attracted great attention during the last two decades. Few literatures, however, have focused on the impact on the process of innovation,which is more significant for developing host countries to achieve technical transition and value upgrading in global production network. Based on a case study of Guangzhou, this article begs the question of what effect the technology spillover of transnational enterprises has on the process of innovation of China, especially on indigenous manufacturing firms, which play a key role in industrialization and face increasingly urgent environmental regulation and the demand of technical transition in China. Fieldwork is carried out to obtain R&D behavior’s characteristics of indigenous manufacturing firms using semi-structured questionnaire through face-to-face interviews with owners or responsible persons of the firms selected by convenient and snowball sampling. Location of the samples covers major manufacturing area in Guangzhou. The results show that since the 1990s, the indigenous firms have gradually increased R&D input, established independent R&D institutions as well as actively promoted R&D internationalization. Meanwhile, the R&D behavior of technology import and external cooperation are relatively weak. These changes indicate the indigenous manufacturing firms have experienced a R&D mode transition from highly dependent on introducing technology from developed Countries to the internalization and internationalization of R&D behavior dominated by self-dependent innovation. Promoting the motivation of self-dependent innovation of indigenous enterprises underlies the evolution of R&D behavior under the circumstance of integrating multinational innovation network. The study further investigates what impacts the technical spillover from foreign investments have on the evolution of R&D mode of indigenous manufacturing firms and its mechanism by building an ordinal polytomous logistic regression model. In the model, the effect of technical relation, productive cooperation and labor turnover between translational and indigenous manufacturing enterprises have been examined. The results show that technical spillover from foreign investments has a significant impact on the transition of R&D mode of local enterprises. Both of the decreased technical gaps and the free flow of labor force between international and local enterprises have significantly promoted the motivation of independent R&D behavior of local enterprises. More closely embedded in global production networks also has a positive effect. However, international technology procurement has a significant negative effect on self-dependent innovation of indigenous manufacturing firms. The results of this paper can help to enrich the understanding of the evolution of local innovation process and its mechanism under the background of globalization, and provide inspiration for the policy-making of regional innovation system integrated global forces.
This article makes a theoretical exploration on the formation and evolution mechanism of urban network based on producer services from the perspective of the recognition mechanism of urban network and the behavior mechanism of enterprise layout, specifically, including industry attributes, the internal factors of the enterprise and the urban environment. On the basis of the theory of regional development and industrial evolution, considering the process of enterprise spatial expansion, taking into account the geography-based administrative hierarchical system and the impact of producer services on urban network, the paper summarizes the general evolution model of the general evolution model of the initial agglomeration -unbalanced diffusion - hierarchical network - mature network of urban network based on producer service. At different stages, industrial space combinations, urban functional organization and urban hierarchy characteristics are constantly changing. The empirical study shows that the Yangtze River Delta urban network is in the transition period of unbalanced diffusion to the hierarchical network stage, showing that the obvious hierarchical characteristics, increasing horizontal linkages, contact direction showing the multiple trend, and the reduced service function contact gap. Its dynamic mechanism includes the convenience of contact, the foundation of manufacturing development, the support of innovation elements, and the promotion of city level. Under the combined action of these factors, the urban network structure of the Yangtze River Delta is becoming more and more perfect, and the horizontal link between the cities is increasing. The driving force of the formation and evolution of the urban network based on the productive service industry is not only derived from the location choice, the power distribution, the organizational structure of the enterprise, but also influenced by the government regulation. The future trend of the development of the network, whether there is a reasonable trend, and how does the government play a "positive intervention" role need to be further studied.
Under the background of China's transitional economy, the spatial organization structure of banks has been adjusted, and firm credit environment has changed accordingly. This article argues that spatial expansion of banks and rising of local banks are the main motive force for the spatial evolution of banking in China. We use operational distance and functional distance to describe the spatial evolution of banks. Based on the analysis of the spatial evolution of banking industry, this article introduces the local banking characteristics variables as the explanatory variables that restrict firm credit. The empirical results show that reducing the operational distance can only improve the corporate credit environment in the western and northeastern regions of China while reducing the functional distance can effectively improve firm credit. The competitive local banking market can enhance the credit access of non-state-owned enterprises. The localization of banks also increased the access of non-state-owned enterprises to credit, and so on. In the context of transitional economy, marketization forces can effectively increase the range of security credit, while the decentralization process has effectively improved the credit environment of enterprises.
在阐述城市土地利用效益系统耦合协调性内涵及其交互作用机理的基础上,构建综合评价指标体系,运用均方差决策法、耦合协调度模型,对东北三省2003~2015年城市土地利用综合效益及其主成分间耦合协调关系进行测度,并分析其时空演化过程。研究认为：① 城市土地利用综合效益表现出随时间“先升后降”的特征,区内三省间差异明显,中心和门户城市长期处于较高水平。② 城市土地利用经济效益亦存在“先升后降”的时序变化特征,空间上表现为“南高北低”,低值区范围缩减明显;社会效益差异不显著,在南北方向上表现出“凸”字型分布特征;区域生态环境效益整体较高,高值区由集中趋向分散。③ 城市土地利用经济、社会、生态环境效益间耦合协调关系在各时间节点均表现为失调,且以中度失调为主,但中心城市和门户城市的三效益耦合协调关系相对较好,向协调方向发展,哈长与辽中南城市群地区协调性优于其他区域,吉林省与辽宁省东部的部分城市协调关系趋向恶化。④ 城市土地利用效益间关系失调主要受复合因素的作用,经济效益滞后是制约土地利用效益耦合协调关系提升的主因,生态环境效益滞后不是限制土地利用效益耦合协调性提升的主要因素。
On the basis of the exposition to the coupling coordination connotation and interaction mechanism, we build a comprehensive evaluation index system, using the mean square deviation decision, coupling coordination degree model to measure the comprehensive urban land use efficiency in the three provinces of Northeast China, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Liaoning from 2003 to 2015 and analyses its spatio-temporal evolution process. The study found that: 1) The comprehensive efficiency of urban land use show the characteristics of ‘first up, then down’, and there are clearly difference between the three provinces. Besides, the center and the gateway city has long been at a higher level. 2) The change of the urban land utilization economic efficiency are similarity with the comprehensive efficiency, on the space, the low range is reduced obviously; the differences of social efficiency are not significant, but also showed a ‘convex’ word distribution on the space; the overall regional ecological and environmental efficiency is on a higher level, the high value area are changed from concentrated to disperse. 3) The economic, social and ecological environment of the urban land utilization efficiency in the coupling coordination relations between time nodes are characterized by disturbance, and give priority to moderate disorders, but the coupling coordination of different efficiency in center and the gateway city are relatively good and developing in a coordinated direction. Besides, Ha-Chang and the Mid-southern of Liaoning Province is better than that of other regions; 4) The imbalance relationship between urban land use efficiency is mainly affected by complex factors. Lagging of economic benefit is the main reason restricting the improvement of coupling and coordination relation of land use efficiency. The research results show that the current coupling coordination relationship between economic, social and ecological environment efficiency in northeast China is still in the stage of disorder. As a result, It has become the inevitable choice to promote urban land use system coordinated development of economy, society and ecological environmental efficiency in the process of future land use in northeast China. In this process, different types of region should form their own targeted path. For the full lagging region, the most important thing is to improve the economic efficiency of land use through the upgrading of industrial structure, which will increase the social efficiency and ecological efficiency. The social efficiency lagging region should strengthen the intensive use of limited construction land and enhance the level of infrastructure construction to improve urban internal conditions; The economic and social efficiency lagging regions should focus on strengthening the development of continuous industry and the industrial cooperation with the central city. For the other cities, promote clean production and circular economy, strengthen the ability of the central region agglomeration are the important ways to promote urban land use economic benefits.
The development of rural economic is the basic requirement of rural transformation, it conforms to the interests of the farmers, and it is also the national strategic goal and social development work points. It is necessary to sort out the related content and to explore the focus of each research direction, these work will help to analyze the process of rural transformation development more clearly. Quantitative and qualitative analysis methods are adopted in this article, we explored the relationship between commodification of rural spaces and rural restructuring. With the help of Citespace V software visualization analysis, we found the focus of the rural restructuring research tends to diversification and decentralization. “Rural tourism” is the realization path of rural restructuring, at the same time, it is also the key research object of commodification of rural spaces. Through carding the research framework of the two, the following conclusions are drawn: The research direction of commodification of rural spaces belongs to the general direction of rural restructuring research. The commodification of rural spaces highlights the restructuring process of rural production space. Rural restructuring benefits from the promotion of commodification of rural spaces, but the restructuring does not entirely depend on the commodification of rural spaces. The commodification of rural spaces is an effective way to realize rural restructuring. Finally, this article gives an overview of existing research problems and presents future research directions: 1) To explore whether western theories adapt to the reality of our country. To explore the theory of native originality actively. 2) We should strengthen the research on the exchange mechanism of urban and rural factors and promote the integration and development of urban and rural areas. 3) Strengthen the multi-path exploration of the commodification of rural spaces and rural restructuring. 4) Combining with macroscopic and mesoscopic, study on the stage characteristics of commodification of rural spaces and rural restructuring from the perspective of microscale, such as village level. To discuss the mechanism of action mechanism, development model, driving mechanism, obstacle problem, regulation and regulation plan of different regional units. 5) Research on land use and renovation in rural areas. 6) Strengthen the restructuring of rural order.
以德国汉堡生物医药集群为例,基于研发、商务两类人才的社会网络和空间流动,探讨不同认识视角、不同类型知识溢出的空间特征及形成机制。研究发现：① 不同认识视角下知识溢出对地理距离的敏感性存在差异,知识流动相较于知识网络更加依赖地理邻近性。② 不同类型知识的溢出具有差异化的空间需求,研发和商务知识溢出在多尺度空间上表现出强度和结构的异质性。③ 以大学、研究机构、产业协会和跨国企业为中心的地方产学研合作体系,创新能力均衡的国家城市体系以及发达国家之间的技术和商业合作推动知识网络的形成。分流教育和空间均衡的人才培养体系,国内充分的人才空间流动以及西欧北美地区的人才环流促进知识的空间流动。
Knowledge spillover driven by industrial clusters has been considered as a key underpinning for boosting regional innovation. This article takes a case study of the biomedical cluster in Hamburg, Germany, examining social networks and spatial flow of both R&D talents and business talents in order to discuss the geographical features and formation mechanisms of knowledge spillover based on different angles and knowledge bases respectively. Empirical results indicate that: 1) Sensitivity to spatial distance of knowledge spillover based on different perspectives are differentiated. In contrast to knowledge network, knowledge flow to a greater extent relies on geographical proximity. 2) Geographical requirements of knowledge spillover of different knowledge bases differ from each other. Scientific knowledge spillovers and business knowledge spillovers are remarkably different at multi-scales with respect to linking intensity and spatial structure. 3) Local Production-Study-Research cooperation system centered on universities, research institutes, industry associations, and leading enterprises, national balanced R&D-intensive urban system of bio-industry, and selective international research collaborations with global leading regions make a joint effort to the formation of scientific knowledge network. Local diversified industrial structure, national polycentric urban system, and widespread international business collaborations with countries based on geographical, social, and institutional proximity collectively shape business knowledge network. Educational streaming, geographically balanced national talent training system, widespread spatial flow of talents across the country, and circular flow of talents in Western Europe and North America jointly form knowledge flows.
In minority areas, it is a vital topic to explore the cognition of urban spatial environment, which has substantial implications for urban development in the context of rapid urbanization in China. Meanwhile, Tibetan Plateau cities have the features of ecological vulnerability, cultural uniqueness and the harmonious relationship between human and environment. Based on the distributed cognition theory, we study the differences of urban spatial environment cognition between Tibetan and Han by taking Shigatse as an example and using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. The results indicate that: 1) The Tibetan Cognitive score on urban spatial environment is higher than the Han, which is the result of the geographical and cultural embeddedness of the Tibetan and Han residents. Tibetan and Han residents’ cognitive level can be divided into three categories: high, medium and low. 2) The cognitive models are featured by circle and mixed pattern in the urban space. The circle model is mainly found in the urban main area. While the mixed pattern is found in the south of ZhaDe Road, and the south of ZhaDe road where the government developed and exploited in order to meet the need of urban space expansion. Meanwhile, there are three types of cognitive space: Tibetan and Han consistent cognitive space, Tibetan independent cognitive space and Han independent cognitive space. Among them, Tibetan and Han consistent cognitive space is featured by high cognitive level in the central urban area and low cognitive level in the south of ZhaDe Road. Tibetan independent cognitive space is complex, trivial and diverse. On the contrary, the Han independent cognitive space is simple, regular and single. 3) The difference between Tibetan and Han residents’ cognition is a consequence of impacts of geographical and cultural environment. Common and different factors all affect Tibetan and Han cognition. Common factors consist of the sense of security, residential centrality, and foreign exchange. However, there are different cognitive factors between Tibetan and Han. Compare with Han, Tibetan are more likely to concern about the landscape corridor, livability and infrastructure quality. However, Han incline to be aware of the public service facilities and local culture integration.
运用选择实验法研究了黑河流域居民对流域生态系统服务的消费偏好及其支付意愿,并结合Mixed logit模型和潜类别模型分别从连续和离散的视角对消费者偏好的异质性进行了检验和实证研究。研究发现：① 黑河流域居民对流域生态系统服务的改善存在显著的异质性偏好,且流域居民从流域水质改善中能获得最大的效用,生态导向型消费者对平均扬沙天气情况改善存在显著偏好,娱乐享受型消费者对流域休闲娱乐条件改善存在显著的偏好。② 黑河流域居民对河流水质、东居延海水面面积和休闲娱乐条件改善3个属性指标具有显著的支付意愿,且对河流水质改善的支付意愿最大,为133.91元/（a·户）。③ 黑河流域居民愿意为流域生态系统服务改善的整体支付意愿为473.16元/（a·户）。
Using choice experiments, this article did research on public preference and willingness to pay for the Hei River basin ecosystem service, and did empirical analysis on consumers' preference heterogeneity on both continuous and discrete view with Mixed logit model and latent class model. The results show that: 1) Residents in the Heihe River Basin have significant heterogeneous preference on watershed ecosystem service improvements, and residents achieve most utility from water quality improvements. Eco-oriented consumers have significant preference on average sand blowing weather, and entertainment consumers have significant preference on watershed leisure and entertainment condition improvements. 2) Residents in the Heihe River Basin are willing to pay for water quality, east extension sea area, and leisure and entertainment condition improvements, and the largest willingness to pay goes to water quality improvements[133.91yuan/(year·household)]. 3) Residents in the Heihe River Basin are willing to pay 473.16 yuan/（year·household）for the watershed ecosystem service improvements.
以长白山区泥炭地的6种泥炭藓孢子和8种维管植物种子为受试材料,进行室内模拟实验,对比研究了沙尘沉降对泥炭藓孢子和维管植物种子萌发的影响。数据分析显示,施加沙尘抑制除锈色泥炭藓外其他所有泥炭藓孢子的萌发,在接近自然沉降的50 g/(m2·a)水平时,这些泥炭藓孢子的萌发率均下降一半以上。无论沙尘施加量如何,有4种维管植物种子均未萌发。施加沙尘抑制了狭叶杜香（Rhododendron tomentosum）和小白花地榆（Sanguisorba parviflora）种子的萌发,但却对宽叶杜香（Rhododendron palustre）和燕子花（Iris laevigata）种子的萌发呈现一定的促进趋势。研究表明,沙尘沉降可抑制泥炭地泥炭藓孢子和部分典型维管植物种子的萌发,但可能会对非典型的或喜营养的泥炭地维管植物种子萌发产生促进作用。所以,长期存在的沙尘沉降,可能通过提高泥炭地N、Ca水平和pH值的作用,抑制泥炭藓孢子定居,阻滞中国长白山区泥炭地自发演替的进程。
Peatlands usually are acid, nutrient-poor and mineral deficient. The effect of sand and dust with nutrients, mineral elements and high pH on plant population regeneration and vegetation succession in peatlands is unknown. The spores of six Sphagnum species and the seeds of eight vascular plants from the peatlands of the Changbai Mountains were chosen as experimental materials. We carried out an indoor simulation experiment to comparatively study the effect of sand and dust deposition on bryophyte spores and vascular plant seeds. Sand and dust addition inhibited spore germination in Sphagnum. At the level of 50 g/(m2·a) close to natural deposition in Hani Peatland, spore germination percentage decreased more than 50% compared with that without sand and dust addition in the bryophytes except S. fuscum. No matter how much sand and dust were added, the seeds of four vascular plants did not germinate. It decreased germination percentage of the seeds of Rhododendron tomentosum and Sanguisorba parviflora but tended to facilitate seed germination in Rhododendron palustre var. dilatatum and Iris laevigata. Our study suggests that sand and dust deposition may inhibit the germination of Sphagnum spores and some typical peatland vascular plants but may be in favor of the seed germination of non-typical or minerotrophic peatland vascular plants. We hence put forward the hypothesis that by increasing the concentration of N and Ca and pH, long-lasting sand and dust deposition probably has inhibited Sphagnum spore establishment to retard the autogenic succession of peatlands in the Changbai Mountains.