地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (4): 530-539.

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基于改进区位配置模型的农村就医空间优化布局研究——以湖北省仙桃市为例

罗蕾1,2, 罗静1(), 田玲玲1, 刘鹏程1, 郑文升1   

  1. 1.华中师范大学地理过程分析与模拟湖北省重点实验室/华中师范大学城市与环境科学学院,湖北 武汉 430079
    2.湖北省发展规划研究院有限公司,湖北 武汉 430071
  • 收稿日期:2015-04-06 修回日期:2015-12-28 出版日期:2016-07-21 发布日期:2016-07-21
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:罗蕾(1985-),女,湖北宜昌人,博士,主要研究方向为区域发展与城乡规划、乡村地理。E-mail:luolei0607@126.com

Spatial Location -allocation Optimization for Rural Hospital with A Improved Regional Allocation Model: A Case Study in Xiantao City of Hubei Province

Lei Luo1,2, Jing Luo1(), Lingling Tian1, Pengcheng Liu1, Wensheng Zheng1   

  1. 1.Hubei Province Key Laboratory for Geographical Process Analysis and Simulation,College of Urban and Environmental Science, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei, China
    2.Hubei Province Development Planning & Research Institute Co., LTD, Wuhan 430071, Hubei, China
  • Received:2015-04-06 Revised:2015-12-28 Online:2016-07-21 Published:2016-07-21

摘要:

以湖北省仙桃市为研究区域,运用改进区位配置模型,通过调整设施数量和规模实验,研究农村就医空间优化布局。首先对比分析传统区位配置模型(LA模型),引入等级规模偏好系数,构建改进区位配置模型。然后基于ArcGIS10.2 Geoprocessing 框架,整合GIS网络分析,运用程序设计语言Python和线性规划建模工具PuLP实现模型构建,运用线性规划软件Cplex实现模型求解,运用ArcGIS10.2进行地理空间可视化表达。最后通过调整设施数量和规模对比实验发现:医疗机构布局调整后更加合理,居民就医效率明显提高,居民获得医疗服务时间成本减少,且15 min内满足更多医疗需求,验证了改进区位配置模型在农村就医空间优化布局的实用性。

关键词: 农村公共医疗服务, 等级规模偏好系数, 改进区位配置模型, 优化布局

Abstract:

With the acceleration of urbanization in China, a large number of rural people have shifted towards into urban area. With the number of local people decreasing in recent years, the result has influenced the problem on how to spatially arrange public basic service facilities in rural area. The centralized layout, expanded size, service quality improved for the public services is the common phenomenon in rural area by merger of village and by abolishing village government. However, with the limitation on the resources, the expanding for each facility lead to the number of facilities decreased, serving radius of facilities increased, and their accessibility lowered. The study on that “how-to” in a scientific and reasonable way provides an effective way for solving the contradiction between quality and accessibility. The spatial arrangement of public health facilities is the key component of the study on the equalization of public services. Therefore the study on their spatial optimization has been paid more and more attention in research fields, such as human geography, medicine, public health and sociology. Taking Xiantao City in Hubei Province as a survey region, we analyzed the spatial optimization of medical services in rural area. The attributes from economy and the natural geography shows homogeneity in our survey region with the typicality in the Jianghan Plain, which is easy to further our research and construct model.

Firstly, according to traditional location-allocation model, based on medical demand preference questionnaire from rural residents and rank-size index evaluation system, the medical behavior preference coefficient from residents, namely the rank-size preference coefficient is built, which is introduced to traditional location configuration model to establish the improved location-allocation model. Secondly, with the integration of GIS network analysis, linear programming modeling tools PuLP and linear programming software Cplex, this article optimizes geographic visualization layout results by using programming language Python to achieve the improved location in ArcGIS10.2 configuration model building, model solvers and rural medical facilities in ArcGIS10.2 Geoprocessing framework. Finally, the experiments by optimizing the size and number of medical facilities in rural areas can significantly reduce the cost of resident medical space, meet more medical needs, improve utilization and coverage of medical resources, and also verify the practicality and effectiveness of the secondary development tools. The results show that: the spatial arrangement of medical service after adjustment is more reasonable, which represents the spatial cost from the settlement to medical service facilities decreased. The experiment shows that the more medical service is fulfilled in 15 minutes, which enhance the efficiency and also reduce the time cost for local people seeking medical advice. The improved regional-allocation model provides an effective way for answer that “how-to” question. Therefore, the model has a universal function which can be applied to location-selecting problem for other public service facilities. In practical application, the model can be adjusted according to demands and circumstances. The model construction and simulation methods in our study are suitable for spatial optimization of medical facilities arrangement in rural area in plain region. Moreover, it provides the reference to the spatial optimization of medical facilities arrangement, especially of county-level which is of complex terrain and road network structure.

Key words: public medical service in rural areas, rank-size preference coefficient, improved regional allocation model, optimistic rxperiment

中图分类号: 

  • K909.1