地理科学 ›› 2006, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (6): 649-657.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.06.649

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

民用航空机场对城市和区域经济发展的影响

宋伟1, 杨卡2   

  1. 1. 美国路易维尔大学地理和地球科学系, 路易维尔KY 40292;
    2. 南京师范大学地理科学学院, 江苏南京 210097
  • 收稿日期:2005-11-19 修回日期:2006-04-09 出版日期:2006-11-20 发布日期:2006-11-20

The Impacts of Air Transportation and Airport on Regional Economic Development

SONG Wei1, YANG Ka2   

  1. 1. Department of Geography & Geosciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292;
    2. School of Geography Science, Nanjing Normal University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210097
  • Received:2005-11-19 Revised:2006-04-09 Online:2006-11-20 Published:2006-11-20

摘要: 在对现代经济活动的地理特征的研究中,"接近空港"成为一个越来越重要的因素,在促进地方经济发展,尤其是发展中国家和地区的发展中,航空运输业正发挥着愈来愈大的作用。更好的理解和认识航空运输的性质,特别是航空业及机场在都市地域的作用也成为一个具有理论和实践意义的课题。以民航机场,特别是大型航空枢纽对所在城市和区域发展的影响为主题,从原生效益(primary effects)、次生效益(secondary effects)、衍生效益(tertiary effects)和永久性效益(perpetuity effects)4个层次,详细分析了接近航空枢纽的人口与产业所获得的经济利益与区位优势,以及枢纽对产业和经济活动,尤其是现代"新经济"活动的独特吸引力。

Abstract: Air transportation is one of the world’s most important industries. Its development and its technical and service achievements make it one of the greatest contributors to the advancement of modern society. It plays an increasingly vital role in facilitating economic growth, particularly in developing countries and regions. Better understanding the nature of air transportation system and the role that air transport and airports play in an urban agglomeration is critical because the 'accessibility through airports’ issue has assumed an elevating role in answering the 'how’ and 'where’ of the geography of economic activity in the modern economy. This paper focuses on the economics of airports. It examines advantages enjoyed by passengers having access to a major airport, as well as the economic benefits that accrue to a city or geographical region that is host to a major airport, especially a hub airport. In particular, it looks into the linkages between airport-related activities and local economic development. By facilitating the flow of people and commerce, air transports and airports play a pivotal role in the industrial expansion and economic growth, both through their own activities and as an enabler of other industries. Airports essentially have four potential types of impact on the regional economy. The primary and secondary effects of airports are fulfilled through: 1) employment and income generated by airports and supporting activities, 2) employment and income generated by air passengers who make expenditures on travel-related services in local areas, and 3) induced economic activities as a consequence of the successive rounds of spending made by the recipients of the first two types of activities. These benefits can be extremely important to a local economy in terms of employment, household income and, for local government, taxation revenue. The tertiary effects of airports stemed from the economic stimulus benefiting a local or regional economy as firms and individuals, particularly high-technology companies, are attracted to the locale due to the fact that majors of airport and high-quality air transport are available. High-technology jobs and other administrative and auxiliary-related jobs have grown considerably in the region of major airport activities. By initially attracting key businesses to an area in sufficient numbers, airport development can lead to the crossing of important thresholds in terms of economies of scale, scope and density, through which a region can acquire a vital knowledge base to foster local development and make the region quasi-independent of others. The regional economy can feed on this to further its high-technology activities and hence to accelerate its growth (perpetuity effects).

中图分类号: 

  • F560