地理科学 ›› 2003, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (1): 19-24.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.19

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

干旱区山地森林的发展模式研究——以昆仑山奥依塔克地区为例

张百平1, 陈晓东1, 陆洲1, 排孜拉·司拉木2, 姜逢清3   

  1. 1. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室, 北京 100101;
    2. 新疆维吾尔自治区克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州奥依塔克林场, 新疆 克孜勒苏柯尔克孜自治州 845350;
    3. 中国科学院新疆生态与地理研究所, 新疆 乌鲁木齐 830011
  • 收稿日期:2002-02-27 修回日期:2002-06-20 出版日期:2003-01-20 发布日期:2003-01-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金资助项目(49871007)成果。

On the Development Model for Mountain Forests in Arid Land——A Case Study of the Oytag Valley of the Kunlun Mountains

ZHANG Bai-ping1, CHEN Xiao-dong1, LU Zhou1, Paizila-Shlamu2, JIANG Feng-Qing3   

  1. 1. LREIS, Institute of Geographical Sciences and Natural Resources Research, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101;
    2. The Oytag Forest Farm of the Kirzilsu Kirgiz Autonomous Prefcture, Xinjiang 845350;
    3. Xinjiang Institute of Ecology and Geography, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi, Xinjiang 830011
  • Received:2002-02-27 Revised:2002-06-20 Online:2003-01-20 Published:2003-01-20

摘要: 我国干旱区的绿洲与山地是一个完整的体系。山地森林具有多功能性,在山地生态系统中起决定性作用,对下游地区则具有生态保护作用。奥依塔克是昆仑山少数几个森林较为集中的地区,在协调林业、牧业、旅游业、人民生活需求的过程中,形成了山地森林可持续管理的"奥依塔克模式",即各有关单位共同负责、利益共享。我国干旱区山地森林的可持续发展在于:(1)加强山地和山地森林的意识;(2)建立区域性山地森林建设的补偿机制;(3)解决林牧争地矛盾;(4)解决山地林业生存与发展的矛盾;(5)林带以下森林的恢复。

Abstract: Mountain forests are characterized by multifunctionalities and play crucial roles in the sustainable development of mountain regions. In addition, they also serve as the ecological defense for the areas downstream. Mountain forests are usually very limited in arid lands, and they are of special value to the local people. They should be well protected and managed. As a result, many mountain forest development models have been worked out or identified around the world, including legislation/law, multifunctional land use strategies, support/extension, community organizations, economic instructions, coordinated knowledge sharing, and even religious practices. In northwest arid China, high mountains are the basis for the existence and development of oases, simply because the high mountains provide nearly the only water source for oases. And mountain forests are the key body of mountain systems. Their multifunctionality includes production, ecological protection and welfare. The Oytag Valley is one of the few forest areas in western Kunlun Mountains and very close to the population center of Southern Xinjiang. Since the 1950s, forests in the valley have experienced marked changes. Large-scale deforestation began in 1954 and culminated in 1958-1960. Investigation shows that almost all usable trees were cut in the process. It is 1979 that deforestation was stopped and in 1992 forest regeneration was started. But contradictions stand out among forestry, animal husbandry and tourist development. Animal husbandry is now the backbone of the economy of the Oytag valley and needs considerable area of pastureland to support its development. Forest regeneration needs to fence some of the forestland, which has served as pastureland for a long time. Thus contention for land arises. Besides, domesticated animals often go into the fenced forestland and tread the seedlings of spruce, impacting forest regeneration. Moreover, the increasing number of tourists exerts pressure to the environment of mountain forests. Forest sustainable management asks for proper coordination of the relationship among forestry, animal husbandry and tourism. It is in this valley that a model has been developed for the sustainable management of mountain forests during the process of coordination of forestry, animal husbandry, tourism and local people's daily life. The related stakeholders jointly manage the forests and tourism and share the benefit from the tourism. The sustainable development of mountain forests in northwest arid China consists in (1) increasing the awareness of mountain issues and mountain forests; (2) setting in motion compensation mechanism for mountain forest management at regional level; (3) resolving the problem of land contention between forestry and animal husbandry; (4) dealing with the problems of subsistence and development of mountain forestry;and (5) restoring forests below the present forest belt.

中图分类号: 

  • 062.1