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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1987年, 第7卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1987-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国西部现代雪线的趋势面分析
    蒋忠信
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 1-8,101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.1
    摘要   PDF (477KB)
    中国西部现代雪线的一次趋势面,为一向东北方倾斜的平面,二次趋势面为一向东北方倾伏的"背斜"。表明纬度、距东海距离和地势是影响中国西部现代雪线高度H的主要因素。H决定于水平地带性、海陆分布和地势起伏。
    The analysis of twenty five existent snowline elevation values in west China indicates that snowline elevation H (meter) presents zonality change declining from south to north with latitude φ(degree) and the change declining from west to east.with longitude,which relates to distance L (kilometer) to east coastline.Therefore,first order trend surface equation of the snowline in west China is:
    H=7800+0.444L-110φ Its goodness of fit is 82.53%.The equation shows a plane inclined southwest to northeast.Second order trend surface equation of the snowline in west China is:
    H=2.957L+554.9φ-0.0001151L2-0.05354-6.991φ2-7555
    Its goodness of fit reaches 93.39%.The equation represents really distribution law of the snowline in west China.Its form resembles a "overturning anticline" from southwest to northeast.The "raised axis" seems to be superimposed upon first order trend surface,which reflects the effect of relief. The snowline elevation in west China depends on horizontal zonality,the distribution of ocean and land,and the relief.
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    学术活动
    《地理科学》举办中青年优秀论文评选活动公告
    《地理科学》编委会
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 9-9.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.9
    摘要   PDF (58KB)
    为了促进地理科学的繁荣昌盛,使学术刊物更好地为出成果出人才服务,《地理科学》编委会特决定自1686年起,设立中青年优秀论文奖励基金,并举办每年一度的中青年优秀论文评选活动。评选对象主要是中青年地学工作者(55岁副教授以下,含55岁副教授)在当年《地理科学》上发表的学术论文。
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    论文
    洞庭湖水沙特性与湖泊沉积
    林承坤
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 10-18,101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.10
    摘要   PDF (578KB)
    洞庭湖是我国第二大谈水湖,湖泊面积2740平方公里,容积178亿立米,注入该湖的年平均逗流总量290。亿立米,年来沙量184.83 × 106吨.根据沙量平衡原理,计算出其年平均沉积量139.80 × 106吨。洞庭湖沉积治理的根本措施是兴建长江三峡水库,控制洪水,减少入湖泥沙。
    The Dongting Lake,the second largest freshwater lake in China is located in the middle reaches of the Changjiang River.Up to 1974,It covered an area of 2740 km2,the total storage capacity was 27.4 billion m3,the average annual runoff flowing into the Dongting Lake was 352 billion m3,of which 48.6% came from four rivers (the Xiangjiang River, the Yuanjiang River,the Zi River and the Li River),33.9% from three diversion waterways of the Jingjiang River (Ouchi waterway,Songzi waterway and Hudu waterway)and the rest 17.5% from others.Hydrological data from 1958 to 1978 showed that the average amount of sediment transported into the Dongting Lake was 184.83 million tons per yeax,of which 82.1% was from three diversion waterways of the Jingjiang River,and 17.9% from the four rivers.The grain diameter of sediment from the three diversion waterways was coarser than those from the four rivers.According to balance principle of sediment amount,it was calculated that deposition rate of the Dongting Lake was 134 million tons per year,42.41 million,tons in the west and 92.39 million tons in the east of the Dongting Lake.Comparing 1951-1958 with 1972-1978,deposition rate decreased by 46.3%.The reasons were 1)the deposition of the three diversion waterways of the Jingjiang River led to the decrease of the sediment transport capacity,2)the flood channel formed by the deposition of the Dongting Lake led to the increase of sediment transport capacity.The essential measures to control and administrate the deposition of the Dongting Lake should be taken to build Sanxia reservoir in the Changjiang River,to control flood,to build floodgates in three diversion waterways to lower inflow of sediment into the Dongting Lake.But at present,it is necessary to administrate flood channel to increase sediment transport capacity.
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    我国土壤中铜、锌、镍的背景含量和趋势分布
    王景华
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 19-28,101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.19
    摘要   PDF (675KB)
    本文研究了我国21种主要土壤类型Cu Zu Ni的背景值,探讨了18个地区土壤背景值的差异,在大面积研究土攘背景值分布特征的基础上,提出了我国土雄Cu的趋势分布,圈定了Cu的高背景区与低背景区.
    The background values of Cu,Zn and Ni are discussed based on the analytical data of 21 main soil types collected from various regions in China. According to statistics of many samples,the background value of Cu is 23.4?10.2ppm (482samples),Zn 77.9?2.39ppm (474 samples),Ni 30.0? 12.8ppm (482 samples).The background values of these elements in various soils are given in the paper.The author,taking the background values obtained as the standard value,compared the background values of soils in 18 regions.For example the background values of Cu,Zn and Ni have exceeded the standard value in Tulufan,Xinjiang Autonomous Region,on the other hand,they have not exceeded the standard value in Guangzhou,Zhanjiang and the Hainan Island in Guangdong Province (Ni as an exception in the Hainan Island).In accordance with the characteristics of background values in soils of China,the distribution of Cu in soils of China is proposed and the regions with high and low background values are given.
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    晚更新世末期以来辽东半岛东部滨海沉积相与沉积环境的探讨
    符文侠, 何宝林, 孙试斌, 贾钖钧
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 29-34,101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.29
    摘要   PDF (1040KB)
    本文通过沉积垂直序列和沉积年代的分析,探讨晚更世末期以来,辽东半岛东部海侵趋势和沉积环境的变化。
    Based on the data of drilling sampling,spore-pollen and micropaleontologic analysis,C14 datings and field survey,the authors made a preliminary approach to the characteristics,distribution area,thichness and age of deposits mainly consisting of diluvial-alluvial,lacustrine and marine facies deposits in littoral area of the east Liaodong Peninsula.The deposit environment change since the late stage of the late Pleistocene,and transgression trend in the Holocene were chiefly analysed,for example,the time when transgression began and reached peak,transgression seope,regression time, and frequency and age of intermittent stop of sea level in regression pro-
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    弯曲河流形成条件的实验研究
    洪笑天, 马绍嘉, 郭庆伍
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 35-40,42,43,101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.35
    摘要   PDF (867KB)
    本文主要通过曲流模型试验复演曲流过程和分析曲流形成的一些外部条件。着重讨论河谷儿何原始状态、流量变幅和频率、泥沙运动特性及侵蚀基准面变化等因素对形成弯曲河道的影响。
    Mmovement track of a unit water body in nature is always winding. It is a natural character of water movement and an internal condition to form the meanders in rivers.Initial shape of a valley,amplitude and frequency of discharge change,mechanism of sediment transportation in rivers and change of basic level of erosion are all important factors influencing meander development.Analysis of the test data of natural models shows that vertical slope of valley,too large or too small,can not make rivers to form meanders.Small transverse slope widen easily river width,favourable to development of branched channel.By contrast,large transverse slope limits width of meander belt,unfavourable to meander development.So does the amplitide of discharge change,if the amplitide is over large,derivation of thalweg track between flood and dry seasons is too large, if over small,the point bar grows slowly,both of them can not get favourable conditions for meander development.Descent of basic level of erosion increases vertical slope of rivers,to make rivers to branch.In special geographic conditions whether a river can develop into meandering river depends on suitable combination of influencing factors,instead of single factor.
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    三江平原地区商品粮生产潜力和发展规模的研究
    王本琳, 王瑞英, 高景洲, 齐晓宁
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 44-53,101.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.44
    摘要   PDF (1073KB)
    本文通过对三江平原粮食生产量、需要量和供需平衡的预测,探讨了该区商品粮生产潜力和发展规模,为保证商品粮稳定增长提出若干建议,
    This paper analyses the existing problems in commodity grain production(CGP),evaluates the present CGP and proves some disputed issues,such as whether to continue to continue to develop CGP or not,The paper centres on researching potential and scale of CGP through calculating the amounts of both grain yield and demand,and puts foreward two calculating plans,which calculate the amounts of grain yield and consumption,and give the upper and lower limits of commodity grain,They are all very helpful to decision-makers,At last the paper also makes five rationalized suggestions in order to ensure the steady growth of fututre commodity grain.
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    浑源县农业最优结构规划
    郑剑非, 梅旭荣, 卢志光, 何少斌
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 54-64,102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.54
    摘要   PDF (601KB)
    本文试用多目标线性规划方法解决多层次结构的农业生产间题,采用六个目标函数建立约束方程,对山西省浑源县农业生产进行气候分析,并做出了1990年展望。
    The authors try to use multi-objective linear programming method to solve the problem of agricultural production with multi-hierarchial structures.Six Objective functions i.e.potential of climate production,actural climate yield,climatic suitability,production level index,output value and yield are used to build restricted equations.With the purpose of high yield, good quality and low expense,climatic analysis of agro-production and prospect of 1990 have been done for Hunyuan county,Shanxi province.It shows that both yield and output value will be increased by 13% without increasing land area and investment.An optimized proportion of agriculture,forestry and animal husbandry can be reached and the feasible proof is provided for the development of agricultural production.
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    长白山地区生态经济系统分析及调控研究
    白效明, 曹喆
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 65-72,102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.65
    摘要   PDF (536KB)
    本文采用生态经济学的理论和方法,对吉林省长白山地区生态经济系统现状结构和功能进行了分析,找出了日前资源开发与生态环境保护存在的主要问题,并通过系统工程的方法,提出了人工调控本区农林生态经济系统,改善本区生态环境不断恶化的途径。
    The Changbai Mountain District situated in the southeastern part of northeast China is the most typical mountainous district of temperate region, which is abundant in natural resourcese,specially renewable resources. However,its ecological environment has become worse and worse due to the intensification of human activities.Based on the theory of ecological economy9 the article studied the structure and function of ecological and economic system of the district with systematic engineering analysis method, and also made a preliminary research on the control,in order to resolve the contradiction between development and protection of natural resources,and recover and preserve super ecological environment.The theory and method of ecological economy based on the principles of systematic science should be the optimal means for studying and researching the regional environment and finding the improving ways.The article is trying to research the optimized methed for control through the study of structure and function of ecological and economic systems of the Changbai Mountain District in Jilin Province.
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    浙西天目山区的景观分异和区域整治
    陈初才
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 73-81,102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.73
    摘要   PDF (611KB)
    本文研究了天目山区的景观类型,并将其划分为3个景观带、10个景观纲和50个景观群。在探讨景观类型和演化的基础上,提出了区域农业发展和整治的具体措施。
    The Tianmu mountainous region situated in the northwest of Zhejiang Province,is a developed economic region in the subtropical zone.The artical intends to study the relationship of landscape types and regional administration in the Tianm umountainous region."Landscape" is treated as the complex of physical and artificial factors.Climate,landform,vegetation(ineluding artificial vegetation) and soil are all the chief criteria of landscape classification.The mountainous region is classified into the 3 landscape zones,10 landscape classes,50 landscape groups and many microlandscape assemblages.Based on the study of the landscape types and evolution,the author put forward the following measures of the agricultural development and the administration of the region 1) determining the direction and aim of development;2) determining and establishing vertical agricultural-economic landscape zone of mountainous regions.A regional structure of landscape type is the basis for regional administration.The Tianmu mountainous region can be divided into 4 administration areas.Finally,concrete suggestions on the administration of the 4 areas are proposed.
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    研究报道
    广州城市热效应统计分析
    杨士弘
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 82-89,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.82
    摘要   PDF (473KB)
    通过统计学方法,分析了广拼城市热效应的特征和规律,并指出其与夭气状况和温度变化的关系。
    The characteristic and regularity of urban heat effect of Guangzhou City are analysed by using statistical method in this paper.The author points out that there are obvious diurnal and annual variations in intensity and frequency of urban heat effect with time in Guangzhou.The maximum intensity and frequency occurs at 8 p.m.in a day and during November and December in a year.The maximum intensity magnitude of urban heat effect in the set of 0.1—1.0℃,whose frequency is 45%.Probability which occurs when the urban heat effect is larger than 0.1℃ is 60%.Moreover the weather condition and temperature variation have great effects on the urban heat effect,which is intensified in fine weather and usually has a high random frequency in occurrence,vice versa in cloudy weather.In winter the urban heat effect is ganarally weakened when the temperature becomes higher and intensified lower temperature.On the contrary,in summer it is intensified when the temperature becomes higher a and weakened lower temperature.
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    教学研究
    现代地理学和地理教材建设
    陈传康
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 90-96,102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.90
    摘要   PDF (540KB)
    在现代整体结构观影响下,现代地理学正转变为一门综合科学.在部门地理和区域地理研究中,应建立有关地球表层或地理环境的综合理论研究.从工业社会向信息社会过渡中,地理教材编写要现代化,应培养"T"形和"干",形的交差学科人材.
    Modern geography is becoming a synthetic science under the influence of modern whole structure conception,since the object of its research the synthesis of the surface layers of the earth,include the geographical environments of nature,economy,society and haman,and aach respect can be subdivided into a series of different components.In order to meet this transformation,it is necessary for geography to establish the synthetic theoretical research relevant to the surface layers of the earth or geographical environments in the fields of departmental geography and regional geography.In the transitional period from industrial society to information one,talented persons of T-shape come out first.If the horizontal foundation is divided into two levels,the mentioned above talented persons can be called 干-shape ones.Both T-shape and 干-shape talented persons belong to the qualified scientists and technicians of interdiscipline,also called systematic talents.In order to train synthetic geographers of 干-shape,the author has given a lecture on the topic of "Scientific Philosophy and Methodology of Geoscience" at the Dapartment of Geography,Beijing University and the Postgraduate Institute of Chinese Academy of Sciences.The compilation of teaching materials of geography must direct to modernization.
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    学术活动
    “泥炭地在工业和林业利用的社会-经济效益”国际学术讨论会在芬兰举行
    赵魁义, 黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 97-97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.97
    摘要   PDF (75KB)
    国际泥炭学会(IPS)主持召开的“泥炭地在工业和林业利用的社会-经济效益学术讨论会”于1986年6月9-13日在芬兰奥鲁(Oulu)举行,有来自17个国家的160名代表参加了会议。共收集论文35篇,摘要20份。会议进行了两天半学术报告,尔后,组织参观了粤鲁泥炭发电厂、芬兰林业研究所穆候斯(Muhos)林业试验站、尤瓦斯库拉(Jyvskyl)泥炭热电厂及泥炭开采和利用,最后还参观了芬兰国家燃料中心(Vapo)展出的各种工业与民用泥炭燃料。会议期间,奥鲁大学校园陈列了芬兰制造的各种泥炭开采机械和供索取的有关资料。
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    《地理科学》第二届编辑委员会会议在北京召开
    山民
    地理科学. 1987, 7 (1): 98-98.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1987.01.98
    摘要   PDF (62KB)
    《地理科学》第二届编委会于1986年12月1日在北京召开。顾问编委丁锡祉及编委左大康、吴传钧、陈述彭、陈静生、李孝芳、李容全、施成熙、赵松乔、黄锡畴、郝凌云、李为等出席了会议。中国科学院地学部、图书情报出版委员会及科学出版社等单位的特邀代表以及编辑部全体成员也参加了会议。各地编委及代表们欢聚一堂,为期两天的会议气氛十分热烈、亲切和舒畅,会议取得了圆满的成功。《地理科学》主编黄锡畴研究员主持了会议。
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