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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1991年, 第11卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1991-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    论中国热带的范围
    任美锷, 曾昭璇
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 101-108,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.101
    摘要   PDF (622KB)
    本文主要从农业植被、土壤粘土矿物及热带动物灭绝历史等方面,论证了广酉中南部、广东中部、福建东南部及台湾北部应属热带范围,称为热带北部,不应划入南亚热带。
    From agricultural vegetation, clay-mineral assemblage in soils and history of disappearance of tropical fauna, it is suggested that central-southern Guangxi, central Guangdong, south-eastern Fujian and northern Taiwan should be included in tropical zone, known as Northern Tropics. These areas are centers of production of tropical fruits such as banana, lichi, mango etc. in the country. The prevailing cultivation system is double-cropping rice and winter sweet potato or corn. With intensive bio-chemical weathering, the dominant clay mineral in soils is kaolinite. These facts show that the dominant landscape in these areas is tropical. Therefore, these areas should not be designated as"Soutn-Subtropical". Study on historical data shows that during the Tang and Song dynasties(7th—12th century), large groups of typical tropical animals like elephant, crocodile and peacock could be seen here. This further supports the conclusion that these areas belong to tropical zone. Literature from Hong Kong and Taiwan have also been quoted to show that Shenzhen, Hong Kong and North Taiwan are within the Tropics.
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    我国农业气候带的振动及其对农业生产的冲击
    卢其尧
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 109-117,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.109
    摘要   PDF (822KB)
    10℃以上积温(Σt)和年最低温度(Tm)是划分农业气候带的主要指标。本文计算了我国Σt和Tm的重现期、以及不同重现期Σt和Tm等值线的南北位移,讨论了凉夏年和冷冬年农业气候带的振动及其对农业生产的可能冲击。
    Accumulated temperature above 10℃(Σt) and annual minimum temperature(Tm) are the major indexes for demarcating agroclimatic zones. The return period(τ) of Σt and Tm and the shift of Σt-and Tm-isopleths with τ are calculated. 1. According to the magnitude of shift of Σt-and Tm-isopleths, in northeast China, Inner Mongolia and north Xinjing the fluctuation of heat resources in growing season from year to year is the greatest and strongly influences the yield of annual thermophilous crops but in the Changjiang River basin the fluctuation of the low temperature in winter is the greatest and seriously injures the perennial subtropical tree crops. 2. In the anomalous cool summer year with τ=30, the northern boundaries of the southern subtropical, northern subtropical and warm temperate zones and the southern boundary of the frigid temperate zone in China could be expected to shift southward 150, 220, 250 and 300km from their normal positions, respectively. 3. In the anomalous cold winter year with τ=30, the northern boundaries of the tropical,southern subtropical, northern subtropical and warm temperate zones, and the southern boundary of the frigid temperate zone could be expected to shift southward 270, 150, 450, 290 and 350km from their normal positions, respectively, and the extremely low temperature seriously injure not only the subtropical tree crops in the Changjiang River basin as mentioned above, but also the tropical crops in South China,even Hevea brasiliensis in southern Yunnan.
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    内蒙古乌兰察布荒漠草原棕钙土氮素与灰分生物积累的特点
    陈佐忠, 黄德华, 娜顺德力格, 斯琴高娃
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 118-124,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.118
    摘要   PDF (498KB)
    发育于荒漠草原下的棕钙土,其氮素与灰分的生物积累具有明显的特点。其地上部分氮素年积累量为1.43g·m-2地下部分氮素积累量27.14g·m-2,且大苟分集中在0-30cm土层。灰分积累也表现出相同趋势,灰分总生物积累达280.89g·m-2
    The bioaccumulation of nitrogen and ash of brown soil of desert steppe is different from other soils in Inner Mongolia. The aboveground bioaccumulation of nitrogen is 1.43g/m2, making up 5.01% of the total bioaccumulation,among which the bioaccumulation of Artemisia pectinata is the highest, being 54.32% of the aboveground bioaccumulation. The undergrrond bioaccumulation of nitrogen is 27.14g/m2, amounting to 94.99% of the total bioaccumulation of nitrogen,but the accumulation of nitrogen in 0—30cm is 80.24% of the total underground bioaccumulation. The accumulation of ash shows a similar trend. The total bioaccumulation of ash is 280.69g/m2. The bioaccumulation of underground and aboreground is 95.92% and 4.08% of the total bioaccumulation of ash respectively.
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    后进省区增长点系统的建立——以贵州省为例
    侯锋
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 125-133,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.125
    摘要   PDF (869KB)
    后进省区需要建立一个祖互联给的增长中心系统,使之即能与国家经济重心区建立便捷联系,又能刺激广大农村地区发展。因此,需突出大城市特别是省城作为综合发展中心的地位,又要通过发展集市,带动农村地区的发展。
    Growth pole system which can simultaneously connect conveniently with national economic centres and stimulate the development of vast rural areas, should be estatblished in less developed provinces. The status and role of the biggest city in the system as the integrated developing centre should be given prominence, so as to heighten its strength in the national network of cities and its diffusivity in less developed provinces. Rural market-place is another emphasis in the growth pole system. The market-place should be developed to form rural community taking market-place as the centre instead of closed rural community representative of villages or hamlets. The establishment of the growth pole system could contribute to heighten the coordinating capacity of less developed province with developed provinces, and is an important supplement to the strategy of overall.productivity location in China.
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    雷州半岛滨海砂矿的分布富集规律
    张仲英
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 134-141,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.134
    摘要   PDF (575KB)
    根据对河流流向、波浪、潮流等水动力条件的分析,雷南东海岸最有利子砂的分布和富集,大中型矿床都蕴藏于此。成矿期主要为距今3.5万年高海平面以来的晚更新世时期,次要为距今600。年高海平面以来的中晚全新世时期。富矿的地貌标志为高程大于20m的高砂堤和20-10m高程的中砂堤。
    Littoral placers in Leizhou Peninsula consist mainly of ilmenite,rutile and zircon. The Quaternary volcanic rocks are their mother rocks; but volcanic rocks of Shimaoling period (Q12—Q21) influence the concentration of the placers most greatly, and volcanic rocks of Huguangyan(Q22)less greatly. According to analysis of the river direction, wave and tidal current, the deposit placers which were mainly formed since 35000 yr B.P. in the Late Pleistocene and secondly since 6000 yr B.P. in the Middle-Late Holocene are distributed in the eastern shore of South LeiZhou Peninsula. The geomorphological marks of rich placers are 10-20-meter middle sand barriers and over-20-meter high sand barriers.
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    黄土地区氮磷流失的模拟研究
    陈皓, 章申
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 142-148,197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.142
    摘要   PDF (833KB)
    本文采用野外模拟降雨,对不同坡度黄土耕地的氮磷流失动态进行了研究,并据此讨论了可格性氮磷的流失对土壤肥力和下游水质的影响。
    Modelling rainfall-runoff erosion processes has been applied to make researches on nitrogen and phosphorus movement from loess tillage slope. The impacts of dissolvable nitrate and phosphate export or loss on soil and receiving water are discussed.
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    长白山区域工矿业开发与建设布局研究
    李国平, 曲丽霞
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 149-156,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.149
    摘要   PDF (555KB)
    本文论述了长白山区域工矿业开发条件与开发布局现状,划分了工矿业地域组合类型区,提出了长白山区域工矿业开发方向,依点轴开发与梯度开发等理论为依据,确定了具体的区域开发模式。
    Changbaishan area is one of the major future economic development areas in Jilin Province, owing to possessing good basic conditions of industrial and mining development. But now the level of development is quite low. Industry and mining industry are the crux of areal economic production flourish. The advantageous and disadvantageous factors of industrial and mining development, the areal features and existing problems of this area are discussed. According to the resources conditions and industrial and mining development conditions, this area is divided into seven industrial and mining combination sub-areas which have their own features. The suggestions on the areal industrial and mining development are made, and the developing orientation and patterns of each industrial and mining combination sub-area are proposed.
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    秦岭及其以北黄土区植被地带性特征
    朱志诚
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 157-164,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.157
    摘要   PDF (687KB)
    本文论述了秦岭及其以北黄土区植被地带性特征。一般受海洋季风和湿润气流影响强烈的地区,植被垂直地带性和水平地带性基本一致,但秦岭以北的黄土区,由子受东南季风的影响减弱,出现了半千早和干早气候森林植被逐渐被草原替代,形成了这里特殊的植被地带性特征。
    In regions strongly influenced by maritime monsoon and moist air current, the vertical zonality of vegetation coincides basically with horizontal zonality of vegetation. But in loess region north of the Qinling Mountain, the influence of maritime climate is weak, there appears semi-arid and arid climate, forest steppe and steppe develop, forming the features of special vegetation zonality. Vegetations from the foot to the top of the Qinling Mountain are as follows: Deciduous broadleaf forest is distributed below 2200m above sea level; mixed conifer and broadleaf forest 2200 to 2600m; evergreen conifer forest 2400 to 3000m; deciduous conifer forest 2700 to 3400m; and alpine bush-meadow 3300 to 3767m. In the loess region north of the Qinling Mountain, deciduous broadleaf forest is distributed between the north foot of the Qinling Mountain to north Yanan, forest steppe between the north of Yanan to the Great Wall, steppe vegetation appears the north of the Great Wall.
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    南迦巴瓦峰地区地貌的形成及其对自然环境的影响
    杨逸畴
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 165-171,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.165
    摘要   PDF (2119KB)
    本文在多次实地考察的基础上,就南趣巴瓦峰地区山水地貌的形成及其对自然环境的影响作了初步总结,为今后征服南峰的登山活动和大峡弯丰富自然资源的开发和利用,提供一些科学依据。
    Mt. Namjagbarwa, 7782 meters above sea level, is the highest in the East Himalayas and the piedmont belt was enclosed by Great Bend Gorge at the Yarlung Zangbo River. Mt. Namjagbarwa is a "△" shaped fault block with strong uplift speed. The great Bend Gorge at the Yarlung Zangbo River around Mt. Namjagbarwa is an antecedent valley adopted oneself to complex structure of arcuate circumstance. The geomorphological developing progress at Mt. Namjagbarwa region is very complex and ancient. During Precambrian period(the absolute age is about 749 million years)the area belonging to one part Of the Indian Plate was located in the upheaveldenudation region. Following the northward drifting of the continent thrusted under the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau this area had changed the northeast part of the Indian Plate and then the European-Asian and the Indian Plate connected together(the absoluted age is about 140 million years). Starting the Quaternary the neotectonics turned to intermittent uplift. The exogenic process of ice-age and intermittent age influenced the geomorphological developments and circumstance changes,especially, after the Middle Pleistocene because the crust lift in this area was arrived at the largest Mt.Namjagbarwa rose as a natural barrier.Meanwhile, the action of moisture passageway of the Great Bend Valley at the Yarlung Zangbo River got stronger and stronger.Its powerful influence changed the plateau climate, biological groups, ancient and modern human survival, glacial evolution and other phenomena of physical geology.
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    研究报道
    都陵河流域景观类型分化与繁殖鸟类群结构的研究
    赵小鲁, 孙帆
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 172-181,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.172
    摘要   PDF (1285KB)
    本文研究了都陵河流域景观类型的分化与繁殖鸟类群分布与结构的关系。该流域异质景观的空间格局一是叠加在地带性格局之内的垂直分异所形成的景观生态序列,其次是在水平方向上产生的景观类型分化。鸟类群的结构,深刻地反映了鸟类对景观类型分化而形成的空间结构的适应。
    Beginning with landscape ecological analysis, the paper studies the relationship between the differentiation of landscape types and the distribution and structure of breeding bird communities in the Duling River basin. The spatial structure of the heterogeneous landscape in the basin shows mainly in two aspects: the landscape ecological series derived from the vertical differentiattion existing in zonal structure; the differentiation of landscape types derived from the horizontal. The structure of the bird communities in the basin reflects greatly the birds adaptation to the spatial structure derived from the differerentiation of landscape types. The structure of bird communities also reflects the degree of the differentiation of landscape types. The interrelationship between the differentiating process of landscape types and each bird community is studied with the dynamic view.
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    研究方法
    沉积物矿物磁性测量在古环境研究中的应用
    张树夫, 肖家仪, 俞立中, 吴玉书
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (2): 182-194,196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.02.182
    摘要   PDF (1404KB)
    本文阐述了沉积物矿物磁性测量的基本原理和方法,井对云南滇池草2孔进行了矿物磁性侧量,结合沉积物矿物组合、地球化学性质、粒度、抱粉等分析和测试结果,对云南昆明盆地盘龙江三角洲的环境变化进行了初步探讨。
    Mineral magnetic measurement was applied to the lake sediment core Chao-Ⅱ derived from the northeast shore of Dianchi, Yunnan Province, as a case of paleoenvironmental study on the basis of magnetic stratigraphy. The results show that there are two significant changes of magnetic minerology around depth 0.9 m and 6 m, respectively. Combining these preliminary results with the analysis of pollen content, particle constitution, geochemistry,mineral component as well as radiocarbon chronology, an outline of the environmental changes in Dianchi Lake is proposed in the paper, which indicates that Dianchi Lake was bigger in the Late Pleistocene than present and considerable scale of lake transgression happened around the end of the Pleistocene. It is suggested that the surface of Dianchi Lake began to reduce from the Early Holocene, corresponding to the climate change of Kunming Basin.
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