地理科学 ›› 1999, Vol. 19 ›› Issue (3): 198-204.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.198

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

退化土地的生态重建:社会工程途径

蔡运龙, 蒙吉军   

  1. 北京大学城市与环境学系, 北京100871
  • 收稿日期:1998-09-07 修回日期:1998-10-15 出版日期:1999-05-20 发布日期:1999-05-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目(49571006)成果之一,作者还感谢贵州省软科学研究项目的资助

ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF DEGRADED LAND: A SOCIAL APPROACH

Cai Yunlong, Meng Jijun   

  1. Department of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:1998-09-07 Revised:1998-10-15 Online:1999-05-20 Published:1999-05-20

摘要: 土地退化是全球环境变化的主要表现之一,而且与贫困问题互为因果。中国各种土地退化类型中,分布最广、影响最大的是土地沙漠化和土壤侵蚀,连片贫困人口也就分布于这些地区。在人口增长和自然资源需求增加的压力下,让退化土地自然恢复的思路已不切实际,必须通过社会投入对退化土地进行生态重建。重建要医治引起土地退化的经济和社会病根。还需要发达地区和欠发达地区的共同努力,因而是一种社会工程。其途径包括:从满足人民生存的基本需要着手,加大社会投入,因地制宜地优化景观生态,变革当地干部和群众的思想观念,调整体制和政策,引进与推广适用的科学技术,抓住关键问题并制定阶段战略。

Abstract: Land degradation is a major representation of global environmental change. In degraded land, people get into the trouble of PPE (poverty-population-environment) spiral. Land degradation takes various forms in China, such as land desertification, soil erosion, farmland pollution, surface mining, farmland salinization and soil fertility deterioration. Among these the former two are the most distributing and the most influencing. A great amount of poor population assembles in these lands, for example, in the karst areas of southwest China and in the Loess Plateau of northwest China. This paper especially pays more attention to the reversal of impoverishment-degradation spiral in the karst areas of southwest China. Since the PPE spiral is caused by ecological and, in particular, social factors, the solution must be in a social approach. Poverty alleviation is a systematic project with great complexities. Any single approach can not success and integrated measures should be taken. Obviously, the key to escape the vicious spiral is the reconstruction of the local ecosystem, economy and society so that the self development capacity of the local people may be enhanced. Thus the poverty can be essentially eliminated. On the other hand, it is unrealistic to let the degraded land naturally recover under the pressure of population growth and economic development. The degraded land needs ecological reconstruction through social investment, while the local economy and society should be restructured. Ecological reconstruction of the degraded land involves not only the degraded and underdeveloped localities but also developed regions. The guidelines of degraded land reconstruction should be the concepts of sustainability and economic viability, and the theory of landscape ecology. Sustainability includes the idea of a type of development that does not compromise, and even promote, the future use of land. Economic viability is profitability of the reconstructed land, although in a long term consideration. In other words, the reconstructed land and its use should obtain productivity, stability, sustainability, equability and autonomy. According to landscape ecology, reasonable land use and landscape patterns should be allocated at a macro scale, and an appropriate productivity and ecological conditions should be created at a micro scale. It is necessary, in the degraded land reconstruction, to identify different issues at different spatial scales, for example, land productivity at site, land use pattern at local, urban rural relation at a region, and economic cooperation at inter region. In temporal scale, it is necessary to establish realistic targets of short term (to emphasize viability), middle term (to get into benign spiral) and long term (to realize sustainability) respectively. As a social approach, the reconstruction of degraded land includes ideology innovation, institute transformation, and science and technology popularization.

中图分类号: 

  • F301