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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1981年, 第1卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1981-01-20    下一期
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    论文
    国际地理学研究动向
    黄秉维
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 2-10.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.2
    摘要   PDF (2780KB)
    第二次世界大战以来,特别是60年代以来,地理学发生了很大变化。但各国情况很不相同,发展方向亦不一致,甚至在一个国家之内,十多年间就有几次曲折和反复。仅从该国的主要地理学期刊还不能全面了解演变的潮流,以下只能就显而易见的迹象,提述若干要点。
    The main features of recent development in geography are briefly surveyed.Thisis followed by a critical examination of the so-called quantitative revolution and ashort account of new techniques applied in certain areas of research.The finalsection begins with the discussion on the negligence of the physical setting instudies of human geography and the weakening of physical geography and its var-ious branches in a number of countries,and subsequent to this is a descriptionof the status of three fields of research.1.geomorphology,2.land resourcesand ecosystems and,3.water cycle and water resources.
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    农业区划问题的探讨
    周立三
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 11-21.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.11
    摘要   PDF (2940KB)
    近年来,在全国范围内,再一次广泛地开展了农业区划工作。大家在这一实际工作中愈来愈认识到农业区划研究对于促进我国社会主义农业现代化建设具有十分重要的意义。同时,在逐步形成和建立我国农业区划体系方面,也取得不少新的经验。以下仅就这方面问题谈几点看法。
    According to the basic characteristics of agricultural production and the objectiveconditions of the agricultural regionalization,this paper has mainly analysed andintroduced the purpose and necessity Of the agricultural regionalization and its system.This system is vertically divided into different grades from country level to countylevel,and horizontally divided into natural regionalization,specializational regiona-lization and complex regionalization.In addition,according to the actual conditionsof China,the paper has stated systematically the basic contents of the agriculturalregionalization and its working method.At the same time,the paper has made ascientific approach to some active problems existing in the agricultural regiona-lization,such as the relationships between agricultural regionalization and agriculturalprogramme,agricultural regionalization and administrative division,agriculturalregionalization and agricultural modernization and present agricultural productivestatus and its long range plan,etc.
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    化学地理学发展新阶段
    唐永銮
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 22-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.22
    摘要   PDF (2588KB)
    六十年代初,中国地理学界首先提出化学地理,到现在已经过整整二十年。在漫长岁月中,化学地理学经历过不平凡的变化,由播种、发芽,到现在已开着茂盛花朵,结着丰硕的果实。分支科学——水化学、大气化学、土壤化学和生物化学地理、区域化学地理等均逐渐壮大,在农业、林业、医学和环境保护等部门得到广泛应用。随着现代科学技术的迅速发展,特别是在分子生物学、量子化学、湍流理论、变流学和近代应用数学与系统论及光电分析技术和计算技术等推动下,化学地理学已进入到新阶段,出现了“第二代”化学地理。
    This paper places its emphasis on the analysis of changes in the field ofchemical geography in China for the last twenty years.Chemical geography is abranch of physical geography.At early 60’s of the 20th century,it was onlyconsidered as the science dealing with the transfer of the elements on the surfaceof the earth and confined to the study of the simple cycle of the elements,andit was in a static state of qualitative study.With the rapid development of modern science and technology,chemical geographyhas entered a new era,and become the science studying the transfer laws andchange mechanisms of substances in the geographical environment by means of thesystem theory.Thus,it has been changed from the study of static state into study ofits dynamic state.The author,based on his study in this field for these twentyyears,presents here to the readers with the new developments in the followingaspects:1.The system analysis of environment;2.The changes of substances in the system;3.The matter flow in the system.
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    三江平原东北部微承压水区并排井灌改造沼泽的理论分析
    曾建平, 王春鹤, 宋德人, 孙广友
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 30-43.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.30
    摘要   PDF (3062KB)
    三江平原是我国最大的沼泽区和重要的商品粮基地。全区尚有近三千万亩沼泽湿地未能合理利用,现有耕地也受春旱秋涝的频繁威胁,以致粮食产量长期处于低而不稳的状态。这个问题在东北部的建三江农场管理区尤其突出。由于该区地面排水不畅和远离承泄区,所以明渠排水往往事倍功半。经过几年在该区进行井排井灌小区试验表明,该措施不仅能促进地表水和地下水的相互转化,化害为利,综合利用水资源;而且不受地表承泄条件限制,是一个既能排又能灌,一井两用,排灌结合改造沼泽的新途径。本文拟就大面积井群排灌改造沼泽问题作一初步探讨,以期为扩大试验和推广应用提供初步的理论根据。
    Based on the typical region experiments of well-drainage and well-irrigation and regional hydrogeological survey data in1/200000,this reporthas approached the problem of transforming the swamp by means ofgroup well-drainage and irrigation of a large area in the micro-pressurewater region of northeast Sanjiang Plain,through the calculation of thefalling depth of water level both in partly interferring recovery andregional evenly spaced well layout,and balanced calculation between theunderground storage capacity and drain-quantity of surface waterrequired.The priliminary theoretical basis for enlarging experiments andextending applications on the new measure of well-drainage and well-irrigation is thus provided.
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    北京地区的太阳能资源
    左大康
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 44-51.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.44
    摘要   PDF (2641KB)
    太阳能是一种取之不尽、用之不竭的能量资源,它的利用将为国民经济中动力资源的增长和人民物质生活的改善创造良好的条件。我国的西北地区、内蒙、华北平原和青藏高原,云量少,日照多,太阳辐射强度大,太阳能资源极为丰富,是利用太阳能最有前途的地区。要成功地在各个地区利用太阳能,设计和制造用于不同目的,并在经济上合算的太阳能利用器,首先需要了解各个地区可供实际利用的太阳能量。本文的目的在于以北京地区为例,计算可供太阳能利用器利用的太阳辐射能量。
    This paper tends to estimate the mean values of direct solar radiationover a vertical surface as well as total solar radiation on horizontal su-rface under fine weather conditions on hourly,monthly,seaonal,andannual bases in the Beijing Region by using the observational data of so-lar radiation and sunshine record obtained at one-hour interval in Beijingfrom May 1957 to April 1967.It also gives the average time intervals andnumber of hours in terms of direct solar radiation and total solar radiationthat are available for industry in individual days each month.According tosunshine-record analysis,109.2k.cal./cm2.year of direct solar radiationover a vertical surface and 89.4 k.cal./cm2.year of total solar radiationon horizontal surface in a clear day may be attainable.The annual hoursof effective sunshine are 2287;while the average deviation of intra annu-al effective solar radiation is mostly less than 9%.
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    陆地卫星图象在洞庭湖芦苇资源调查中的应用
    刘侠, 张树林, 苏文盛
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 52-57.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.52
    摘要   PDF (2508KB)
    洞庭湖是我国第二大淡水湖。湖区面积广阔,河网纵横,洲滩众多。在大面积的河湖滩地上,芦苇生长非常繁茂。长期以来,由于通行条件限制,湖区芦苇资源一直未进行系统研究,缺乏可靠的资料。这对发展芦苇生产、合理利用资源十分不利。采用先进方法快速、准确地查明湖区芦苇资源,是当前生产和科研工作中亟待解决的课题。
    Dongting Lake is the second large fresh water lake of China.Reedsgrow thickly and luxuriantly on a great tract of banks and shores of therivers and lakes.Rather satisfactory results of determining the extent ofreed distribution,calculating its size,growing and yield,and developingreed distribution diagram,through Landsat images analysis,aerial surveyand field investigation,are obtained.In the Landsat false eolour composite images and MSS7,the colourand grey stage of reed resources and those of ground objects surround themare quite different,the demarcation lines are clear,and images are noti-ceable.According to study and interpretation,the reed-growing area ofDongting Lake amounts to 937,500mu.Rough estimates of reed productionbased on the break up of density,the figurative analyses of the images ofLandsat MSS7 made by computers,and the data sampling of the fieldsurvey of per-unit yield are rational.Estimates show that the reed pro-duction of 1980 of Dongting Lake area will come up to 600,000—630,000tons.
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    长白山天池水化学
    朱颜明, 佘中盛, 富德义, 黄锡畴, 李岫霞, 毛雪英
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 58-65.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.58
    摘要   PDF (2666KB)
    长白山自然保护区是目前我国最大的自然保护区,也是国际生物圈保留地网之组成部分。长白山是一座休火山,在火山锥体的顶部中央处,有一地势凹陷的火山口,积水成湖,这就是驰名中外的长白山天池。天池是中朝两国界湖,也是我国东北海拔最高的湖泊。至今基本未受人类生产活动的直接影响。湖水的化学组成状况主要受控于自然因素,因此,开展天池水化学组成的研究,对于森林生态、环境保护、地质找矿,以及表生带化学元素迁移途径和机理的阐明等都具有十分重要的意义。
    Up to now the natural reserves of Mt.Changbai is the largest inChina,and it is also a component part of the MAB Program.Tian-chiof Mt.Changbain is a boundary lake situated between China and Korea,and it is also the source of the Songhua River.It is very significant tothe environmental protection and the ecology of forest to study thechemical composition of water in Tien-chi Lake.In this study,different techniques and methods have been employed,50 items of the constant and microconstituent elements were determined,the spacial distribution of chemical composition in the lake water wasfound,and the background content of chemical elements of water wascalculated for the first time,and the formational mechanism of thehydrochemistry was clarified.According to investigation and analysis,the content of rare elements,especially rare earth elements as La,Co,etc.,in water of Tian-chi Lake is very high.The consentrations of mostheavy metal such as Cu,Mn,Ni,Zn,Co,etc.,in water approach theClarke values in the hydrosphere.The contents of some heavy metalssuch as Cr,Cd,Hg,Zn,Co,As,etc.,related clos ly to human activityare far lower than the average value of 45 lakes in U·S·A.The content ofPb in water of Tian-chi Lake is particularly high.about 3 times asmuch as the average value of the latter.That is mainly caused by theinfluence of biogeochemical region with higher content of Pb,it hasno relation with environmental pollution.
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    西藏高原的盐湖资源及其利用
    郑喜玉, 于升松
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 66-76.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.66
    摘要   PDF (3077KB)
    号称“世界屋脊”的西藏高原,盐湖星罗棋布。据初步统计,该区约有盐湖170多个,面积达6000多平方公里。它是我国盐湖分布最多的地区,同时,也是世界上重要盐湖分布区之一。在盐湖中,除蕴藏着大量的石盐、芒硝、硼酸盐等具有工业价值的固体盐类沉积外,卤水中的钾、镁、硼、锂、铷、铯等元素的含量之高,储量之大,在世界上也是罕见的。全面地考察和研究该区的盐湖,不仅对研究高原的隆起,而且对发展当地工、农、牧业生产皆具有十分重要的意义。本文着重探讨西藏的盐湖分布、物质成分、形成和资源开发利用问题。
    The Xizang Plateau is an area in which there are many salt lakes andrich in resources.The salt lakes contain nearly forty kinds of chemicalelements and twenty-seven kinds of minerals,especially their high contentand large reserves of boron,lithium and potassium,etc.,which are wellknown to the world.On the basis of analyzing the distribution,the hydrochemical charac-teristics,the salt-forming law of the salt lakes in Xizang plateau,togetherwith the geolgical structure,palaeogeographic environments and the stronghydrothermal activities of the plateau,this article has discussed the condi-tions of the formation of the salt lakes and the mechanism of their genesis.We consider that the block basin was the topographical basis for the fossillakes formed the arid climate was the palaeogeographic environments affe-cting the salinization of lake water and controlling the distribution of saltlakes,and the strong natural hydrothermal circulation has supplied abundantboron,lithium and potassiou,and other materials to the salt lakes.
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    温州地区海滨沼泽的初步研究
    季中淳
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 77-84.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.77
    摘要   PDF (2776KB)
    海滨沼泽是农业自然资源的重要组成部分,它在我国沿海各省均有分布。现以温洲地区为例,对海滨沼泽的概念、类型成因以及保护利用等方面,提出一些看法。海滨沼泽是沼泽自然综合体的一个类型,是近岸陆地为海水和地表水所浸渍而过渡湿润了的地带,有喜湿性植物的生长(包括藻类植物)和底栖生物种群的活动,在嫌气环境下有潜育化现象的发生,有一定数量有机质的积累(包括底栖生物种群活动的产物及其残体分解、合成的有机质)。海滨沼泽涉及的范围包括陆架最上部潮下带的部分地区、潮间带以及潮上带至海岸—级阶地前缘的低地。地貌单元分属于海湾、河口、三角洲以及滨海平原低地。
    This paper mainly approaches the classification,basic characteristics,formation and succession of the coastal marsh in Wenzhou region of ZhejiangProvince,and analyzes the problems of the development and utilization of coastalmarsh resources in the respect of ecosystem.
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    问题讨论
    环境质量的系统分析
    董雅文, 何国瑜, 钱君龙, 权力莉, 马杏法, 张水铭
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 85-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.85
    摘要   PDF (2757KB)
    环境质量是环境的一个重要属性。环境质量系统分析的目的,是揭示影响环境质量的各种因素(自然、人文)间的内在联系及其与环境质量的关系,可为制定环境保护规划、区域发展规划、环境管理等提供科学依据。应用系统科学的理论与方法研究环境质量的特点:(1) 把环境中有联系的事物与现象看作为一个整体,通过理论模型与数学模拟来表征或反映事物现象间的相互关系;(2) 通过对信息输入与输出关系的动态分析,可以揭示环境质量的时空变化规律,(3) 在一定条件下,可以根据环境组分的因果关系追踪污染源。本文以南京东北郊土壤环境为例,概括介绍环境质量系统分析的主要内容。
    A preliminary effort of the systems analysis for soil environmental quality atregional scale has been made on the basis of systems theory and its method.Thepurpose is to reveal the internal relations and interactions of the various factors(natural and artificial)affecting the enviromental quality,and the combined influenceof the factors on environmental quality.Human activities have a great influenceon material circulation,energy transformation and information transfer in theenvironmental systems.Sometimes,the influence of pollutant factors on environmentalquality may be reduced by the action of the purifying factors.The matrix equation for the relation of the environmental quality to its affecting factors is suggested:Z=AC;where Z is the matrix of measured value of the environmental qualityaffecting factors,A is the matrix of weight coefficient of synthetic index,andC is the matrix of scores of synthetic index.Based on the prepared program,the calculation has been accomplished with computer TQ-16.Synthetic analysis ofthe results obtained has been made with reference to the experimental discrimination.Accrding to data,the examined district may be divided into three types of uniformregional pattern:1.BHC pollution,2.lead pollution caused by geochemistryanomaly,and 3.mixed pollution(chrome,lead,BHC).
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    学术活动
    泥炭资源、分析方法及《泥炭分析方法规范》鉴定会等三会先后召开
    马学慧
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 93-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.93
    摘要   PDF (2122KB)
    我国泥炭资源比较丰富,约有270亿吨。目前,泥炭在工业、农业、医药卫生和环境保护等方面得到越来越广泛的使用。为了有计划地开采和合理利用泥炭资源,近几年来,煤炭部组织有关单位进行泥炭资源考察和质量评价。煤炭部综合利用局于1981年4月1日至5日,在长春召开了泥炭资源考察座谈会。
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    芬兰泥炭、沼泽考察
    刘兴土, 万恩璞
    地理科学. 1981, 1 (1): 94-95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1981.01.94
    摘要   PDF (1891KB)
    1980年6月29日至7月29日,我们作为中国科学院泥炭资源考察组访问芬兰,受到了芬兰国家地质研究所和有关研究机构、大学、工厂、农场的热情接待。芬兰位于欧洲北部,大部分地区属于寒温带针叶林气候。晚更新世末冰川退却时残留下来的冰碛湖和洼地以及冷湿的气候,为沼泽形成提供了良好的条件。
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· 声明
  2019-03-04
· 新年贺词
  2018-12-25
· 新春祝福
  2016-12-30
· 《地理科学》影响因子年报(2016版)
  2016-09-18
· 祝贺我刊三篇文章入选“首届最具影响力中国地理期刊优秀论文”
  2016-05-31
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  2016-05-11



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