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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第7期 刊出日期:1997-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    新自由主义城市空间重构的批判视角研究
    吴启焰
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 769-774.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.769
    摘要   PDF (321KB)
    中国自1978年改革开放以来,城市与区域空间就已经在具有自我特色的新自由主义实践中发生了重大变革,目前研究仍然处于摸索阶段。在介绍国际自由主义城市研究基础上,将改革开放以来中国沿海和内地两种城市与区域地带内新自由主义的实践纳入中国新自由主义之城市批判研究:①城市场所内管制环境和权力结构;②阶层结构重构的原因、过程、特征;③未来区域发展导向与全球化相伴随的地理分异现象。在此基础上提出一些研究假设和相关方法论上的尝试,期盼给予国内新自由主义城市研究一些启示。
    There are many international scholars suspect if China has experimented the process of neoliberalism restructure since post reform agenda.However, it does happen somewhat freedom to redistribute social fortunes from the poor to the rich.With the fast increasing of GDP of China in past three decades, the wildly widening gaps between urban and rural, coastal area and western area, and economic elites and marginalized work class are the persistent feature.Therefore, it would be important to give some hints for the study of the neoliberalism urban studies of China from local scholar’s perspective.As a matter of fact since the reform agenda, regionalized neoliberalism practice has been conducted successfully for over thirty years.the China has experimented a significant transition in the track of neoliberalism practice:namely, 1) the widening gap between export surplus and badly unfulfilled public welfare; 2) multi-scales uneven geographical development of, either between inland area and coast area, or urbanization area and its peripheral region.Unfortunately, relevant research still needs much more input to kick it off.For this purpose, this paper suggests that following study should concentrate in the governance environment transition, power structure modulation and the class structure change both in the coastal and inland area of China.Moreover, in order to analyze the complicated phenomenon of localized neoliberalism, the destructive creativeness of study methodology, namely, the reflexive study paradigm should be attempted as well.
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    西安市文化产业空间分布特征
    薛东前, 刘虹, 马蓓蓓
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 775-780.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.775
    摘要   PDF (365KB)
    研究文化产业的空间分布特征有利于了解本地区文化产业发展现状,对引导产业发展有重要意义。以西安市文化产业为例,通过空间点模式分析,利用L函数得出西安市十个区域文化产业的集中指数,结合西安市文化产业发展现状将研究区域分为:核心区、潜力发展区和分散区。通过地理集中度分析和核密度图,得出结论:①现阶段西安市文化产业的空间分布整体上是南密北疏的格局,并呈现以内城为中心的集中态势,集中模式以自下而上型为主,各区域的集中呈现不平衡状态;②影响各区域产业分布的因素包括:资源禀赋,区域职能,相关及支持性机构,政府政策;③产业空间分布的研究对文化产业的发展有重要影响;④西安市文化产业分布具有动态变化性特征。
    The status of regional distribution in cultural industries is conducive to understanding the development level of the cultural industries in this region.Therefore, the cultural industries have attracted more attention from researchers and policy makers in recent years.The L function model is used in this study, which can calculate the cultural industries’concentration of the region.Taking Xi’an City as an example, this study calculates cultural industries’concentration index of 10 districts in Xi’an City.According to the development level of cultural industries in Xi’an City, the authors classify all the districts into three types of areas.They are core area, potential area and dispersion area.After the analysis of Kernel density which is made by ArcGIS, the following conclusions are drawn from this study:Firstly, the number of enterprises in the south of Xi’an City is much more than the north of that.The concentration region is formed by each enterprise itself, not by government.And the spatial distribution of cultural industries is imbalance in Xi’an City.Secondly, the influencing factors of spatial distribution in cultural industries include resources, regional function, supporting institutions and policy.Thirdly, the study on spatial distribution of cultural industries had helped to improve the development level of cultural industries in Xi’an City.Finally, the spatial distribution of cultural industries in Xi’an City has the dynamic changes.
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    耗散结构视角下连云港港城系统演进机理及规律研究
    杨山, 潘婧, 季增民
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 781-787.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.781
    摘要   PDF (502KB)
    从耗散结构的视角,港城系统是以外部自然与社会经济环境为支撑,以港口系统与城市系统时空耦合为基础的耗散结构系统。分析其演进历程,港城系统通过大小"涨落"向着有序、高级方向发展,运用综合发展度从时间序列纵向评价系统综合发展水平,运用系统熵从要素构成横向测度系统有序状况;对比分析两者演变规律,综合发展度和系统熵具有很强的相关性。通过解析系统熵结构,进一步探究和理解港城系统发展的演变机理,港城系统有序发展本质是港城系统及港口系统、城市系统的负熵流输入。结合江苏省连云港,对1996~2008年29项指标377个原始数据进行处理,合并成开放程度熵、社会实力熵、设施环境熵和经济实力熵,得出引发连云港港城系统涨落的负熵流输入时间与输入方式,在理论上总结了港城系统有序演进规律。
    From the perspective of dissipative structure, port-city is a system of dissipative structure supported by external environment of nature, society and economy, based on coupling between systems of port and city spatio-temporally.According to the analysis of its evolution process, while the negative entropy input from the external environment, the system will be able to maintain the order and develop towards an orderly and senior direction through fluctuations of its size.The article vertically evaluated the comprehensive development level of the system in time sequence, and horizontally measured orderly condition using system entropy from elemental composition.By comparative analysis, the comprehensive development level and system entropy are of great relevance.Further studying the structure of system entropy, we can understand the evolution mechanism and the orderly development essence of port-city system which lies in negative entropy stream input of port-city system, city system and port system.Taking Lianyungang city in Jiangsu Province, China, for example, merging the raw data of 29 indicators in 1996-2008 into the entropy of openness, the entropy of social power, entropy of the facilities environment and entropy of economic power, the article derived the input time and method of negative entropy flow which cause fluctuations of port-city system of Lianyungang.Based on above the empirical study, the article theoretically summarized the general law of orderly evolution of port-city system.
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    芜湖市就业与居住空间匹配研究
    焦华富, 胡静
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 788-793.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.788
    摘要   PDF (413KB)
    借助偏离度指数分析法从宏观层面研究了芜湖市辖区的就业—居住空间匹配状况的变化特点,利用问卷调查数据,从微观角度分析了市区居民通勤的时间、距离、方式及费用。研究结果表明:芜湖市就业—居住空间匹配度趋于下降,核心区为服务业就业主导区,北部以制造业就业为主导功能,南部居住功能占主导,带来各区居住人口和就业人口的空间流动。居民通勤平均距离约为4km,平均时间约为25min,通勤方式以电动车、公交车为主。目前,居民对就业—居住地匹配状况的满意程度总体尚好,还需要采取措施以进一步提高满意度。
    Employment and housing space are two major functional zones in city.The spatial relationship between them affects traffic flow, commuting distance and cost directly.Meanwhile, it is also an important factor that affected the city layout.So it draws more scholars’attention.At abroad, scholars undertake researches from the aspects of urban spatial structure and the relationship between each core elements, spatial match between employment and housing space, the evaluation of urban comprehensive effect and so on.At home, scholars began this research from the late 1980s.Their research contents mainly focus on the influence of the match between employment and housing space to the traffic, the spatial pattern of employment-housing influencing the problem of urban employment, the spatial organization of employment-housing and the development mode of urban land, spatial mismatch issues and so on.The research areas are mainly concentrated in first-level cities, but rarely in the medium-sized cities which are in rapid growth stage on the central and western China.As one of the core cities along the Changjiang River in Anhui Province exerting industrial transfer, and an A-class port city in China with National Economic and Technical Development Zone, Wuhu City is a very typical medium-sized city.The city scale expanded rapidly in the past decade, whose adjustment of urban functional partition has been strengthened, and the boundary between each function is more clear.The urban residents’demand of housing construction is more urgently in Wuhu City, consequently, its urban land increases nervously, house prices ascendes gradually, and urban traffic pressure emerges.So it is particularly essential to study the spatial match between employment and housing.This paper uses deviation index to analyze the changing characteristics of spatial match between employment and housing from the macroscopic level in Wuhu City.At the same time, the urban residents’commuting time, distance, mode and cost are analyzed from microscopic level based on the survey data from questionnaires.The results indicate that:1) the employment and housing spatial match degree tends to decline; 2) services employment is the leading function in core area, and manufacturing employment in the northern Wuhu and living in the southern Wuhu, which brings residents and employed population flowed from different districts; 3) the average commuting distance and time is about 4 km and 25 min, and residents always choose electric car or bus; and 4) at present, the satisfaction degree of the residents about employment and housing spatial match is reasonable, but still needs to improve.
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    全球化背景下酒吧的地方性与空间性——以广州为例
    林耿, 王炼军
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 794-801.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.794
    摘要   PDF (402KB)
    在全球化背景下,以广州代表性酒吧为对象,援引第三空间理论和空间生产理论,采用质性研究方法,从消费地理视角解读酒吧的地方性和空间性,重新诠释地方理论以及人地关系认识论。研究表明,广州环市东酒吧的空间建构包括了一种本土对西方、当下本土对历史本土的再结构化过程。在空间实践-空间想象-再现空间三元一体的维度下,酒吧作为地方具有典型的反身性,酒吧影响着主体行为,行为主体构筑的权力话语也成为酒吧空间的意义构成,涉入酒吧消费空间的建构过程。作为一个具有主体性的消费空间,酒吧具有空间生产、空间消费和空间流动的特质。
    The authors explore the feature of placeness and spaciality, and re-explains the place theory and man-land relationship theory from the perspective of consumption geography, with a case study on the bars of Guangzhou, China, under the background of globalization.The paper adopts qualitative research methods, and relies on the third space theory and the production theory of space to conduct a survey on the bars.The authors hope that the research will contribute to the third space theory and the production theory of space, and extend the fields of consumption space from traditional object study to further subject study.The conclusions include that:1) Different from traditional dualistic analysis for man-land relationship, that is, the subject is always opposite to the object, the authors believe that the feature of placeness and spaciality can be observed in the bars from a view of adding on three dimensions:spatial practices, representations of space, and spaces of representation.2) The space construction in the bars of Guangzhou can be represented as a process of re-structuring which includes the native to the west, the modern native to the historical native, which shows integration in three dimensions of spatial practices, representations of space, and spaces of representation.As a place, the bar shows typical reflexivity.The different bar attracts different behavioral agents, and affects on their activities.But, the power discourse of behavioral agents is also involved in the significance system of bar space, and affects on the construction of bar space.3) The reflexivity is also reflected in place attachment, such as the complexity of identity and rejection, and power control in bar’s discourse.In the past research of place, the focus is mainly on the emotions of place attachment in different degrees and different types, so the analysis is only one-side.4) As a geographical space with subjectivity, the bar is a productive space, consumptive space, and flowing space.
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    南京市内部旅游客流空间测度与模拟
    杨兴柱, 顾朝林, 王群, 卢松
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 802-809.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.802
    摘要   PDF (669KB)
    将传统分析方法与空间数据分析方法相结合,建立空间数据模型,采用Surfer动态图,实态模拟南京旅游客流空间分布格局。研究发现:①南京市内部旅游流位序—规模分布非常典型。流量规模参数|q|大于1,但一直趋于减小,说明极化作用、不均衡发展仍是旅游流空间格局演变中主要特征。②南京市旅游流呈现显著的空间集聚特征。1995~2005年间,全局Moran’sI指数有一定的波动,1995年Moran’sI最小,2001年后,全局Moran’sI快速扩大。城市内部旅游流空间关联程度逐渐增强,局域范围内具有强烈的空间自相关特征。Local Moran’sI显著性检验表明,南京旅游流在局域范围内具有强烈的空间自相关特征。“高高”象限由1995年4个增至2005年8个;“低高”象限由1995年2个增至2005年8个,而“高低”象限变化不明显。③通过R型和Q型因子分析,识别了4个重要的旅游集聚场和扩散场,但首级集聚场和扩散场强度非常大。首级核旅游吸引力具有较广的吸引范围,且吸引景区级别较高。其它3个核吸引范围呈现分片区特征。扩散场分布相对均衡且“大分散、小集聚”。④根据研究结果构建了南京城市内部旅游流空间变化模式。20世纪90年代中期以来,南京市内部旅游流空间变化模式呈现出空间层次性、动态变化性特征。旅游流空间分布呈现从少数旅游节点向多数旅游节点转变,旅游节点体系逐渐发育成熟。
    Urban tourist flow is an important content in the research of Tourism Geography.Although the study on urban tourist flow has been recognized, systematic studies of measuring urban tourist flows are still under-explored.This study presents a quantitative method for investigating urban tourism flow spatial change in Nanjing city by size-scale, spatial autocorrelation and factor analysis.At the same time, using software Surfer 8.0 and geographic information system, the paper established spatial data model and simulated spatial distribution pattern of tourist flows in Nanjing City.The study concludes that, 1) spatial difference law in tourist flows is found within the city.Tourist flow in Nanjing city still belongs to the spatial polarization stage, but the concentration tends to decline and the diffusion gradually strengthens.2) By examining the indexes of Global Moran’s I and Local Moran’s I, concentration of tourist flow is dominant and concentration and diffusion exist synchronously within the city.The tourist flow distribution has obviously positive spatial autocorrelation, which had been weaker in 1995-1999 and stronger in 2001-2005.With the increasing of the number of tourist nodes, the spatial nodal structure has grown gradually since 1995, reflecting more significant positive autocorrelation (spatial dependence).3) By factor analysis, four concentration and diffusion tourism fields are found.4) By using software Surfer 8.0, spatial distribution pattern is core-periphery model.The core tourist area lies in inner city, presenting convergency and concentricity.Meanwhile, the interaction between the tourist areas increased gradually.Tourist flow distribution curves showed characteristic of waves and leap forward.And 5) according to spatial change of tourist flows in Nanjing City, tourist flow mode was constructed.
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    海岛(县)主体功能区划分的研究——以浙江省玉环县、洞头县为例
    张耀光, 张岩, 刘桓
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 810-816.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.810
    摘要   PDF (435KB)
    海岛是海中陆地,一个海岛包括岛陆、岛基、岛滩和海岛周围的海域。地域主体功能区划主要强调国土空间开发的分工和布局,要求做到国土的全覆盖。海岛县是海陆国土空间复合系统,同陆域县区一样,根据资源环境承载能力、现有开发密度和发展潜力,统筹考虑未来人口分布、经济布局、国土利用和城镇化格局,将国土空间划分为优化开发、重点开发、限制开发和禁止开发四类主体功能区。在已有陆域主体功能区划和海洋功能区划等理论的基础上,考虑陆域要素与海域要素,应用层次分析、多指标综合加权评价法和主成分-聚类分析等主要量化方法,把地理空间思想融入分析框架中,做到定性与定量相结合,从而划分出玉环和洞头二个海岛县海陆国土空间复盖的主体功能区划。陆域主体功能区与海洋主体功能区要相互衔接,主体功能定位相互协调。
    Island is the land in the sea.An intact island contains the adjacent sea area besides island terrene, insular shelf and offshore barrier.The area of island is small and its regional structure and ecological structure is simple.The ecological system of island is weak and the biodiversity index of island is very small.The stabilization of island’s ecological and environmental is not optimistic.A lot of ecological and environmental problems will be very easy to appear, if not being paid attention to protection the island.Major function oriented zoning emphasizes division and layout of the territory spatial development, and it requires the complete overlay of the territory.The island county is a compound system of territory.As the land area county, on the basis of the analysis on the resources environmental carrying capability, existing development density and future development potentials, considering the future of Chinese coordinate development of the distribution of population, economic layout, land use and urbanization patterns, the island counties can also be divided into four types of function zones:optimized exploitation zones, prioritized exploitation zones, limited development exploitation zones and banned exploitation zones.Based on the theories of major function oriented zoning and marine functional zoning and the quantification methods of AHP, multi-index synthetic weighed method, principal component-cluster analysis, considering the land and sea area factors, the paper combines qualitative analysis with quantitative analysis to integrate the geographical space thought into the analytical framework and make the major function oriented zoning of island county including the land and sea of Yuhuan and Dongtou counties.At the same time, this paper makes major function oriented zoning of the land and sea natural and compatible, and it makes the orientation of major function harmonious.
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    新增建设用地土地有偿使用费征收标准调整对耕地保护效果影响的计量分析——以江苏省为例
    金晓斌, 丁宁, 唐健, 张志宏, 宋佳楠, 赵婕, 周寅康
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 817-822.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.817
    摘要   PDF (334KB)
    以农用地转用环节征收数额较大、改革相对较早的新增建设用地土地有偿使用费为研究对象,建立BP神经网络模型,以江苏省为例,拟合新增费标准与耕地面积减少量之间的动态变化关系,通过虚拟仿真实验模拟不同新增费征收标准情景下的耕地保护效果。研究结果表明:通过新增费的政策设置,1999~2008年江苏省累计抑制耕地面积减少29.54hm2;通过新增费征收标准调整,2007~2008年江苏省抑制耕地面积减少10.90hm2,1999年和2007年两种征收标准下的耕地保护贡献度均在1%左右。研究得到以下结论:①新增费的设立增加了地方政府用地成本,对抑制耕地占用的规模和速度具有一定作用;②在一定范围内,新增费征收标准越高,耕地保护效果越好;③总体而言,新增费的耕地保护效果尚不显著,其贡献度仍较为有限,相关政策有待进一步的完善。
    The effect of the land taxes and fees in cultivated land protection can make a good reference to the improvement and perfection of the land taxes and fees system.This paper studies the new construction land compensation fee, which is charged in comparatively large amounts and has experienced a reform in a long term.In the article, a BP neural network model is built at first to depict the dynamic relationship between the fee and the decrease of cultivated land.By taking Jiangsu Province as an example, the inspection showed that the fitting accuracy of the model is high enough and the fitting error can be controlled below 1%.Secondly, the cultivated land protection effect of the fee is analyzed via the virtual simulation experiment.The cultivated land decrease of Jiangsu Province in 1996-2008 was simulated, respectively under the circumstances of zero-fee standard, the fee standards in 1999 and 2007.The results indicate that the implement of the new construction compensation fee in Jiangsu Province has reduced the decrease of cultivated land by 29.54 hm2 accumulatively in 1999-2008.While the reform of the fee also achieved a great performance in cultivated land protection, in 2007 and 2008, the decrease of cultivated land is reduced by 10.90 hm2 due to the increase of the fee.But despite of the increase of the fee, the contribution of the fee to the cultivated land protection maintains is about 1%.The main conclusions are drawn:1) The new construction land compensation fee can add to the land-use cost of the local government to some extent, which helps to reduce the occupation of cultivated land; 2) The cultivated land area of Jiangsu province is highest in the 2007 fee standard and the lowest in zero-fee standard.So the 2007 fee standard is the best among the three standards.In some conditions, the higher the fee is, the better performance it plays in cultivated land protection; 3) On the whole, the contribution that new construction land compensation fee made in cultivated land protection is around 1%, which is relatively low; and the fee is not satisfactory in the effect of cultivated land protection.There are still a lot of efforts need to take in the policy making and implement.
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    长春市商业用地基准地价演变过程及驱动因子分析
    张石磊, 毕忠德, 杨志毅, 王士君
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 823-828.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.823
    摘要   PDF (446KB)
    基准地价作为中国城市地价体系的重要组成部分,是政府法定的公示地价之一,也是目前中国地价评估的基础。城市基准地价的动态变化过程中,基准地价价格水平的提升和基准地价空间格局的变化是城市经济发展、城市规划建设共同作用的综合结果。论文以长春市商业用地基准地价为例,探索城市基准地价演变的规律。首先计算长春市1995年至2010年商业用地不同级别的地价环比结构的特征值,分析长春市商业用地基准地价的价格动态变化特征;然后利用ESDA分析工具,通过2006年和2010年长春市商业区段路线价的空间格局变化分析来概括讨论长春市商业用地基准地价的空间格局变化;最后结合数学模型分析确定长春市商业用地基准地价演变的驱动因子,最终归纳总结了基准地价演变的规律,即经济发展推动机制、供求机制和规划引导机制共同推进和制约了基准地价的价格和空间格局的演变。
    As a momentous part of the urban land price system of China,standard land price (SLP) is one of the statutory public land price of the Chinese government, and it is also the foundation of land price evaluation in China.SLP is the instructive price for the urban land market.On the one hand, SLP reflects the premium level objectively, on the other hand, it is a basic way to government administration and control urban land market, and it is the basis of the appearance of land assets price and calculation of land assets income.In a process of dynamic change of urban SLP, the rise and spatial change of SLP result from comprehensive effects of economic development and city planning construction.Through calculations, the paper takes the SLP of Changchun City as an example to interpret the rule of evolution process.The thesis has first analyzed the dynamic change feature of commercial standard land price by calculation Chain index’eigenvalue in each price level of commercial SLP in Changchun City in 1994-2010.Using exploratory spatial data analysis(ESDA), the paper analyses the street price of commercial land in Changchun City in 2006 and 2010.After the analysis of the basic database structure and trend, the author chooses Kriging method to make interpolating and SLP prediction.The digital model of street price of commercial land in Changchun City in 2006 and 2010 is established based on the basic database of street price of commercial land in Changchun City in 2006 and 2010.According to the above data analysis, the article discusses the spatial pattern change of commercial standard land in Changchun City.The author selects 18 factors of urban SLP in Changchun City according to the actual situation of Changchun City, and using analysis of mathematical model of the principal components analysis.The work fixes the driving factors of commercial SLP of Changchun City.Finally, it gets the disciplines of SLP evolution process.The paper arrives the conclusion that promotion mechanism of economic development, land demand and supply mechanism, planning and guidance mechanism jointly impel and restrict the price and spatial pattern evolution of SLP.The health development of urban economy can obviously promote and improve SLP.And land demand and supply mechanism can drive SLP and restrict SLP spatial pattern.SLP level and the developmental trend are affected by city planning.
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    规划跨江通道对滨江副城建设用地增长的影响研究——以南京市浦口区为例
    吴巍, 周生路, 杨得志, 吴绍华, 何佳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 829-835.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.829
    摘要   PDF (551KB)
    以南京市浦口区为例,引入SLEUTH元胞自动机模型,采用五个时相的Landsat TM/ETM+遥感数据,模拟和预测了规划跨江通道对滨江副城城市发展建设用地增长的影响。研究结果表明:①SLEUTH模型经校准检验后能够较好地模拟研究区建设用地的增长数量与空间分布,适用于城市增长研究;②跨江通道建设对滨江副城增长的助推效应显著,近期(2020年)和远期(2030年)研究区建设用地分别新增48.05%和62.33%,其中规划跨江通道对新增建设用地的贡献率分别达到20.67%和17.50%,助推效应随时间递减。
    With Pukou District of Nanjing as an example, the article introduces SLEUTH cellular automaton model and adopts the Landsat TM/ETM+ remote sensing data in five study periods(the years of 1988, 1995, 2000, 2004 and 2008)to simulate the general situation of urban expansion of the study area with or without the planned cross-river channels.And the influence of the planned cross-river channels on the urban growth of riverside city is analyzed from the perspective of quantity increase of construction land as well as spatial growth.The research shows that:1) SLEUTH model, after adjusted and tested, could well simulate the quantity growth of construction land as well as its characteristics of spatial distribution in the study area, therefore, it could be fairly applicable to the research of urban expansion of the study area; 2) the construction of planning cross-river channel has a significant impact on accelerating the growth of riverside city, but its driving effect will gradually decline year by year.The newly increased construction land in the study area will rise by 48.05% and 62.33% in 2020 and 2030, and the contribution rate of planned cross-river channel is 20.67% and 17.50%, with a decreasing driven effect year by year, which is particularly significant in the street of Jiangpu, Dingshan and Yanjiang in "Pukou New Town".
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    广州地铁三号线对周边住宅价格的时空影响效应
    梅志雄, 徐颂军, 欧阳军, 刘静
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 836-842.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.836
    摘要   PDF (398KB)
    以广州地铁3号线及周边住宅项目为例,综合运用可达性相等理论、比较分析法、hedonic模型和GIS空间分析技术,计算地铁对周边住宅价格的影响范围,实证分析其时空影响效应。空间效应结果表明:①地铁站点离市中心越近,影响范围越小,离城区越远,影响范围越大;②地铁对周边住宅具有明显的增值作用,住宅价格与地铁距离间呈显著的正向关系,距离越远影响效应越小;③分区域来看,地铁3号线对番禺区影响较显著,影响范围内住宅平均增值20.48%,而天河和海珠区影响范围内住宅平均增值8.73%。时间效应方面,地铁规划期对天河区和海珠区的房价影响不明显,对番禺区房价具有明显的正效应;施工期对周边房价的影响为先负向而后变为正向;运营期其正向影响更加明显。
    Recently, along with the development of urbanization and urban rail transit system, the impact of urban rail transit system on real estate prices has become an interesting research topic, especially the theme of integrating temporal effects with spatial effects on real estate prices of surrounding areas has aroused more and more attention of Chinese and overseas scholars and specialists.On the basis of literature review about the impacts on real estate prices from urban rail transit system, using accessibility equality theory, comparative analysis method, hedonic price model including three characteristics:location, neighborhood and structure, GIS spatial analysis techniques, with a case of Guangzhou subway 3rd line and housing projects along the line, this article calculates the range of subway influencing the surrounding residential housing prices.And the spatio-temporal impact effects on the surrounding housing prices increment with the development of Guangzhou subway 3rd line from 2000 to 2007 is analyzed empirically, which includes the planning stage, the construction stage and the operational stage.The empirical results show:1) The nearer subway station away from city center, the smaller the influence range, and vice versa; 2) Subway contributes to the surrounding residential housing prices increment.Housing prices has a significantly positive correlation with the distances of houses away from subway, and the larger the distance the smaller the impact on the surrounding housing prices; 3) On sub-region variation, houses of Panyu District of Guangzhou are influenced the most, and average appreciation rate of houses in the impact range reaches to 20.48%, while those of Tianhe District and Haizhu District of Guangzhou are only 8.73%; 4) On temporal effect, subway shows a significantly positive effect on the surrounding housing prices of Panyu District of Guangzhou in the planning stage, but the effects in Tianhe District and Haizhu District of Guangzhou are not significant.The impact on the surrounding housing prices is firstly negative and then turns to be positive in the construction stage.The positive effects of the subway on housing prices become more prominent in the operational stage.In conclusion, the construction and operation of Guangzhou subway 3rd line have highly stimulated economic growth in its passed area, and also lead to the appreciation of housing values along the line.This study will provide a helpful reference for city planning, real estate exploitation and choosing and buying dwelling house of citizen.
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    基于空间行为约束的北京市居民家庭日常出行碳排放的比较分析
    柴彦威, 肖作鹏, 刘志林
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 843-849.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.843
    摘要   PDF (388KB)
    围绕城市空间结构低碳化的科学命题,从转型期中国城市空间组织制度多元化与个体行为的互动机理出发,对比分析单位制和分区制形成的"社区—家庭"空间行为约束机制作用下的居民日常出行特征及其碳排放。抽样计算,2007年北京市居民家庭工作日日常出行碳排放平均约为2529.59g,并在社区尺度上出现了高碳与低碳的显著分化;由于土地混合利用、职住接近、设施供给齐备,内城单位社区及胡同社区对个体出行碳排放有较强的正约束作用;单位制和分区制对个体出行行为有完全异向的碳排放约束响应、作用路径和环境绩效。因此,在社区低碳减排的治理上,应综合考虑小汽车出行使用、出行总量与尺度等家庭出行特征的社区差异,形成针对性的治理设计;在城市布局上,应借鉴单位制的空间组织特点,构造职住再接近,促进低碳出行的紧凑型低碳化的城市空间体系。
    The CO2 emission has been increasing significantly in recent years and resulted in severe effects on global environment, and most emitted in the urban region.Therefore, the key to reduce the greenhouse gas rests on the de-carbonization in urban area on transportation and other aspects, influenced by urban form.The authors argued, for urban environment geography and urban planning, how to realize the low-carbonization of urban spatial structure is one critical scientific proposition, including how to evaluate the environment performance by CO2 emission, compare and find out the low-carbon urban structure, urban form and urban spatial institution and so on.Focusing to issues, an emphasis had been placed to discuss the interactive mechanism between the individual behaviors and the various urban spatial structure of China in the transition period.The residential behaviors vary significantly different by communities with dissimilar spatial characteristics.Based on the first-hand investigation data of 600 households’daily travel surveys at Beijing in 2007, the CO2 emission per household and other characteristics in daily travels during one workday were calculated, all taken place in the context of the community-family constraint mechanism set by the authors.Subsequently, the CO2 emission was presented by communities, which had been catalogued into four types, including the inner company’s communities, the block neighborhood, the outer-suburb commercial housing communities and subsidized housing communities.Averagely, 2 529.59 g CO2 were emitted during one work-day daily travel per residential household at Beijing in 2007, and the divergence was remarkable in the community level.The inner company’s communities and the block neighborhood can induce their residents’low-carbon emission, whereas the outer-suburb commercial housing communities and subsidized housing communities allocated to low-income citizens often resulted in the high-carbon travels.This community-level divergence was illustrated by the mean comparison and tiered distribution, thus the variance and cluster analysis for travel variables are related to the carbon emission.The viewpoint was that the company and block community exerted notable and positive constraint effects on individual CO2 emission for their characteristics such as mixed land-use, jobs-housings balance and the completeness of facilities provision.In contrast, the communities developed in the appliance of the zoning theory would lead to long-distance travels, expand daily travels’scale and promote the individuals to use motor and other the high-carbon travel modes.What deserve attention is that, different from travel distance and travel mode, there is no significant divergence among communities with regards to the number of travels.In conclusion, the company system and zoning system, these two contradictive spatial structure model differ completely in carbon constraint-response and effect path, that is to say that these two main spatial patterns have distinctly different environmental performances.Regarding to the implication of policy, the government should rethink the function zoning, apply the company elements more, and promot the mix land use and comprehensive balance, which are all in accordance with new urbanism and compact city.At the same time, concerned with the governance of low-carbon community, asymmetric-designed policies and controls should be designed deliberatively in view of the household travel characteristic variation by communities.
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    煤炭城市转型中的社会空间结构——以阜新为例
    魏冶, 张哲, 修春亮
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 850-857.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.850
    摘要   PDF (577KB)
    作为煤炭工业城市,阜新市处于经济和社会发展的全面转型中,其城市社会空间结构以及演变特征与国内外通常关注的综合性中心城市的案例均有所不同。利用问卷调查方法获得第一手数据,通过因子分析得到阜新市社会空间结构的5个主因子,即贫困人口、"体制内"就业人员、(原)矿业人口、私营及个体从业者以及棚户区及老旧住宅居民等;利用改进的区位商方法结合GIS制图,展示了5个主因子的空间集聚状况;采用聚类分析方法提取出"体制内"就业人员聚集区、原矿业人口他转移地区、原矿业人口自转移地区(私营及个体从业者聚集区)、待改造棚户区、贫困人口高度集中区等5类社会区;最后根据这5类社会区的空间分布特征,抽象出了转型中阜新市社会空间结构的简化模型。探讨了阜新市社会空间结构的形成机理,认为原矿业人口的转移、铁路的分隔作用、资源开发的阶段性、资源枯竭型城市经济转型、煤炭城市特殊的生态环境问题、职业分化的体制因素等是促使阜新市独特社会空间结构形成的重要因素。
    Fuxin city, Liaoning Province of China, is a coal industrial city, which is in the economic and social transition period.Its social space has some different characters from other cities.Therefore, the study on social space structure of Fuxin has theoretical and practical significance.In the research process, questionnaire survey was used to get the first-hand data.Factor analysis, location quotient analysis and cluster analysis were introduced to analyze the social space structure of Fuxin.The main analysis process contains 3 parts:First, 5 principal factors of social space in Fuxin were extracted by using factor analysis, including:1) the poor, 2) the "in system" employees, 3) the former mining workers, 4) the private and individual practitioners, as well as 5) people living in old residential quarters and shantytown.Second, improved location quotient method was utilized to analyze the spatial agglomeration of each factor with the help of GIS mapping.It was found that the spatial distribution characteristics of 5 factors were different from each other obviously.Third, cluster analysis was performed to divide the social areas.The whole Fuxin contained 5 social areas, namely, 1) the "in system" employees community, 2) the "others-transition" former mining workers community, 3) the "self-transition" former mining workers community (namely the private and individual practitioners community), 4) shantytown to reconstruct and 5) the poor concentration area.In addition, a simplified model of social space structure was abstracted according to the spatial distribution of the social areas.Easy to see from the model, almost all the social areas have some relationships with the former mining workers, and the railway is a clear dividing line.Based on the above analysis, the article also discussed the formation mechanism of social space structure of Fuxin, considering that the transition of the former mining workers, separation of the railway, resources development stage, the economic transition of resources-exhausted cities, special ecological and environmental problems of coal cities, as well as institutional factors in vocational differentiation promoted the unique social space structure of Fuxin.Especially, the transition of the former mining workers is the most important factor.
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    青藏高原东部样带农牧民生计脆弱性评估
    阎建忠, 喻鸥, 吴莹莹, 张镱锂
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 858-867.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.858
    摘要   PDF (505KB)
    脆弱性评估为脆弱性地区农户摆脱贫困、区域可持续发展提供科学依据。以青藏高原东部样带为例,基于可持续生计框架,建立了农牧民生计脆弱性评估的指标体系,利用11个乡镇的879户农牧民样本数据,开展了不同地带生计脆弱性评估。该指标体系反映了农牧民面临的主要风险,其生计资产,以及农牧民和政府应对风险的措施。结果表明:高原区农牧民生计脆弱性程度高于山原区和高山峡谷区。高原区的满掌乡最为脆弱,即便有政府的帮助,农牧民也不能应对风险。脆弱性程度高的山原区上部和高原区,处于不能适应的边缘,如不采取措施,当地牧民将不能应对气候变化、草地退化、药材退化等多种风险。导致该区牧民生计脆弱的原因既有各种风险的冲击,也因牧民自身生计资产和适应能力的不足。高山峡谷区和山原区下部的乡镇,农牧民能有效地应对风险,需进一步拓宽第二、第三产业就业渠道。因此,高原区和山原区上部的纯牧区是脆弱区域,政府应采取积极的措施,增强农牧民的适应能力。政府的救助措施应从改善自然资产转变到改善人力资产和金融资产,如技能培训、实行医保和畜病防治全覆盖、提供低息和无息贷款、在黑土滩区全面实行退牧还草、对退化草场进行治理和恢复。
    Livelihood vulnerability assessment provides a scientific basis for anti-poverty of people and regional sustainable development in vulnerable area.Although there are massive discussions on the concept of vulnerability, it is still a difficult point to make it quantitative and carry out comprehensive appraise.Vulnerability assessments based on sustainable livelihood frame are widely accepted in the case studies for attentions to vulnerable groups.However, these case studies are always on regional scale and never reflect how climate change affects people’s livelihood and adaptive capability.It is necessary to seek a vulnerable assessment index system and the means based on livelihood process of local people.This paper develops a livelihood vulnerability assessment index system on the basis of sustainable livelihood framework and appraises livelihood vulnerability values of 11 townships, using data of 879 sample households.Livelihood vulnerability assessment index system reflects main risks, livelihood assets and adaptation strategies of local people and government.The results show that livelihood vulnerability level of plateau region is higher than that of the mountainous region to the plateau region and the mountain canyon area.Manzhang Township in the plateau region is the most vulnerable township and nomads there cannot cope with risks of climate change, meadow degeneration and herbs degradation.Upper part of the mountainous region to the plateau region and the whole plateau region have high livelihood vulnerability values and local nomads would not cope with risks if no measure is taken by government.The driving forces of livelihood vulnerability include strikes of risks and deficiency of livelihood assets and adaptive capability.Farmers and nomads in high mountain canyon area and lower part of the mountain region to the plateau region can cope with these risks, meanwhile, there are more employment opportunities in secondary and tertiary industries are needed to help them realize livelihood diversification.Therefore, plateau region and upper part of mountain to plateau region is vulnerable region and active steps should be taken by government to strengthen adaptive capabilities of farmers and nomads.Government support should shift from the improvement of natural assets to that of human assets and financial assets, such as technique training, health insurance, animal disease prevention and treatment, low interest or interest-free loan, restoring gazing areas to grassland in black beach, restoring other degraded pastures.
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    长春市耕地动态变化及其驱动力分析
    刘彦彤, 张延军, 赵玲
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 868-873.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.868
    摘要   PDF (321KB)
    利用1988~2007年统计数据和土地详查与变更调查资料,分析了长春市19a间耕地总量动态变化情况,并在此基础上运用主成分分析进一步探讨了影响长春市耕地变化的主要驱动因素。结果表明:①1988~2007年长春市耕地数量总体呈下降趋势;②经济发展是长春市耕地数量变化的主要驱动因素;③主成分分析中各因子的因子载荷除林牧渔业占农林牧渔业总产值为0.575外,其他均大于0.9;④耕地产出率与林牧渔业占农林牧渔业总产值的比例因子载荷相对较高。影响长春市耕地总量动态变化的驱动因子可归纳为社会经济发展、人口增长、农业科技进步三大因素。
    The total dynamic changes of the cultivated land from 1988 to 2007 in Changchun City of Jinlin Province, China, were analyzed using the statistic data and the detailed inquisitional land materials and investigated alternated land information.On the basis of this, the main driving factors of the cultivated land amount changing were calculated using the principle component analysis.Ten correlated factors which influence the total quantity of cultivated land changing, such as total population, GDP, the investment of social fixed assets and the tertiary industrial output, etc.were also calculated at the mean time.The results shows that:from 1988 to 2007, the total amount of the cultivated land of Changchun decreased, and the economic development was the main driving factor of the amount of cultivated land in Changchun.In the principle analysis, the factors of the correlation matrix, such as the characteristic value, contribute ratio of principle component and the accumulated contribute ratio, correlated highly and inevitably.Most of the factor loadings are bigger than 0.9 except that of forestry, animal husbandry and fishery, which count for 0.575 out of the total output.Proportionality factor loads of the yield rates of the cultivated land, forestry and fishery are relatively high in the total output.It can be concluded that the main driving factors of the dynamic change of land cultivation amount are socio-economic development, population increasing and the progress of the agricultural techniques.
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    园林水景生态环境需水量的研究
    王衍祯
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 874-878.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.874
    摘要   PDF (292KB)
    基于生态环境需水量的研究方法,探讨了园林水景生态环境需水量的计算方法,将生态环境需水量引入到园林水景设计中,采取定性与定量相结合的方法,对园林水景的生态环境需水量进行研究。指出了水景中生态环境需水量的影响要素,并展开了对水景需水量的计算方法研究,以实现最小生态环境需水量,为园林水景设计者提供了科学的参考依据和方法。以朝阳公园水景为例,在不考虑公共用地取水量时,朝阳公园最大生态环境需水量为193.71万m3,中等需水量为189.81万m3,最小生态环境需水量为178.11万m3。如果朝阳公园公共用地取水来源于公园中的水体,最大需水量为404.99万m3,中等需水量为401.09万m3,最小需水量为389.39万m3
    By analysis on the waterscape design, it was found that the research about water demand of waterscape design was less, especially about the water-preservation, the ecotype water scene design, and studies on the pattern of one-third of water and 7 parks are limited.This paper introduced the volumn of ecological environment water requirement to waterscape design on the first time.By qualitative and quantitative methods, the paper carried out the study on the volumn of ecological environment water requirement for waterscape design.For example, Chaoyang Park waterscape in Beijing, under no consideration of the quantity of water consumption of public open space, the maximal, moderate and minimal quantity of ecological environment water requirement of waterscape was 193.71?104 m3, 189.81?104 m3 and 178.11?104 m3 respectively.If water consumption of public open space came form the park waterscape, the maximal, moderate and minimal quantity of ecological environment water requirement of waterscape was 404.99?104 m3, 401.09?104 m3 and 389.15?104 m3 respectively.This study provided the references and methods for waterscape designer to calculate the quantity of ecological environment water requirement.
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    面向区域的“三位一体”旅游开发战略——以抚顺市旅游发展战略为例
    邢铭, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 879-884.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.879
    摘要   PDF (315KB)
    根据旅游业的特点和区域发展规律,针对传统的单一城市旅游发展战略模式,提出要从区域整体旅游战略出发,统筹制定面向区域的一体化旅游总体发展战略。从规划角度提出了旅游开发应当从“资源开发”、“市场拓展”和“体系优化”三个方面出发,制订有针对性的战略。以抚顺市为案例,探讨了上述三个战略任务的地方性安排,即抚顺市旅游业的“龙头带动”、“区域联动”和“均衡开发”战略。
    According to the characteristics of tourism and regional development rules, and focusing on the traditional and single mode of urban tourism development strategy, this paper puts forward the trilateral regional tourism development strategy.The targeted strategy should be made in tourism development according to such principles as resources development, market expanding and system optimization.Taking the Fushun City of Liaoning Province, China, as an example, according to the actual situation and related planning, this paper analyses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats of the tourism resources and discusses the local arrangement of the above three strategic task, namely the strategy of key projects leading, regional development and system optimizing.Strategy of key projects leading means to achieve several main travel and tourism areas to lead the leapfrog development of whole service industry, which include Yong Tomb of Qing Dynasty, Leifeng Memorial, Sa-er-hu Natural Park, Qingyuan Slip Resort, and so on.Strategy of regional development means to think about the situation of around cities such as Shenyang, Anshan, Benxi, Tieling, Liaoyang and so on, although travel and tourism of around citis are competitive opponents.There are common origins of Qing Dynasty and the Manchu nationality with "one palace and three tombs of relics".Strategy of system optimizing means to keep balance of four districts(Shuncheng, Dongzhou, Xinfu and Wanghua) and three counties (Fushun, Qingyuan and Xinbin), and optimize the service facilities of travel, which include hotels, restaurants, tourism shops, culture shows, gift manufacture industry and so on.The effective implementation of the three strategies will ensure the rapid development of regional tourism of whole Fushun city.
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    旅游网站信息流距离衰减的集中度研究
    张秋娈, 路紫
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 885-890.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.885
    摘要   PDF (463KB)
    通过百度、Google、Alexa、Cnzz等多种网络搜索引擎和网站访问量统计工具获取了24个旅游网站分省访问量资料,运用Origin软件评估了旅游网站信息流距离衰减的曲线模型,在此基础上深入研究了旅游网站信息流距离衰减的集中度问题。研究经过3个阶段,逐级递进分别应用Zipf定律、地理集中度指数和指数模型3种方法,描述了空间分布的集中性,揭示了本地集中性与经济集中性特征,讨论了本地集中性与指数模型符合性的关系。研究发现:①旅游网站信息流的位序—规模分布符合Zipf定律,以单分形特征为主,其信息流的规模结构主体呈Pareto分布模式,具有明显的空间分布集中性,该集中性表现为随分维值大小而相应变化。②各旅游网站信息流距离衰减的区位商值大于1的省份主要为网站所在省或经济发达省份,距离衰减具有明显的本地集中性和经济集中性特征;各旅游网站信息流距离衰减的空间洛伦茨曲线呈内凹型,且多数网站基尼系数大于0.5,距离衰减的集中度较高、空间分布不均衡。③旅游网站信息流距离衰减的本地集中性受旅游网站性质影响,且其本地集中性越强,指数模型拟合优度指数越高,指数模型与网站数据点的匹配效果越好,各省份访问量越接近标准曲线,与拟合曲线的吻合度越高。④旅游网站信息流距离衰减的集中性特征,为旅游目的地确定目标市场和旅游网站的建设与营销提供了理论支持。
    This paper gets the traffic data of each province in 24 tourism websites by using Baidu, Google, Alexa, Cnzz and other Internet search engines and statistic tool of website traffic.It evaluates the curve model of distance decay of information flow in tourism website, and based on this, further explores the concentration of distance decay of information flow in tourism website.This study includes three stages in which those websites are analyzed by means of going forward by using Zipf law, geographic concentration index and the exponential model.The paper not only describes the concentration of spatial distribution, but also reveals the character of local concentration and economic concentration, and discusses the relationship between local concentration and compliance of exponential model.The research findings are:① rank-size distribution of information flow in tourism website follows Zipf law, mainly shows a single fractal characteristic, and the main scale structure of information flow shows Pareto distribution pattern with significant concentration of spatial distribution.The concentration changed correspondingly with the value of fractal dimension.② The provinces that location quotient value of distance decay of information flow in tourism website bigger than 1 are the tourism website located provinces or economy developed provinces.And the distance decay has obvious local concentration and economic concentration.The spatial Lorenz curve of the distance decay of information flow in tourism websites are concave, and the Gini coefficients of the most tourism websites are more than 0.5.The concentration of distance decay is higher, and imbalance in spatial distribution.③ The local concentration of distance decay of information flow in tourism website is influenced by the nature of the tourism website.The stronger local concentration, the higher of the (goodness-of-fit index), the better match of exponential model with the data points of the website, the closer to standard curve of the various provinces’traffic, the higher match with the fitting curves, the higher traffic proportion of tourism website located province.④ The concentration character of information flow distance decay in tourism websites give a theoretical support to tourist destination defining and tourism websites building and marketing.
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    美国城市郊区化及对策对中国城市节约增长的启示
    刘艳艳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (7): 891-896.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.07.891
    摘要   PDF (328KB)
    城市的空间发展中一直同时存在着向心集聚和离心扩散两个过程,郊区化是城市中心区离心扩散力量超过向心集聚力量的一种空间表现形式,能有效缓解大城市因规模扩大而带来的人口密集、交通拥挤等现象;但同时也会产生土地资源浪费、生态环境破坏、阶层分化隔离以及内城衰退等负面影响。美国的城市郊区化现象最为典型,在应对郊区化问题,如怎样有序的建设和管理以及处理好建设和保护的关系等方面积累了丰富的经验。然而,由于土地所有制和城市化阶段的不同,中国与西方发达国家的郊区化呈现出不同特点。中国目前正处于快速城市化时期,由于GDP导向下的城市空间跨越式发展使得一些大城市已出现郊区化现象,导致"外溢—回波"效应突出等问题。通过对中﹑美城市郊区化现象进行比较分析,同时借鉴美国在有效发挥郊区化作用和解决郊区化造成的问题方面的先进经验,并基于城市节约增长的视角,研究如何提高城市空间增长的效率,希望在先进理念、管理技术以及协调政府和市场职能作用方面对城市发展做出有效的把握和引导。
    There has been always centralizing and centrifugal forces during the urban spatial development processes.Suburbanization is a centrifugal process of urbanization that the centre centrifugal diffusion power is over the centripetal agglomeration.This phenomenon can not only effectively relieve the problems caused by urban expansion, such as high population density and traffic congestion, but also bring some negative effects, like a waste of land resources, the damage of ecological environment, the isolation of class differentiation and the recession of inner city.The United States is one of the most typical countries with suburbanization and has a wealth of experience in dealing with the problems caused by suburbanization, such as how to keep construction and management in good order and handle the relationship between construction and protection.However, because of the different land ownership and urbanization stages between China and western developed countries, the suburbanization phenomenon presents different characteristics.China is in the period of rapid urbanization.Due to the GDP-oriented during the great-leap-forward of urban spatial development, suburbanization has appeared in some well-developed cities, which cause "Spillover-Echo" problem, for example, people in new city cannot achieve on-site job, while the central city is too crowded.In this paper, the suburbanization in the United States and China are compared in details.And methods of enhancing the efficiency of urban spatial growth are proposed from the perspective of efficient growth to guide the city development in China.Learning from advanced experiences of the United States in both effectively making use of suburbanization function and solving the problems caused by suburbanization, and from the perspective of urban efficient growth, it is tried to study how to improve the efficiency of urban spatial growth, and make an effective guidance in growth idea, management technique and the coordinating of the government and the market function of urban development.
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