地理科学 ›› 2014, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (5): 627-634.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.05.627

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青海湖沙地麦草方格沙障的蚀积效应与规格选取

张登山1,2(), 吴汪洋1, 田丽慧1, 魏殿生1   

  1. 1.北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室 北京师范大学防沙治沙教育部工程研究中心,北京 100875
    2.青海省农林科学院, 青海 西宁 810016
  • 收稿日期:2013-10-14 修回日期:2013-12-22 出版日期:2014-05-10 发布日期:2014-05-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:张登山(1961-),男,内蒙古呼和浩特人,博士,研究员,研究方向为荒漠化防治、环境演变。E-mail:dshzhang@bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    林业公益性行业科研专项“青海湖周抗寒抗旱固沙植物筛选与快繁研究(201004025)”、“十二五”国家科技支撑项目优良固沙植物材料筛选及其配套技术研究(2012BAD16B0102)资助

Effects of Erosion and Deposition and Dimensions Selection of Straw-checkerboard Barriers in the Desert of Qinghai Lake

Deng-shan ZHANG1,2(), Wang-yang WU1, Li-hui TIAN1, Dian-sheng WEI1   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Environmental Change and Natural Disaster Sponsored by State Education Ministry, MOE Engineering Center of Desertification and Blown-sand Control at Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
    2.Qinghai Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Xining, Qinghai 810016, China
  • Received:2013-10-14 Revised:2013-12-22 Online:2014-05-10 Published:2014-05-10

摘要:

根据青海湖克土沙地6种不同规格麦草方格沙障的全年插钎蚀积监测和风季后凹曲面形态测量,各规格凹曲面的形成主要受控于冬春季节西风和西北风的控制。东西向1 m间距的小规格堆积沙埋严重,蚀积强度大于15βg/cm2,且全年处于不断堆积状态;2βm间距的大规格中心偏南部位侵蚀严重,蚀积强度小于10βg/ cm2;1.5 m间距的规格蚀积强度适中,容易形成稳定凹曲面,且蚀积年变化较小。综合分析,1.5 m×1.5 m 规格的综合防护指数最大为0.64,为高寒沙区最为适宜的规格,其余规格可视地形和风况环境适当采用。

关键词: 不同规格, 凹曲面, 蚀积效应, 综合防护指数

Abstract:

Straw-checkerboard barrier is a mainly mechanical method of controlling desert in the Qinghai Lake,according to the yearly monitoring of erosion and deposition, and sharp measure of concaves of six kinds of dimensions,it can be concluded that the dimension of 1.5 m×1.5 m is the most locally feasible one with the best comprehensive benefits both in ecological effects and economical cost. Basically, this norm is easy to form a balanced concave, and will change little in the erosive and cumulate depth afterwards. Whereas small dimensions with one meter space in east-west direction will cause serious sand-bury hazard which their accumulated intensity will surpass 15 grams per one square centimeter, and their accumulations last for the whole year and gradually become placid. Meanwhile, the big dimensions with 2 m space will be corroded severely in their centerand southerly parts, and the erosive intensity will reach to 10 grams per square centimeter and their sand-fixing effect just be confined to 60% . In the aspect of seasonal changes of different norm concaves, the small ones present a medium accumulation from autumn to early winter, then a serious sand deposition in late winter and spring, and a light accumulation in from summer to autumn. Unlikely, these trends may be converted to erosive states with different degrees, especially in the winter and spring. As to the medium norms, the balanced concaves will have formed before the coming of winter, and later on the concave will keep a relatively stable shapealternately in weak erosion and deposition.In detail, the northwest and southwest part of each checkerboard are mainly depositional positions with the most marked extent among the four seasons, the center part is controlled by omnibearing wind directions resulting to be a erosive part for some medium and large norms. Besides, an integrated protection index of each dimensional straw-checkerboard showed that the medium norms have the largest value about 0.65 which means the best comprehensive protective benefit, including the longest duration, superior sand-fixing and wind-preventing effects and moderate economic costs. While the small norms are greatly troubled by the expensive cost so that they are unworthy to select in fact, but the large ones may become the candidate norms relying on their economic cost and long protection terms, even though the ecological benefits are not the most obvious. Compared comprehensively, the 1.5 m×1.5 mnorm should be selected as the most suitable dimension for this areal sand barrier, and the other dimensions should follow the principle of adjusting to local conditions and performing their functions best in practical application.

Key words: different norms, concave, erosion and deposition effect, integrated protection index

中图分类号: 

  • P9