• 论文 •

山区人口与环境互动关系的初步研究

1. 1. 中国科学院、水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所, 四川 成都 610041;
2. 四川大学, 四川 成都 610064
• 收稿日期:2001-04-13 修回日期:2001-09-29 出版日期:2002-05-20 发布日期:2002-05-20
• 基金资助:
中国科学院知识创新工程重大项目(岷江上游典型退化生态系统恢复与重建实验示范研究);中国科学院区域开发前期研究项目(IV-9906);四川大学西部开发研究院院长基金2001年项目(南方农牧交错带的环境恢复与重建)。

A Preliminary Study on the Interactive Relationship Between Population and Environment in Mountains

CHEN Yong1,2, CHEN Guo-jie1, WANG Yi-qiang2

1. 1. Chengdu Institute of Mountain Hazards and Environment, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041;
2. Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610064
• Received:2001-04-13 Revised:2001-09-29 Online:2002-05-20 Published:2002-05-20

Abstract: All ecosystems on earth have been under the influence of human beings. It is also true for mountain ecosystem. Comparing with ecosystem on plains/low lands, mountain ecosystem is characteristic of complexity and uncertainty, fragility and sensitivity. Mountains are three-dimensional systems, of which the complexity is displayed in their verticality, non-verticality and compilation of both. Due to the complexity of mountains, it has been very hard to give mountain a well-understood definition. The uncertainty of mountains lies in their instability of internal structure and high potential energy. The fragility and sensitivity of mountain eco-environment is displayed in that mountain ecosystems usually have a low capability to resist external disturbance and it is easy for them to exceed ecological threshold or even to go to collapse under external influences. The fragility of mountain eco-environment is determined by its bio-physical features: high elevation, cold climate, thin air, thin layer of soil, low concentration of organic matters in soil and slow biochemical process. It is usually hard for soil and vegetation in mountains to rehabilitate and restore once they are destroyed. In most cases degradation of mountain environment is an irreversible process. Due to physical constraints, mountain settlements or communities have showed their characteristics of scattering, closeness and stability. Considering the interaction between population and environment in mountains, environment, on one hand, may be a constraint for human activities. Although human being is a keystone species in earth ecosystem, human activities are always constrained by environment. It is more like this in mountains where physical environment is harsh. Humans,on the other hand, are able to adapt to their environment by transhumance, physiological adaptive reaction, storage of foods and cultivation of wild plants. The man-earth relationship in mountains may take two forms: mutual deterioration or mutual amelioration in different types of land use such as farming, animal husbandry, forestry, settlement construction and mining.

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