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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1999年, 第19卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1999-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    关于综合地理区划若干问题的探讨
    郑度, 傅小锋
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 193-197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.193
    摘要   PDF (494KB)
    以地域单元作为重要层次,从区域角度研究可持续发展是地理学深入探讨人地关系地域系统、协调人和自然关系的必要途径。综合地理区划以可持续发展为目标,涉及自然因素和人文因素,其划分原则有:自然和人文地域分异规律相结合,综合分析和主导因素相结合,发生统一性原则,宏观区域框架与地域类型相结合等。综合地理区划的指标体系应涵盖环境、资源、经济、社会与人口等方面,须选择有代表性的指标,要求简洁实用,避免繁杂。所选指标应有区域可比性,能反映动态、可以量化,便于操作。由此得出的结果可作为划分区域发展状态地域类型的依据,进而提出综合地理区划的初步方案。
    Regional study is an ancient and important tradition, forming the regional school of geography. In view of integrated or unified geography, regional study of sustainable development is an important level for approaching regional system of man-land relationship and effective way for coordinating man-nature relationship. Aimed at sustainable development the integrated geographical regionalization includes natural elements and human factors. Main principles for demarcation are as follows: combining regional differentiation of physical environments and human geography, integrating comprehensive analysis and principal factors, genetic unity, as well as linking regional frameworks with regional types, etc. Criterion and index system of the integrated geographical regionalization consists of environments, resources, economy, society and population, etc. The selected criteria and indices for demarcation should be practical, simplified, comparable, quantified, and reflecting dynamic state and trends of various regions. Regional types of development states may be identified based on the above mentioned results, then proposing a tentative scheme of the integrated geographical regionalization.
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    退化土地的生态重建:社会工程途径
    蔡运龙, 蒙吉军
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 198-204.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.198
    摘要   PDF (1148KB)
    土地退化是全球环境变化的主要表现之一,而且与贫困问题互为因果。中国各种土地退化类型中,分布最广、影响最大的是土地沙漠化和土壤侵蚀,连片贫困人口也就分布于这些地区。在人口增长和自然资源需求增加的压力下,让退化土地自然恢复的思路已不切实际,必须通过社会投入对退化土地进行生态重建。重建要医治引起土地退化的经济和社会病根。还需要发达地区和欠发达地区的共同努力,因而是一种社会工程。其途径包括:从满足人民生存的基本需要着手,加大社会投入,因地制宜地优化景观生态,变革当地干部和群众的思想观念,调整体制和政策,引进与推广适用的科学技术,抓住关键问题并制定阶段战略。
    Land degradation is a major representation of global environmental change. In degraded land, people get into the trouble of PPE (poverty-population-environment) spiral. Land degradation takes various forms in China, such as land desertification, soil erosion, farmland pollution, surface mining, farmland salinization and soil fertility deterioration. Among these the former two are the most distributing and the most influencing. A great amount of poor population assembles in these lands, for example, in the karst areas of southwest China and in the Loess Plateau of northwest China. This paper especially pays more attention to the reversal of impoverishment-degradation spiral in the karst areas of southwest China. Since the PPE spiral is caused by ecological and, in particular, social factors, the solution must be in a social approach. Poverty alleviation is a systematic project with great complexities. Any single approach can not success and integrated measures should be taken. Obviously, the key to escape the vicious spiral is the reconstruction of the local ecosystem, economy and society so that the self development capacity of the local people may be enhanced. Thus the poverty can be essentially eliminated. On the other hand, it is unrealistic to let the degraded land naturally recover under the pressure of population growth and economic development. The degraded land needs ecological reconstruction through social investment, while the local economy and society should be restructured. Ecological reconstruction of the degraded land involves not only the degraded and underdeveloped localities but also developed regions. The guidelines of degraded land reconstruction should be the concepts of sustainability and economic viability, and the theory of landscape ecology. Sustainability includes the idea of a type of development that does not compromise, and even promote, the future use of land. Economic viability is profitability of the reconstructed land, although in a long term consideration. In other words, the reconstructed land and its use should obtain productivity, stability, sustainability, equability and autonomy. According to landscape ecology, reasonable land use and landscape patterns should be allocated at a macro scale, and an appropriate productivity and ecological conditions should be created at a micro scale. It is necessary, in the degraded land reconstruction, to identify different issues at different spatial scales, for example, land productivity at site, land use pattern at local, urban rural relation at a region, and economic cooperation at inter region. In temporal scale, it is necessary to establish realistic targets of short term (to emphasize viability), middle term (to get into benign spiral) and long term (to realize sustainability) respectively. As a social approach, the reconstruction of degraded land includes ideology innovation, institute transformation, and science and technology popularization.
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    GIS在中国粮食单产空间变化研究中的应用
    党安荣, 阎守邕, 王世新
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 203-210.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.203
    摘要   PDF (694KB)
    依据1985与1994两个年份的分县粮食生产统计数据,运用GIS为分析手段,从空间变化特征、变化成因及变化趋势三个方面,着重对1984年以来我国粮食单产的空间变化进行了定量研究。结果表明:在过去十年里,我国粮食单产增长占绝对优势,其中北方地区增产强度较大、南方地区下滑现象明显;生产条件的改善对北方粮食单产的增长有重要作用,比较利益的驱使导致南方粮食单产下滑。
    Using GIS as an analyzing tool, the characteristics, reasons, and trends of spatial variation of China’s grain yield are studied quantitatively based on the national grain production database ( by county unit ) in two periods (in 1985 and 1994). The result is that the increase of China’s grain yield in the past decade was very obvious, especially in north area, while the decrease of grain yield was exist in some of the south area of China. The increase of grain yield in north area was mainly come from the improvement of grain production condition while the decrease of grain yield in south area was driven by the comparison profits.
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    沙漠历史地理学的几个理论问题——以我国河西走廊历史上的沙漠化研究为例
    李并成
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 211-215.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.211
    摘要   PDF (477KB)
    干旱地区的沙漠化主要发生在内陆河流下游,沙漠化过程的途径主要有就地起沙、风蚀绿洲、流沙入侵、洪积物掩埋绿洲4种,前两者最重要。由于绿洲水资源的移动和重新分布而导致绿洲的转移过程,并不一定意味着绿洲的缩小或消失;只要大的气候环流形势和流域的总水量无大变化,则其绿洲总面积就不致发生大的改观,沙漠化土地在一定条件下是可以逆转的。
    The processes of desertification in dry regions have occurred mainly in the lower reaches of rivers. The channels of the processes of desertification have principally 4 sorts: producing sands on the spot, wind erosion on oases, drift sand intruding and flooded gravel burying oases. The substance of the processes of desertification is a sort of process of the oases transference that had happened owing to the moving and redistribution of resources of water of oases by virtue of mankind’s un-reasonable action of land exploitation. Along with the processes of transference, original oases had shrurk and new oases had emerged. The desertification had occurred in one place, and new oases had been formed probably in other areas. The oases are principally the outcome of resources of water. So long as there are not great changes in atmospheric circulation and total amount of water in the valley, the general area of the oases will not alter greatly in the valley. Desertified land can reverse under definite circumstances, but the reverse in dry regions is nearly impossible.
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    山西省湿地生物多样性及其保护
    张峰, 上官铁梁, 张龙胜
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 216-219.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.216
    摘要   PDF (532KB)
    山西省共有各类湿地2309km2,包括河口(内陆)湿地、河流湿地、湖泊湿地、水库湿地、沼泽和草甸湿地等,主要分布于各河流流域、湖泊和水库及周围地区。山西湿地有着丰富的生物多样性,其中动物455种、植物1209种,植被类型有70个群系。此外,还分析了山西湿地生物多样性受威胁的现状和原因,提出了山西湿地生物多样性保护对策。
    There are various types of wetlands of 2145 km2 in Shanxi, they are distributed on the river valleys, lakes and reservoirs, and around lakes and reservoirs. The wetlands in Shanxi are rich in biodiversity, including 455 species of animal and 1209 species of plant, and there are 70 plant communities. Moreover, the situation and cause that biodiversity is under the threat is detailed analyzed, and the strategies for biodiversitys protection are discussed in this paper.
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    松嫩草地40余年气温、降水变化及其若干影响研究
    邓慧平, 刘厚凤, 祝廷成
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 220-224.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.220
    摘要   PDF (776KB)
    分析了松嫩草地40余年气温、降水的变化,评估了这些变化对土壤水分及草地生产力的影响。继而根据大气环流模式CO2倍增“平衡试验”结果评估了未来大气CO2加倍条件下降水、气温的变化对松嫩草地土壤水分及草地生产力可能产生的影响。
    In this paper, temperature changes and precipitation fluctuations over Songnen Steppe since are analyzed 1953. Based on a soil water balance model and a climate yield empirical model, the impacts of recent forty years and future changes of temperature and precipitation on soil water and grassland productivity are estimated. Over forty years, winter and spring temperature have increased by 2.0℃ or so; autumn and annual temperature have increased about 1.0℃; summer temperature increased by 0.2℃. There is not a trend in precipitation changes. The impacts of temperature increase since 1953 on soil water and grass yield are small, the changes of soil water and grass yield are mainly dependent on precipitation changes. In CO2 doubling situation, according to GISS and GFDL GCMS outputs, temperature will increase by 3-6℃ and precipitation increase about 10% over Songnen Steppe. Such changes in temperature and precipitation will result in soil water decrease every month, while evapotranspiration will increase during rain season. Grass yield will decrease by 3%-4%.
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    全新世以来山东半岛东北部海面变化的河流地貌响应
    王庆
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 225-231.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.225
    摘要   PDF (981KB)
    对全新世以来山东半岛东北部沿岸的相对海面(基准面)变化,不同河流有截然不同的地貌响应方式。大沽夹河型河流的下游河谷中有分别与相对海面升降对应的溯源堆积期和溯源侵蚀期,但不同规模的河流仍有差异。黄水河型河流河谷未因基准面升降而发生侵蚀或堆积,河谷仅起了输沙通道的作用。此外,大沽夹河型河流的中下游河型在相对海面上升或下降时,还可能发生相应地网状化或曲流化。
    To the same Holocene relative sea level (base level) changes along the Northeastern Shandong peninsula, different rivers have adopted two different geomorphic response ways. In the middle and lower Dagujia type river valleys, there are backfilling and headward erosion stages which accompanied relative sea level rising and falling stages respectively, and there are still differences among rivers with different scales. In the Huangshui type river valleys, no aggrading and incising stages, which resulted from the Holocene base level changes, have been found, and the valleys have only played a role of transporting the debris from the upper drainage basins into the sea. For the middle and lower Dagujia type rivers, the meandering and braided river systems have developed in response to the relative sea level falling and rising respectively.
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    沈阳市城市景观分区研究
    李团胜, 肖笃宁
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 232-236.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.232
    摘要   PDF (559KB)
    尺度研究在景观生态学中越来越受到重视,在分析沈阳市景观区演化的基础上,用尺度分析方法将沈阳市三环以内区域划分为12个景观区,结果发现沈阳市城市景观区具有分布不合理,同一类型的景观区分布过于分散,工业景观区偏多等特点。
    Scale analysis is increasingly paid attention to in landscape ecology. This paper divideds Shenyang City into 12 landscape divisions with landscape scale analysis. Through landscape division, we find that landscape divisions of Shenyang City distribute irrationally, the same type of landscape divisions scatters and industrial landscape divisions are racher more.
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    综述
    西方“马克思主义”地理学——人文地理学的一个重要流派
    顾朝林, 刘海泳
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 237-242.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.237
    摘要   PDF (1221KB)
    本文全面地概述了西方“马克思主义”地理学的形成过程、理论脉络和研究方法以及新的进展,并着重介绍了西方“马克思主义”地理学的三个核心内容,即政治经济学分析、空间理论和社会-自然关系理论,最后对西方“马克思主义”地理学进行了简要的评论。
    Marxism geography had been a very important school of western human geography, although the socialism system in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe was terminated it tended to be on the wane. Western Marxism geography emerged in the early 1970s in response to two sets of events: (1) The critique of "establishment geography", i.e. positivist, spatial analysis, behavior geography, and so on; and (2) the political uprisings of the late 1960s. David Harvey played a key role in the rise of Marxism geography, and his highly influential "Social justice and the city" was regarded as the consummation of Marxism geography. Marxism geographical research and writing can be treated under three headings: (1) political economics, which uses political economic analyses to explain the geography of capitalism as the outcome of political and economic relationships and progresses in the wider society; (2) theories of space, which highlight the reconstruction the relative conception of space; and (3) theories of nature and environment, which point the fundamental interconnectedness of society and nature. The first developing phase of Marxism geography lasted until the early 1980s, from which the new phase began. The new phase has brought not only the internal maturity but also the increasing challenges from outside, such as the critique of Humanism, Realism, Postmodernism and Feminism. Facing more and more challenges and debates, new Marxism geography took its rise from theoretical needs and the current political and economic situations. Since the socialist system demolished the capitalism and minimized the scope of class contradictions, in China, the academic field of geography lacked the background of class conflicts between working class and capitalist, which is the prerequisite of Marxism theories. As far as the integrity and maturity is concerned, the Western Marxism geography should be treated as an important source of reference.
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    国内外高山林线研究综述
    戴君虎, 崔海亭
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 243-249.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.243
    摘要   PDF (1041KB)
    高山林线作为山地郁闭林和高山草甸的分界在山地生态系统中占有重要地位。以往对山地生态的研究远少于对其它类型陆地生态系统的研究,高山林线方面的研究就更为缺乏。讨论了高山林线的概念和内容,对国内外高山林线研究及特点作了简单回顾,指出高山林线的研究意义及在我国开展此项研究的初步方案。
    Being a main section of land ecosystem, mountain regions are also synthetical systems of human and nature, which occupy one third of total land area, and can affect lives of half of the world population. As a result of the economic development of mountain regions recently, a lot of places are deteriorated. One muse attention to such areas. As a special region between closed forest and alpine meadow, alpine timberline always plays an important role in mountain ecosystems by being an incentive directive body to changes in such regions. But there were far less studies on alpine regions than on any other kind of ecosystem in the past, especially in China, let alone to find studies on alpine timberline and the relationship between alpine timberline and global climatic change. In order to do further studies on the ecotone between forest and alpine meadow, it is important to know what were done in the past and what is being doing now about it. The main purpose of this paper is to give a review in such a field. Based on the definition given by the former studies, a synthetic understanding is put forward by directing the main features of alpine timberline. It is an ecological ecotone; and the border of closed forest should consist of trees which have symmetric canopy and higher than 2 meters; the appearance of the ecotone is marked by so called krummholz; and the shrubs are not included in this belt. The characteristics of the studies on alpine timberline are forwarded by dividing it into three periods. In a word, the studies focus on different contents during each study period. As in the first period, it was very popular for the authors to describe this ecotone, such as the appearance of the ecotone, the main components of alpine timberline, etc; then the relationship between the alpine timberline and the environment was discussed; during the last period, the studies on alpine timberline are related to global climatic change. The main contents and methods of such studies are discussed inside the paper, including main methods of obtaining proxy data. The studies of alpine regions by Chinese scientists are also put forward. As a result, it is regarded that the importance of such studies is of great value. At last, several schemes of the studies in the field of alpine timberline in China are listed for the first time.
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    研究方法
    遥感影像屏幕数字化高效方法研究——显著地物的矢量跟踪方法
    刘兆礼
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 250-253.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.250
    摘要   PDF (475KB)
    主要针对遥感影像屏幕数字化效率较低问题,提出了显着地物矢量跟踪方法:包括显着地物的分析、遥感影像数据的预处理、显着地物信息的人机交互提取、显着地物的矢量跟踪等步骤,并利用辽宁省东部新宾县TM遥感影像对此方法进行了应用与验证。
    Rapid development of computer technology brings about emergency of interactive interpretation of remote sensing images on computer screen. It holds higher precision and can directly enter geographical information system. More attention should be paid to its low efficiency. This paper shows the method of vector trace of distinct objects in screen digitalization of remote sensing images. With equal and higher precision, the method can greatly enhance the work efficiency, and possesses the important significance to the design and development of special software for manual screen digitalization of remote sensing images.
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    地区发展均衡性的可视化测度
    李秀彬
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 254-257.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.254
    摘要   PDF (525KB)
    在刻划复杂现象的方法中,图像媒体往往能比数值指标传递更多的信息,且由于直观、形象,而更具有说服力。运用空间均值地图演示的方法,探索了地区发展均衡性的可视化测度。通过与数值型综合测算方法的比较,说明了它在刻划地区差异上的准确性,而且在反映地区差异的空间表现上具有优势。作为一种描绘空间过程总体趋势的手段,该方法在研究其它“区域重心转移”问题上也具有一定的实用价值。
    Abstract There is an increasing concern about spatial equality of development as a social issue in China. Controversial arguments exist about the seriousness of the issue, mainly because of the difference among measuring methods adopted by different researchers. As a matter of fact, “a simple and intuitively satisfactory measure of equality” still remains an issue of speculation. In this study, the author took a spatial visulization approach instead of a numeric indicator to describe the spatial inequality of development in China. A statistic in geostatistics, spatial mean, was used as a means of spatial equality measurement. Values of the spatial mean for population, GDP and consumption level were plotted on the country map with the help from a Geographic Information System (GIS) of provincial level data of China. Location of the spatial mean for population was adopted as a reference point. If the spatial mean of the data (GDP and consumption level) is significantly different from the reference point, it indicates the spatial inequality of development. Distance of the deviation indicates the magnitude of inequality, while the direction of the deviation indicates the high density part of the country in terms of the concerned economic indicator. Results of the case study were compared to that of the work conducted by the Development Research Center of State Council of China, which adopted a modified version of standard deviation by employing Pearson’s coefficient of variation. Conclusions of the two studies are quite close to each other, while the visulization approach provides more information like the spatial form of the development inequality.
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    研究报道
    山东省冠县城区土地定级实践研究
    张二勋
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 258-264.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.258
    摘要   PDF (977KB)
    以GIS为基础,利用土地定级估价信息系统,确定山东省冠县城区土地分等定级的因素、因子及其权重,在此基础上计算各因素、因子的分值和土地定级单元分值,然后根据单元分值对土地级别进行初步划分并实地校核,最后对定级成果进行分析研究。
    On the base of GIS, by using the land grading and appraising information system, fist determine the factor, balance of land grading of Guanxian City proper, Shandong province, calculate the point value of all factors and units of land grading then according to the point value of unit, give the land grading a tentative dividing and field calibration, study the achievements in land grading.
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    滇东北山区坡耕地降雨侵蚀力研究
    杨子生
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 265-270.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.265
    摘要   PDF (1986KB)
    降雨侵蚀力R值是建立土壤流失方程的最基本因子之一。通过对标准径流小区的实测土壤侵蚀量和侵蚀性降雨资料进行分析,确定出滇东北山区坡耕地降雨侵蚀力(R)的最佳计算指标为R=E60·I30,计算和分析了本区域降雨侵蚀力(R)的时空分布特征。
    The value of R, erosive force of rainfall,is one of the basic factors used for setting up soil loss equation.Through analysing the data of soil erosion and erosive rainfall measured on the standard runoff pot,the best index in the northeast mountain region of Yunnan Province for calculating the erosive force of rainfall is defined as: R=E60·I30. According to this index and the data of rainfall from 16 stations in 1980-1997,we calculate the erosive force of rainffall (R) of every station in the northeast mountain region of Yunnan Province, and analyse the time space distribution characteristics of erosive force of rainfall in this region.The results of the calculation and the analysis show that the average annual value of R in this region is 293.8J/m2.For the distribution in a year,the value of R is higher in June~August,equivalent to 77.68% of the annual value.The annual variation of the value of R is also very large with a maximum of R 726.5J/m2 in a year to a minimum of R 94.2J/m2 in a year. For the spatial distribution,the value of R in northern area was higher than that in southern area,and in the dry and hot valley of the Jinsha River is lower than that in high altitude mountain zone.
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    黄土自重湿陷变形的脉动液化机理
    王家鼎, 张倬元, 李保雄
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 271-276.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.271
    摘要   PDF (822KB)
    提出了一种黄土自重湿陷的机理——地球脉动引起饱和黄土液化,简要地介绍了地球脉动的原理,并从土动力学的角度分析了地球脉动引起饱和黄土液化的过程。通过现场浸水试验、地球脉动的定时测量及室内土工试验等,揭示了脉动的幅值、卓越周期与液化程度的关系。最后还分析了影响脉动液化的因素,结果表明,这些因素都有利于液化的产生,从而导致黄土自重湿陷。
    The principle of earth microtremors is briefly introduced and the processes of saturated loess liguefaction induced by earth microtremors are analyzed from a dynamic view. A field test of loess in water immersion was done over a 420-hour period on the Gaolan Mountain in Lanzhou, China. After stopping water flooding, earth microtremors at the bottom of test impounding pits were continuously measured by seismic equipment. We conclude that there is a relationship between loess collapse values and the amplitude and predominant period of the earth microtremors. The results show that the higher the amplitude and the longer the predominant period of earth microtremors, the more intensive the liquefaction grade will be. Finally, the most probable series of affecting factors to liquefaction, such as C, φ values of loess, amplitude, frequency, duration and wave type of microtremors are all favorable to loess liquefaction.
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    潮汐盐沼环境特点及高分辨率海面变化有孔虫标尺
    尤坤元, 朱大奎, 施晓冬
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 277-281.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.277
    摘要   PDF (627KB)
    潮汐盐沼是海洋边缘海环境的最边缘部分,是海陆过渡的真正边界。盐沼环境因素具明显的垂直分带性,各环境参数变化是典型的海洋或陆地不可相比的,盐沼坡度平缓,由海向陆的环境变化在这里分异清楚;沉积中垂向变化平面上得到极大的放大等。据国外研究,盐沼环境控制着有孔虫的特征和分布,利用盐沼有孔虫的垂直分带恢复古海平面变化,精确到±20cm,甚至±5cm,这在海面变化、环境演变、全球变化研究上有重要意义
    The tidal saltmarsh is the most marginal part of the marginal marineenvironments and the exact limit between marine and continent. Saltmarst has some sedimentary environmental Characteristics: the obvious vertical zonation of various environmental factors; greatvariations of every environmental parameter, compared with typical marine or terrene environment; a slight slope, on which the environmental succession from marine to continent is clearly divided and the vertical environmental succession in sediments is greatly amplified in lateral plane and so on. Tidal saltmarsh environment controls the features and distribution of saltmarsh foraminifera. According to the study abroad, the vetical zonation of saltmarsh foraminifera can be used as indicators for relocating former sea levels to an accuracy of ?20cm, even ?5cm. This quite high accuracy is important for studying sea level change, environment evolution and global change.
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    香港/澳门近72年海平面变化曲线
    黄镇国, 张伟强, 陈特固
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 282-285.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.282
    摘要   PDF (767KB)
    取1959年为接口,将澳门的前段记录(1925~1958年)与香港的后段记录(1959~1996年)连接起来,统一按香港海图基准面起算,可以得到最近72年(1925~1958年)均一的海平面月均序列。海平面曲线反映海平面呈波动上升趋势,其中存在异常高海平面和异常低海平面。按香港和澳门的验潮资料,海平面上升速率为1.8±0.1mm/a.海滩岩的高程、地震活动、地形变化表明:香港和澳门地区的构造处于相对平稳状态,因此,1.8±0.1mm/a可以认为是华南沿海理论海平面的上升速率。
    The tidal stations in Hong Kong and Macau provide the longest tidal records since 1925 along the coastal region of the South China Sea. However some abnormal errors or omissions during 1953-1956 and 1930-1949 in Hong Kong and 1963-1981 in Macau can be seen. Therefore taking 1959 as a connexion to continue the previous stage of 1925-1958 in Macau with the latter stage of 1959-1996 in Hong Kong, an impartial monthly mean series of sea level starting unify from the sea map base level of Hong Kong during recent 72 years (1925-1996) can be obtained. The sea level curve reveals a fluctuation tendency of sea level rise including abnormal higher and lower sea level, the former is related with the runoff of the Zhujiang River and the latter is in keeping with the strong El Nino year. The rate of sea level rise is calculated as 1.8 mm/a in recent 72 years using by single linear regression, and 2.0 mm/a during 1959-1994 dispeling the high frequency components from Fourier Transform. In addition dividing the series into 11 sets of 1955-1994, 1956-1994...1965-1994, and then calculated the average rate as 1.64?0.25 mm/a. Therefore the rate of 1.8?0.1 mm/a is epitomized from the tidal data in Hong Kong and Macau. The elevation of beach rock, earthquake activity and ground deformation indicate the relative stability of structure in Hong Kong and Macau, so that the rate of 1.8?0.1 mm/a can be deduced as the rise rate of theoretical sea level along the coastal region of South China Sea.
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    书评
    评介《长江流域水体环境背景值研究图集》
    黄锡畴, 黄方
    地理科学. 1999, 19 (3): 286-287.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1999.03.286
    摘要   PDF (385KB)
    中国科学院长春地理研究所主编的《长江流域水体环境背景值研究图集》(简称《图集》)1998年8月由科学出版社出版。本《图集》编制任务来源于国家“七五”攻关专题研究项目《长江水系水体环境背景值调查研究》。
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