地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (5): 661-671.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.05.003

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国电子信息产业创新网络与创新绩效研究

周灿(), 曾刚, 王丰龙, 司月芳, 宓泽锋   

  1. 华东师范大学中国现代城市研究中心/城市与区域科学学院,上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-09 修回日期:2016-10-30 出版日期:2017-05-25 发布日期:2017-05-25
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周灿(1988-),女,河南信阳人,博士研究生,主要从事创新网络与产业集群研究。E-mail:zc070260046@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金重大项目(10ZD&016)、国家自然科学基金面上项目(41071093、41371147)、德国科学基金会(LI 981/8-1 AOBJ: 595493)资助

Innovation Network Structure and Innovative Performance: A Study of China’s Electronic Information Industry

Can Zhou(), Gang Zeng, Fenglong Wang, Yuefang Si, Zefeng Mi   

  1. Center for Modern Chinese City Studies & School of City and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Received:2016-07-09 Revised:2016-10-30 Online:2017-05-25 Published:2017-05-25
  • Supported by:
    Major Program of National Social Sciences Foundation of China (10ZD&016), General Program of National Nature Sciences Foundation of China (41071093, 41371147), Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (LI 981/8-1 AOBJ: 595493)

摘要:

采用国家知识产权局1985~2013年中国电子信息产业联合申请发明专利信息数据,借助Ucinet、ArcGIS、Stata等分析工具,对中国电子信息产业创新网络特征、结构、演化、绩效进行了分析。研究发现:知名高校和大型企业是中国电子信息产业创新网络重要的科学知识源和技术知识源,也是创新合作优先连接主体,与美国跨国公司、西欧中小企业是创新网络科技知识源的特点不同;创新网络呈现“核心-边缘”模式,创新网络结构的“小世界网络”特征越来越明显;本市、境外是创新合作最重要的空间载体,地理邻近有助于隐性知识交流,在国内合作创新网络构建中发挥着重要作用,技术邻近是促成境外合作创新的重要基础,进一步验证了Bathelt等学者倡导的关系经济地理学假说;提高网络地位、占据结构洞位置能够提升主体创新绩效;创新网络内部作用机理的地域差异明显,网络结构根植性对发达地区创新一般有负面影响,地理邻近对发达地区创新主体的创新绩效影响不显著,但地理邻近却有利于欠发达中西部地区创新主体间的隐性知识交流,有助于创新绩效的提高。因而,应引入“网络资本”来分析网络主体的创新绩效,弥补中心地理论中基于规模等级分析主体创新能力的传统做法。

关键词: 创新网络, 网络结构, 创新绩效, 电子信息产业, 中国

Abstract:

In recent years, the innovation network metaphor has become commonplace within the economic geography, with a large and growing body of scholarly research focused on analyzing the impact of innovation network structures on knowledge flows and innovation outcomes. By using Ucinet, ArcGIS and Stata, this article aims to analyze the topology structure, spatial structure and the evolution of innovation networks of China’s electronic information industry, and the relationship between network structure and innovative performance based on the co-patent data issued by the State Intellectual Property Office of P R China from 1985 to 2013. The main findings of this study are drawn as follows. 1) The innovation network scale of China’s electronic information industry has a rapid growth from 1985 to 2013. From the university perspective, those actors at the center of the network are Tsinghua University, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Peking University, Zhejiang University, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Huazhong University of Science and Technology and Xi'an Jiaotong University. From the perspective of firms within the network, Huawei, Haier and China Mobile are found to possess the highest rates of centrality. It is noticeable that prestigious universities and large enterprises are the most influential actors within innovation network of China’s electronic information industry, and through their structurally central positions they are the most important bridging and connecting agents in the process of building innovation networks. The network characteristic is found to be clearly different from the United States and Western Europe, multinational corporations and small enterprises holding central and influential positions, respectively. 2) The overall structure of collaborative innovation networks features a “core-peripheral” paradigm and “small world” network properties, whereby dense clusters of network actors are linked to other clusters via a relatively small number of bridging links. 3) City level and overseas level are the major geographical scales of collaboration innovation. Geographic proximity plays an important role in increasing the likelihood of actors inside of China to form innovation partnerships, while technological proximity is the base for the foreign collaborative innovation. Knowledge sourced from external providers is considered to be a key factor within innovation processes of China’s electronic information industry. This finding offers support for “local buzz and global pipelines” hypothesis proposed by Harald Bathelt. 4) Analytically, the significant relationship is found between network structure and the rate of innovation. A strong network position and structural hole of an actor tends to increase their innovative performance. 5) The analysis has shown that structural embeddedness has negative impacts on innovation actors in eastern China. In general, the results demonstrate that knowledge flows among innovation actors in the leading regions to be unnecessarily spatially constrained, as opposed to innovation actors in central and the western China, geographic proximity facilitates tacit knowledge communication and improves innovation performance. In summary, it is clearly that the network space occupied by actors, defined by the nature of the relationships, may be equally, if not more important than the geographic space within which actors are located and interact. In order to better understand the innovative performance of actors, it is necessary to consider the notion of “network capital”, which refers to the value actors gain from the knowledge they are able to access from their networks as a means of innovating.

Key words: innovation networks, network structure, innovative performance, electronic information industry, China

中图分类号: 

  • F129.9