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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1988年, 第8卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1988-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    著名地理学家黄秉维教授与化学地理学
    章申, 王明远
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 301-304,395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.301
    摘要   PDF (327KB)
    在著名地理学家黄秉维教授七十寿辰之际,本文回顾了黄先生在地理学界卓越的贡献,并衷心祝愿黄先生长寿。
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    上海城市气候中的混浊岛效应
    周淑贞, 郑景春, 邵建民
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 305-312,395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.305
    摘要   PDF (508KB)
    上海城市气候中的混浊岛效应主要表现在:(1)城郊大气质量对比表明,上海城市大气污染物(SO2、NOx、飘尘、降尘等)平均浓度明显高于郊区;(2)由于上海城市大气中凝结核丰富,热力湍流和机械湍流都比郊区强;因此城区低云量大于郊区;(3)城区混浊度因子明显大于郊区,以市区为中心形成一个显著的混浊岛。这种混浊岛效应随着上海城市的发展而逐渐增强.
    Shanghai is the largest industrial and commercial city in China.The urban turbidity island effect is remarkable. 1) The comparison of air quality between urban and rural areas shows that the concentration of urban air pollutants such as SO2,NOx,fly ash and falling dust is much higher than that of rural air pollutants. 2) Due to the more hygroscopic nuclei in the urban atmosphere and the thermal turbulence and mechanical turbulence in urban area are stronger, the low cloud amount in urban area is greater than that in rural areas. 3) Taking the ratio of solar direct radiation(S) to diffuse radiation(D) as the measure ofturbidity factor(D/S),it can be seen that the turbidity factor in urban area is obviously greater than that of suburban area.The urban district as a center,a distinct turbidity island is formed.This kind of turbidity island effect is gradually increasing with the development of Shanghai city.
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    关于地域间客运联系的研究
    张文尝
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 313-322,395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.313
    摘要   PDF (622KB)
    本文以各铁路局为地域单元,研究了地域间的客运联系.运用结合度法,对我国七大地域间的旅客交流进行了定性与定量分析.
    It is significant in theory and practice to study quantitatively passenger interflow,which could reveal the spatial structure of transport and the inte-ractions between regions.In the past decades,the total volume of passenger interflow among railway bureaus accounted for 8.0-11.0 per cent of the total railway passenger traffic volume,but by 1986 it increased to 12.7 per cent.The relationship of passenger interflow among seven regions in China is analyzed.According to the results of quantitative analysis,the passenger interflow among regions in China can be classified into four types with dif-ferent rates of interflow:over 18per cent,14-17 per cent,10-13 per cent and less than 10 per cent.Absolute and relative interaction intensities are defined The passenger interflow among twenty regions in China is researched with the above-me-ntioned two indexes.
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    黄土梁峁地区影响黄土侵蚀的地貌条件分析
    陈渭南
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 323-329,395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.323
    摘要   PDF (430KB)
    本文以无定河流域黄土丘陵地区为例,应用数量地貌学方法,提出"地貌曝露面"的概念,分析论证影响黄土侵蚀的地貌条件及其相互制约关系.结果表明,地貌要素之间除沟谷密度和坡长表现为负对数关系外,其余均为幂函数关系.沟谷密度、坡长与地貌曝露面间为线性相关;坡度与地貌曝露面间为幂函数关系.用文中模型可预测侵蚀强度.
    By using quantitative geomorphical method and taking the Wuding River basin as an example,this paper puts forward the conceptof exposure surface of landform,which represents the possible erosive area in a region,and deals with the geomorphic conditions effecting loess erosion.The relations between each pair of morphological parameters are as follows: D=12.89H0.69 r=0.77 D=0.374A0.778 r=0.94 D=-4.061gL-2.13 r=-0.9 H=0.014A0.85 r=0.92 Sp=0.9+0.85L r=0.83 Sp=0.559A0.66 r=0.94 where D is gully-valley density (km/km2),H is relative height (km),L is length of slope (km),A is average angle of slope and Sp is potential expos-ure surface of landform (km2/km2).Most of them are significant at 0.01 level.The author thinks that the models can be used to predict the intensi-ty of loess erosion. M=3046.45+73.23H r=0.83 M=27.54Sp1.27 r=0.98 where M is the soil erosion modulus (T/km2·yr).
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    用特征数值法确定含水系统的水位响应矩阵
    宿青山, 孙永堂, 宋永洪
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 330-338,395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.330
    摘要   PDF (468KB)
    本文在阐述定解问题迭加原理的基础上,论述了用特征数值法确定含水系统响应矩阵的原理及计算步骤.此方法物理意义清楚,并免避了由于时间离散而产生的误差.
    Response matrix method has a widespread application in groundwater resources management.An eigenvalue numerical technique for determining the response matrix of aquifer system is introduced on the basis of discussion of superposition principle.The principle and computing procedure of determining response matrix of aquifer system using eigenvalue numerical method is in-troduced in detail through an example.From this procedure the physical meaning of response matrix becomes clear and the error due to time discre-tion is avoided.
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    我国制糖工业布局态势及其调整构想
    李为
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 339-347,395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.339
    摘要   PDF (688KB)
    我国制糖工业总的态势是:食糖主要产区分布于我国南方和北方.并形成从南北产地向中部运输销售的格局.这一态势的形成主要取决于原料、消费市场和运输学因素.甘蔗和甜菜等制糖工业原料集中分布于南方和北方,而消费市场又主要分布于中部特别是黄河与长江中下游地区是形成制糖工业布局的基本原因.调整制糖工业布局的基本构想是:①建立制糖工业原料和生产基地;②根据原料集中程度,形成大中小型相结合的布局体系;③划分合理的食糖产销区.
    The general state of China’s sugar industry distribution is that the ma-jor producing areas of sugar are distrbuted in south and north of China,and the pattern formed is that the sugar produced in south and north is transp-orted to the central part and sold there.The formation of this state depen-ds mainly on these factors of raw materials,consumption markets and tran-sportation.The raw material of sugar industry—sugar-canes and sugar-beets are concentratedly distributed in north and south,while consumption mark-ets in the central part,especially in the middle and lower reaches of the Huanghe and Changjiang rivers,which are the major reason causing such distribution of sugar industry.The principal conception for readjusting the distribution of sugar industry is as follows:1) establishing raw material and producing bases of sugar industry;2) forming the distribution system of la-rge,medium and small-sized sugar refineries combination according to the concentration degree of the raw material;and 3) dividing rational producing and sale areas of sugar.
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    城市大气污染源评价及环境预测方法的探讨
    牛广义, 赵静
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 348-354,396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.348
    摘要   PDF (543KB)
    本文提出了一套广域多源大气环境质量影响预测方法和新的综合指数模式,并将污染效应与人群分布结合起来.通过微机软件开发、拟合,定量的描述了废气污染源在城市大气环境中的真实污染贡献。全部方法及模式在长春市进行了成功的应用.
    A new composite index model is put forward by combining various met-eorological factors,effective source height,emission law and actual popula-tion density.It can overcome various man-made coefficient error.By means of microcomputer software development,the effect of parameters and the heavy and complicated ealculations are solved.By using microcomputer fitti-ng,the actual devotion of pollution sources of waste gas to the pollution of urban atmospheric environment is described quantitatively.A set of methods for predicting atmospheric environmental quality is set up,which has been applied in Changchun City.The theoretical prediction values and the average of measured values over years are expressed as Y=1.556+1.055X(r=0.8925), with a high precision.This achievement may be used in environmental mana-gement,selecting factory location,quantitative management of pollution sou-rces and environmental prediction.
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    试论黄淮海平原旱涝盐碱灾害的整治
    戴旭
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 355-362,396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.355
    摘要   PDF (612KB)
    本文在分析黄淮海平原旱、涝盐碱灾害发生原因的基础上,指出其主要矛盾是水,特别是黄河泛滥问题。而黄淮海平原的治理必须根治黄河,治黄又必须与中游的水土保持相联系.
    The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of about 0.3 million km2,is one of the lar-gest plains in China.It has been an important agricultural area.Its natural conditions are generally favorable for agriculture,but there are some serious disasters,such as drought,waterlogging and salinization.For this reason, the output of farm produce is lower and more unstable for a long-term. The analysis of reason causing all disasters mentioned-above reveals that the principal contradiction is the disequilibrium of supply and demand of water,especially the damage caused by flood from breaches of the Huanghe River.The formation of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain resulted from the Huan-ghe River itself.For this end,the quantity of silt in the Huanghe River must be decreased first of all.That means that the amount of silt coming from the Loess Plateau must be controlled.The only way is to take some important measures of water and soil conservation,among which,the biolo-gical step is most essential.
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    长江河源区水化学基本特征的研究
    邓伟
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 363-370,396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.363
    摘要   PDF (527KB)
    本文以长江河源区的考察和水样分析为依据,对其水化学基本特征进行了初步研究.研究结果表明:河源区水化学特征因流域不同而具有一定差异.沱沱河流域一般水的矿化度很高,水中 Cl-、Na+明显占优势,水质趋于咸化,水化学类型比较复杂.当曲河低中矿化水居多,水中 HCO3-、Ca+含量较高,水化学类型相对简单.沼泽水中主要离子含量均高于三江平原沼泽水.河源区深层地下水对地表水具有重要的补给作用,稳定的补给,使地表水化学组成变化微弱.
    The analysis of the water samples and the investigation in the region of the Changjiang River headwater reveals that the characteristics of hydor chemistry vary with the catchments.In the catchment of the Tuotuo River, the mineralization degree of water is generally higher,ions of Cl- and Na+ are obviously dominant in the water,the water trends to be salty,and the type of hydrochemistry is rather complex.In the Dam River catchment, the mineralization degree is mainly in a low and middle level,ions of HCO3- and Ca++ are higher than others,and the type of hydrochemistry is relat-ively simple.The contents of main ions in mire water are higher than that in the Sanjiang Plain.The deep groundwater plays an important role in feeding surface water,and the stable feed results in little change in chemi-cal composition of surface water.
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    鉴湖平原的泥炭
    陈谅闻
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 371-378,396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.371
    摘要   PDF (574KB)
    本文讨论了绍兴鉴湖平原埋藏型泥炭的成因、分布、性质和净化水体的功能,着重指出这种泥炭在净化鉴湖湖水(历来是酿造著名的绍必黄洒的水料)和保持生态平衡方面的重要作用.对于鉴湖平原的泥炭不应单纯从经济价值考虑当作能源来进行开发,而应视为自然环境的一个有利因素加以保护.文中还指出,钱塘江和杭州湾南岸其他地区性质类同的泥炭也应属于保护之例.
    This paper discusses the formation,distribution and characteristics of buried peat as well as its function of purifying water in the Jianhu Plain, Shaoxing,Zhejiang Province.It is pointed out that this kind of peat was the product of the effect of lakes and swamps after regression in the middle stage of the Holocene.The peat contains more than 40% of ash and 15— 40% of humic acid,and is classified as Carex-Phragmites communis peat of low-moor type.The peat layer covers an area of 95.6km2,making up 64.2% of the whole plain.The peat layer has been dissected by a network of rivers and contacted widely with water of the lake everywhere.The peat layer along the lake has accumulated a lot of pollutants.The laboratory tests con-firm that the peat has the significant function of purifying water of Jianhu Lake. It is considered that the shallow buried peat layer distributed in other areas of the South banks of the Qiantang River and the Hangzhou Bay ought to have the similar purifying function to the neighbouring water.Therefore, the measures should be taken urgently to prevent peats of the Jianhu Plain or other areas of the south banks of the Qiantang River and the Hangzbou Bay from being excavation and destruction arbitrarily.
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    研究报道
    区域经济成长与区域结构的演变
    薛普文
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 379-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.379
    摘要   PDF (380KB)
    区域是经济活动空间相互作用而构成的地域综合体,有其特殊的功能和结构。在区域经济成长的不同阶段,将形成一定特征的区域结构。区域经济要素之间的联系都反映在两个方面:一是功能上的联系,它们之间在功能上具有互补、协同、配合的关系;二是空间上的位置关系,它们在空间上的相互作用、相互制约确定了它们的空间组织。这两种关系分别体现于区域部门结构和空间结构上。部门结构反映了区域经济的本质,空间结构是部门结构的地域表现形式。因此,有必要从区域经济成长的全过程,来探讨区域结构——区域部门结构和空间结构以及它们两者之间的相关演变规律。
    Regional sector structure and regional spatial structure are the important study objects in regional economic geography.The paper studies the evol ution of regieonal sector structure and regional spatial structure in the process of regional economic growth.The author advances the theoretical model of the evolution of regional sector structure and regional spatial stru-cture in the process of rgional economic growth.
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    书评
    试评《中国自然地理图集》
    金瑾乐
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 385-387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.385
    摘要   PDF (227KB)
    《中国自然地理图集》由西北师范学院地理系和地图出版社主编,六所高等师范院校地理系协作编制,1984年由地图出版社出版。这是一册16开本四色印刷的综合性自然地理图集,主要供高等学校地理系教学,并兼颐中学地理教师和有关科技人员参考。图集以一半图幅比较系统地显示了我国自然地理各要素的分布规律,另以几乎同等的图幅较为全面地阐述了我国八大自然地理区的区域特征,并注意反映我国人民在利用和改造自然方面所取得的成就。
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    研究报道
    《中国黄土高原土地资源》画册简介
    孙建中
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 388-388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.388
    摘要   PDF (69KB)
    由中国科学院西北水土保持研究所朱显谟教授主编的《中国黄土高原土地资源》是一部大型画册,开本26×29cm2,计272页,由陕西科学技术出版社出版,国营五四四厂印刷。全册共收集大小彩色照片,107幅。琳琅满目,富丽堂煌,堪称80年代新潮流之出版佳品。令人赏心悦目,目不遐接。书首发表的"黄土高原地区土地资源略图",是作者驰骋黄土高原四五十年调查研究的结晶。
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    学位论文摘登
    试论泥石流动力作用与沟谷地貌演变的关系
    刘希林
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 389-391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.389
    摘要   PDF (199KB)
    泥石流是现代最快速的动力地质作用,是重要的地貌外营力之一。活跃于山区沟谷的泥石流,必然会给沟谷留下深刻的作用痕迹,产生清水沟和洪水沟所不具有的一系列沟谷地貌。一、泥石流沟谷横断面及其演变泥石流动力作用对沟谷的形态有极大的破坏和改造作用。泥石流沟谷横断面形态是泥石流和正常水流共同作用的结果,但却随泥石流动力作用性质的改变而表现出不同的形式。1.泥石流下切和侧蚀作用与“V”形沟谷泥石流沟谷的源头和上游,侵蚀作用占绝对优势。如云南东川蒋家沟上游多照与门前两支沟汇合处,1983年7月19日和1985年7月13日两次断面测量结果表明:冲淤之比约为28:1,最大下切深度为8.6m,左岸最大侧蚀宽度为24m。
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    大连市工业结构的系统分析与优化方向
    宋增春
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (4): 392-394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.04.392
    摘要   PDF (214KB)
    设计和优化工业结构,不仅要使各工业部门间具有双向联系,而且要使工作系统与环境之间的物质、能量、信息、资金、劳动力等的输入输出逐步加强,最终达到各部门之间协调发展,相互促进,使工业系统用最小的人、财、物力的投入来获取最大的有效产出,求得系统的最佳功能。
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