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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1987年, 第7卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1987-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    江苏海岸带土地利用的特点
    朱季文, 季子修, 蒋自巽, 梁海棠
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 101-110,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.101
    摘要   PDF (727KB)
    江苏海岸带位于我国沿海中部,有广阔的海涂,丰富的土地、生物和水资源,以及充裕的劳动力。但资源分布不均,目前的利用效率也不高,开发潜力很大。海岸带土地利用具有以下四方面的特点,即:利用类型的多样性,地域分布的差异性,各种类型之间的联系性以及利用方式的变动性。研究这些特点,有助于海岸带资源的合理开发利用。
    Most of the coastal land of Jiangsu Province came into being due to the coast advance caused by the capture of the Huaihe River by the Huanghe River in the 12th century, consisting of two parts: the alongshore land about 10-20 kilometers in width and the tidal flat of about 4800 square kilometers. By centuries management it has been developed into an intensive farming area in which salt industry and aquatic products industry have been developed to some extent. The land use in this area influenced by natural features,resource structure and human activities is characteristic of the following. 1) The land use patterns in the area are more diverse than in contiguous inland area. 2) Different segments have different land use patterns. Salt industry are dominant sector in northern part, while cultivation and aquatic products industry in southern part. 3) All patterns of land use are interrelated and interact on each other, benefit or restrict each other. 4) The land use patterns are easy to change with natural and socioeconomic conditions. One must keep the above characteristics in mind when making project for using and developing the coastal land. In order to change the sigle-product economic situation we should pay attention to not only the dominant sector of certain segment but also the comprehensive utilization of natural resources.
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    南迦巴瓦峰地区微量元素景观地球化学迁移特征
    窦贻俭, 彭补拙, 赵培道, 刘育民, 李春华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 111-120,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.111
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    本文根据野外科考和实验室分析资料探讨南迎巴瓦峰地区高山灌丛草甸景观带、山地暗针叶林景观带、山地针阔混交林景观带、山地准亚热带半常绿阔叶林景观带、山地亚热带常绿阔叶林景观带、河谷准A带季雨林景观带中微量元素的迁移特征。
    To provide scientific basis for appraising natural resources in Mt. Namjagbarwa area, the migration characteristics of geochemical microelements, such as Zn, V, Ti, Pb, Ni, Cu, Cr, Co, Be and Ba, in the landscape zones of alpine scrub and meadow, the mountainous dark coniferous forest, the mountainous mixed broadleaf and coniferous forest, the mountainous quasi-subtropical semi-evergreen broadleaf forest, the mountainous subtropical evergreen broadleaf forest, and the valley quasi-tropical monsoon rainforest have been described in the paper.
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    一个较理想的地面干湿指标-蒸发比
    吴厚水
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 121-128,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.121
    摘要   PDF (497KB)
    从地面水平衡的角度出发,用蒸发比作为地面千湿状况的指标。为解决短时段陆面燕发,提出一个新的计算陆面自然蒸发的方法。用新方法计算华北平原和海南岛两种不同类型的干湿状况其结果比通常的方法更符合实际情况。
    Advantages of using evaporation ratio (E/E0) as surface moisture (aridity) index were demonstrated according to the water balance equation. A new method for estimating the natural surface evaporation (E) in a short period was suggested. Finally, two different type moisture conditions of the North China Plain and the Hainan Island were calculated. The results tallied with the actural situation much more than usual method.
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    海南岛沿海的全新世
    张仲英, 刘瑞华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 129-138,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.129
    摘要   PDF (646KB)
    海南岛沿海的全新统可划分为Q41、万宁组、Q42-1三亚组、Q42-2琼山组和Q43乐东组。明显反映出海侵一海的两个沉积旋回.其抱粉组合可划分为六个带,反映了气候由暖千一热湿的两次波动。与此相应,在海平面变化曲线上,反映出海面两次升一降旋回和三次高海面时期。最高海面时期与最热湿气候期相对应,为距今6000-5000年。距今6000年以来,海平面的变化幅度约为士6米。
    According to the new data from investigation of the Quaternary geology along the coast of Hainan Island, the paper puts forward that the Holoeene strata in this area can be divided into four formations i.e. Wanning formation (Q41), Sanya formation (Q42-1), Qiongshan formation (Q42-2) and Ledong formation (Q43). Aeeording to the analysis of spore-pollen, the Holocene can be divided into 6 spore-pollen zones, reflecting two cycles of climatic fluctuation from warm-dry to hot-humid. The most hot-humid period occurred in 6000-5000 years B.P. Based on the 14C dating of 38 samples representing the positions of ancient sea level,and dispelled the influence of tectonic movement, a curve of sea level change is established. It shows that there are two cycles of rise-drop of sea level and three periods of high sea level, the period of the highest sea level is 6000-5000 years B.P. According to the rate of rise or drop of sea level, four periods on the curve can be distinguished. The change amplitude of the sea level is about ?6 meters from 6000 years B.P.
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    黄土沟槽网络与新构造应力场
    王景明
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 139-146,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.139
    摘要   PDF (1354KB)
    对汾渭盆地3519条黄土沟糟的调查研究发现,非随机性的黄土沟槽具有方向性、独立性、区域性和系统性特征。这些沟槽交叉成络,多组沟槽的走向自西而东呈顺时针偏转。它们与黄土各组构造节理的区域性方向一致,而且两者的发育程度也相适应,都受控于构造,同是新构造应力场作用的产物。
    The loessic gullies not connected directly with river systems are widely spread in the Q2-4 loess of Fenwei Basin. The loessic gullies are directional, independent, regional and intersected with the network. The strike of many groups of gullies presents a clockwise deflection from west to east. Field investigation indicates that the loessic gullies were formed by ioessic tectonic joints constantly suffered from ground water corrosion. Therefore, the sprea ding directions and developing degrees of both tectonic joints and gullies are correspondent. The neotectonic stress field of Weihe Basin determined by loessic conjugate shear plane corresponded with gully network coincides essentially with the neotectonic stress field determined by river systems and earthquake. The study of loessic gully network is of great significance for searching out groundwater, researching soil erosion, recovering neotectonic stress field and predicting earthquake.
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    若尔盖高原区泥炭地的孢粉组合及古植被与古气候
    王曼华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 147-155,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.147
    摘要   PDF (1989KB)
    本文据若尔盖高原五个泥炭剖面106块抱粉样品的分析,结合14C绝对年龄测定,划分出该区全新世泥炭形成的三个气候期。三个时期的植被类型以亚高山草甸和亚高山灌丛为主,两者出现交替变化。反映气候冷暖千湿的变化幅度小,没有植被带的明显更替。
    The Ruoergai Plateau as an island mountain plateau 3300-4000 meters above sea level is the largest bog land on plateaus in the world. The author carried out spore-pollen analysis of 106 samples from 5 peat profiles on the plateau, determined 14C dating of 11 samples, and studied evolution law of vegetation in the last ten thousand years and relationship between climatic features and special plateau environment. The spore-pollen groups were dominated by herb pollen, followed by xylophyta pollen, pteridophyte spore content was the lowest. The reflected vegetation type mainly consisted of sedge-dominated subalpine meadows and subalpine bushes. The micro environment of developing peatland was sedge-dominated swampy meadow. But in the Holocene, evergreen conger forest mainly with pine and broadleaf tree forest mainly with Quercus and Birch increased, climate got warm obviously, temperature was 4℃ higher than now. It was the time of most suitble climate. Based on the vegetation succession law, the climate in the Holoeene can be divided into 3 stages-early, middle and late. The climatic change was cold-damp→warm, humid→cold-slight dry, basicly corresponding to the climatic change all over the world. But the climate on the plateau was special because it was controlled more greatly by the hight than the lattitude. The vegetation change was not so obvious as plain area. The range of climate variation was little. Under the long cold damp climatic condition, plant residues decomposed weakly and peat accumulated continually to form large peat deposits.
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    关于环境地图几个问题的探讨
    周呜, 刘兆永
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 156-162,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.156
    摘要   PDF (510KB)
    环境地图是空间环境信息图形转换、储存与传递的新型专题地图。本文阐述了环境地图的性质、任务、基本类型及点、线、面状环境信息转换为图形信息传输的基本方法,并展望了进一步发展的方向。
    The environmental map is a new kind of special map for transforming, storing and transmitting spatial environmental information figures, on the basis of the research results of environmental sciences and the theory of cartography. It serves a particular function in the study of regional environment. The analytical mapping and integrative mapping of environmental maps are the means of the scientific generalization and comprehensive summation of regional environmental study, and an important expressive form of research results of regional environment as well.Environmental map itself is a special research method of regional environmental regularity.Its mathematic accuracy and geographical basis are the criterion for verifying the accuracy of regional environmental location and judging the level of regional environmental research. Environmental map can be divided into natural environmental backround map, environmental medical map,environmental pollution map, environmental quality prediction map, environmental protection engineering map and so on, according to the contents and characteristics of mapping information. The expression method of environmental map is to transform environmental information into figure information for transmitting. The environmental information distribution has three basic forms of point, line and area. The environmental information distributed in point shape should be transformed into figures of location symbol and location statistics. Line-shape information can be transformed into line-shape figures or figures of location statistics. Areal information can be transformed into eolour base figures, isogram, net figures, point number figures, graded statistical figures, divisional statistical figures and range figures respectively based on concrete features.
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    综述
    二氧化碳对气候的影响及气候趋势问题
    姚檀栋
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 163-170,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.163
    摘要   PDF (602KB)
    目前关子气候变化的两种不同观点反映了自然气候变化和人为活动影响两个不同侧面。人为活动影响主要升温效应.不同时间尺度的气候变化所反应的冷暖趋势是互不协调的.人为活动的影响只是迭加在此背景之上,从而减缓或加剧,甚至支配气候变化.在廿一世纪以前,气候变化不会由人为活动影响支配。
    The two different viewpoints on climatic change reflect two aspects of natural climatic cnange and human activity influence. Human activity influence on climate is mainly temperature-increasing effect(caused by increase of CO2 content in atmosphere). Cold and warm trends reflected by the climatic changes with time are different. Human activity influence only superimposes the trends, retarding, intensifying of even controlling climatic changes Before the twenty first century climatic change won’t be controlled by human activity influence, but still by natural climiate a change processes.
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    问题讨论
    水热平衡联系方程的分析与建议
    杨远东
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 171-178,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.171
    摘要   PDF (463KB)
    在分析目前各种水热平衡联系方程的基础上,采取了以径流系数α、干早指数β及特征参数θ,来反映气候和下垫面的影响,建立了水热平衡联系方程。方程的形式简单,计算方便,对于短缺资料地区估算陆面蒸发,进行估算径流也是可行的。
    On the basis of analysing various correlation equations of heat and water balance up to now, according to the connection of runoff coefficient a and drought index β and a characteristic parameter θ to reflect the effect of climate and underlying surface, the following equation was proposed, α=(1+βθ)1/θ-β, in which f=runoff, r=precipitation, E0=evaporation capacity. They are all in millimeter per year. The proposed equation in the paper is feasible and has a fairy precision after it was verified by the data from every continent all over the world, the Huanghe River basin, Nei Monggol Autonomous Region, the East China, and Hainan Island in our country.
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    研究报道
    湘江水系铁锰背景值及其形成因素的研究
    赵桂久, 张立成, 章申
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 179-185,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.179
    摘要   PDF (390KB)
    本文论述了我国亚热带地区的湘江水系河水及沉积物的Fe, Mn背景值及其特征.探讨环境因素-pH值,Eh值、浊度、SO4-,Cl-含量,以及Fe, Mn本身的地球化学特性对背景值形成的影响。
    The paper discussed the background values of Fe and Mn and their characteristics in the water and sediments in the Xiangjiang River system of the subtrophics of China; and approached the environmental factors-pH value, Eh value, turbidity, and contents of SO4- and Cl-, and the influence of the geochemical properties of Fe and Mn on the background values.
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    论文
    遥感图象处理系统在长春投入使用
    薄立群
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 186-186.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.186
    摘要   PDF (60KB)
    中国科学院长春地理研究所去年从美国I2S(International Imaging Systems)公司引进了全套计算机图象处理设备,从美国柯达有限公司引进了成套光学图象处理设备,从日本纳库公司引进了4200F彩色数字分析仪,构成了一套完整的遥感图象处理系统。该系统现已安装调试完毕,并已正式投入使用。
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    教学研究
    关于人口地理学研究的进展
    陈吉庆
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 187-192,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.187
    摘要   PDF (402KB)
    本文论述了人口地理的概念、研究内容、发展历史,其中较详细地论述了我国人口地理学的发展情况,以及今后人口地理学的发展趋势。
    Population Geography is a science studying regularity of geographical population distribution. Geographical population distribution depends on production mode and is controlled by the natural and economic conditions of socity. The science of production relation is the foundation of studing population geography, the theory of regional division of labour is the basis, and geographical environment is the condition.Population geography belongs to the category of social sciences, and is also an independent discipline among geography. As for the research fields of population geography, scholars at home and abroad have different opinions. The author however thinks that population geography should include: a) preface, b) population number,c) population composition, d) population change, e) population migration and f) population policies. Certain countries in the world have over hundred years history in studing population geography, and have published lots of papers and monographs to promote the development of population geography. China also has a long history in studing popualtion problems. The study of population geography has been conducted for over a century. In modern and current journals such as"Orient Journal", "Geography Journal","Acta Geographica Sinica" and so on the papers on, population geography published. Especially "Chinese Population Books" and "Modern China, Volume for Podulation" have opened up a new prospect for population geography. In brief, on the basis of studying popualtion theory and population polocies, population geography should make a further study of population reproduction and population redistribution so as to solve the problem of coordinate development of two production, i.e.the production of material goods and the production of human beings themselves.
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    书评
    评介《微量元素地理学-全球性分布》
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (2): 193-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.02.193
    摘要   PDF (149KB)
    微量元素地理学是一门边缘学科,由景观地球化学派生出来,也是地理科学体系中新近出现的一个分支学科。微量元素在不同自然体中的含量极微小,但它们在生命发展过程中的作用却相当大。因此,开展微量元素的研究是现代自然科学中的一项重要内容。
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