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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1994年, 第14卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1994-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    我国内陆边境贸易的区位研究
    周建明
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 297-305,390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.297
    摘要   PDF (2821KB)
    本文在归纳我国内陆边境贸易现状特征后,分析了边境贸易形成和发展的区位因素.在此基础上探讨了我国内陆边境开放条件的地域分异,并提出边贸发展的重点地域.
    With analysing six locational elements of frontier trade: geography, politics econo-my,policies transportation and port fundament, territory differences between open con-ditions and main areas of frontier trade are discussded. The important frontiers are in northeast China,Yunnan-Guangdong and Neimeng-Xinjiang respectively.Six characteristics of frontier trade in China are generalized as follows:(1)The function has changed;(2)Agglomeration and spread are formed simultaneously;(3)Quantitative growth is faster than ever;(4)The structure of import-export goods is special;(5)The territory of trade is enlarged;(6)There are various trade ways.
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    我国不同自然带的化学剥蚀过程
    许炯心
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 306-314,390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.306
    摘要   PDF (2838KB)
    化学剥蚀过程具有明显的地带性.化学剥蚀模数在华南、华中热带、亚热带湿润地区最高,暖温带半湿润区次之,华北暖温带半干旱区最小,东北寒温带半湿润区又有所回升.气温、降水、流域干湿程度、植被状况是决定化学剥蚀强度的主要因子.
    Based on the data of dissolved matter measurement collected from more than 70 gaging stations in the rivers of the monsoon-influenced eastern China.this paper deals with the chemical denudational processes, including the effect of zonal factors such as temperature, precipitation, vegetation and the drainage basin dryness upon the chemical denudational rate,and the zonal differentiation in the chemical denudation in the mon-soon-influenced eastern China. As a result, a curve has been established, which shows the latitudinal variation of the chemical denudational rate in this region.It is suggested that, at the macro-scale, temperature, precipitation, drainage basin dryness and vegetation are the main factors controlling the chemical denudational inten-sity. With the increase of temperature, precipitation, forest cover and a decrease of drainage basin dryness,the chemical denudational rate increases. On the other hand,at amoderate and a small space scale,the rock types determine the differences in the chemi-cal denudational rate under the same climatic conditions.An obvious zonality in the chemical denudational processes in the monsoom-influ-enced eastern China has been indicated by this study. The chemical denudational rate is the highest in the tropical and subtropical humid areas in the southern and central China,and it becomes lower in the warm temperate sub-humid areas. In the north China warm temperate semi-arid areas, it declines to the lowest value, when going further northeastward, it increases again in the northeast China cool temperate sub-humid ar-eas. The foregoing zonal variation can be explained by the different combinations of tem-perature,precipitation,drainage basin dryness and vegetation in different natural zones.
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    海平面上升对里下河地区洪涝灾害的影响
    许朋柱
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 315-323,390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.315
    摘要   PDF (2835KB)
    以里下河地区射阳河感潮河网区为试点,利用河网非恒定流数值模拟技术,模拟了海平面上升后区域水位场及排水量的变化,并据此分析里下河地区在海平面上升情况下,遭遇1991年型洪水时灾害可能出现的变化及相应对策.
    Based on the numerical simulation technique of unsteady flow,an applied mathema-tical model has been established to compute the tidal currents in the tidal river network of the downstream areas of the Sheyang River Basin. The model is mainly the node-channel model and can be applied in water quantity computation for large-scale complex river networks in plain areas. The computational results show that the model can pre-cisely simulate the tidal currents.On the basis. of successful simulation of the tidal currents that happened in the past, the model has also been applied to predict the tidal current changes in the case of sea level rise. The predicted results show that:(1)If the sea level rises,the water level and tidal level of each river will also rise.(2)The average high tidal level just down Sheyang and Huangsha sluice gates will rise approximately as much as the value of sea level rise,while the rising scope of the av-erage low tidal level will be smaller than that of sea level,thus the tidal range will in-crease.(3)The discharge capacity of all rivers which connect with the Yellow Sea will de-crease obviously.At last,the author analyses the changes of the flood/waterlogging disasters if the 1991 flood meets with future sea level rise, and puts forward some countermeasures about disaster reduction and prevention.
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    自然资源综合评价研究
    黄静, 董锁成
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 324-331,390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.324
    摘要   PDF (2633KB)
    本文论述了自然资源综合分类的原则及其与区域条件的图论关系;分析了资源综合评价的项目与指标,综合评价方法,综合评价程序;最后,提出自然资源综合评价系统.
    By far almost natural resource assessments are single resource analyses. Though re-gional resource assessments seem to be comprehensive,these assessments can not fit into practices and left many problems to be solved by other remedial measures. For these rea-sons, the paper presents a new comprehensive natural resource assessment. The method is to analyse the entirety of combined natural resources including their sorts,quantities and qualities (grades) in a given region,to diagnose the combination,value construction of natural resources,and to put forward a series of developing orders,patterns and pro-cedures. The purposes are to avoid waste of resources,to prevent natural resources from being destroyed,and to help producers establish developing natural resource complex. Afterwards, the paper narrated the classificational principles (comprehensive,multiple developing and demarcation lines mainly coincidence),20 graphic relations of resources and regional conditions, 16 items and their indexes, as well as method, procedure and system of comprehensive natural resource assessment.
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    声像地图的研究及其实践意义
    田德森, 谢顺平
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 332-337,390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.332
    摘要   PDF (2577KB)
    采用计算机汉语语言实时合成技术,实现了屏幕地图有声化.本文论述了声像地图的原理、特点和实践意义.
    In order to bring the cartographical communication function of spatial information into full play,the development of computer assisted cartography and requirement of map use in modern science and technique needs a talking map. Based on comparison of several methods to make talking map,a technique of automatic Chinese syllable synthesis by computer is adopted to make talking map. This technique fits the development of digital map and electro-acoustical technique. The construction and characters of talking map system which has been made successfully are described. The functions and the signifi-cances of talking map are approached from theory and practice in this paper.
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    昆仑山北坡河流水文水资源特征研究
    许有鹏, 高蕴珏, 杨戍
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 338-346,390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.338
    摘要   PDF (2858KB)
    通过分析昆仑山北坡河流的水资源特征,以及利用时间序列分析方法对其径流的内部结构及其变化规律进行分析研究,在此基础上,对本区水资源合理开发利用进行了初步分析探讨.
    In this paper,water resource characteristics of rivers in nouth slope area of the Kun-lun Mountains are described, and the structure features and variation law of annual runoff series are illustrated by applying time series analysis method. On the basis of these researches, the suggestions of rational exploitation and utilization of water re-source in these areas are put forward.
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    东北地形对强对流天气影响的分析
    王晓明, 谢静芳
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 347-354,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.347
    摘要   PDF (2776KB)
    通过对发生在吉林省境内的强对流天气分布及造成强对流天气的中尺度系统与东北地形关系的分析,指出东北地形对强对流天气的影响,以及强对流天气在天气预报中的作用.
    In this paper, the ralation of the distribution of strong convection weather occurring in Jilin Province and the mesoscale weather system causing strong convection weather to the topography in Northeast China was analysed. The analysis results can be used as a reference for forecasting the strong convection weather.
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    大别山马宗岭种子植物区系的地理成分研究
    刘鹏
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 355-362+391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.355
    摘要   PDF (2731KB)
    在对大别山马宗岭自然保护区种子植物区系的统计和分析的基础上.着重研究了该植物区系的地理成分,将其划分为15个类型,并逐一讨论,为进一步研究大别山植物区系的起源和演化,更好地开发利用当地植物资源打下基础.
    Mazongling Natural Reserve (one of the richest plant area of the Dabie Mountain) located at Jinzhai county in the west of Anhui Province, is the transitional region from the north subtropical to warm temperate zone. It is known that there are 1192 seed plants, which belong to 547 genera and 138 families. The studies are based on the origin and evolution of the flora in geological period. According to statistics and analysis of genera in the present flora, 547 genera can be divided into 15 distribution-types (con-taining 11 subtypes), which belong to five categories: 1) cosmoplitan genera 60 (10.9%),2)temperate genera 304 (55.5%),3)tropical genera 167(30.6%),4)ancient Mediterranean and Central Asia genera 2 (0.2%),5) Chinese endemic genera 14 (2.6%). The studies show that the temperate genera have the highest percentage and the flora is related with every part of the world, especially closely related with North America and Japan.
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    全新世温暖期河姆渡地区古植被和古气候的重建研究
    周子康, 夏越炯, 刘为纶, 吴维棠
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 363-370+391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.363
    摘要   PDF (2800KB)
    河姆渡地区在温暖期种子植物区系的地理分布,热带成分占31.7%,其中热带亚州成分具有相对优势,地带性植被组成以中亚热带和南亚热带地区成分为主.在距今7000~6000年前,河姆渡一带处于中亚热带南部,相当于气候带较个北移4~5个纬距.
    This article analyses the animal and plant remains in more detail,obtained the third and fourth cultural deposit layers (about 7000 to 6000a B. P.)at Hemudu site in Zhejiang Province. Firstly, using Andersen’s method.a correction is made for the percentage of various plant’s spore and pollen in these layers. Secondly, on the basis of these results, the dominant species and the construction community species of zonal forest vegetation are identified, and the paleovegetation of Holocene Hypsithermal is reconstructed in Guangdong Hemudu region. Finally, contrasting the above-mentioned paleovegetation with the vegetation of Wuyanling Natural Reserve in southern Zhejiang and Dinghushan Natural Reserve in GuangDong today,the paleoclimate is also reconstructed in the said region during that time.
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    研究报道
    北京工业结构调整研究
    侯本旗
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 371-377+391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.371
    摘要   PDF (2660KB)
    本文分析了北京工业发展的区域背景、北京工业结构矛盾与问题,在此基础上提出和论述了工业结构调整方向,工业行业优先发展的序列以及主导工业的选择等.
    Today the industrial structure of Beijing is ont only conflict with the characteristics of resource and environment, but also lack far behind the economic development. The objective law of industrial structure evolution demand to change the existing industrial structure and achieve the industrial structure rationalization and escalation. By qualita-tive analysis and quantitative analysis.we get the following conclusions :to take electro-nic industry and auto industry as the leading industry and give priority to the progress of them,to pay more attention to the development of high-technology industry,engineering industry,printing industry and sewing industry,in the mean time to reconstruct the iron and steel industry,chemical industry,building material industry,coking industry,paper-making industry,power industry and oil industry in order to mitigate the more and more intense restrain of resource and environment. In the long run,the development of Beijing demand objectively that industries which not fit to develop in Beijing be transferred to other areas when the social and economic conditions are ripe.
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    学术位论文摘登
    第二松花江沉积汞浓度预测模型
    王瑞林
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 378-380.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.378
    摘要   PDF (2319KB)
    流水不仅将河水中治解态的汞及悬浮物中的汞向下迁移,而且还由于水文水力学条件的改变,悬浮沉积物因沉降作用变为底泥.同样,底泥也可被流水搅起而成为悬浮沉积物或沿河床迁移即推移质的运动,从而产生了悬浮态汞与底泥态汞的转化及底泥态汞的迁移.这是影响沉积汞浓度变化的一条重要途径.
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    福建沿岸晚第四纪孢粉组合古植被和古气候
    陆继军
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 381-383.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.381
    摘要   PDF (2381KB)
    福建沿海位于我国东南沿海中段.由于受欧亚板块和太平洋板块的作用,基本轮廓呈北东—南西向展布.地貌特征是丘陵和低山与河口冲积平原相间排列,沿岸分布多级阶地,海岸线曲折多港湾,也呈北东—南西向展布.显示海洋性气候特点,季风盛行,冬季以东北风为主,夏季盛行西南风;7月气温多在27~29℃,1月气温大部分地区为5~13℃;逐月相对湿度75%~85%,降水量大部分地区在1100~2000mm之间.植被以三都澳湾为界有南北之分,北部属中亚热带常绿阔叶林南部亚地带;南部零星分布南亚热带季风常绿阔叶林,均有次生和人工栽培植被.
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    三江平原沼泽生态系统水量平衡——以别拉洪河流域为例
    崔丽娟
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 384-386.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.384
    摘要   PDF (2319KB)
    三江平原地区位于我国东北边陲,区内沼泽广布,现有沼泽总面积约111.9万ha.水分是沼泽生态系统最活跃的组成要素,因而研究沼泽的保护及合理开发利用,就要研究沼泽的水文特性.别拉洪河流域位于三江平原腹地,流域沼泽率高达45%.
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    学术活动
    ’94湿地环境与泥炭地利用国际讨论会在长春召开
    赵魁义, 何岩
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 387-387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.387
    摘要   PDF (659KB)
    1994年8月9日至11日,在长春召开湿地环境与泥炭地利用国际讨论会.会议由中国科学院长春地理研究所和国际泥炭学会第一专业委员会主办,中国科学院武汉测量与地球物理研究所协办.同时得到国家自然科学基金委员会、国家环境保护局、中国科学院国际合作局和中国科学院长春分院赞助.来自日本、爱沙尼亚、印度尼西亚、马来西亚、芬兰、爱尔兰和美国等国外专家26人,国内来自科研、大专院校、煤炭部、各地环保部门和生产单位等专家80人,共计106人参加会议.
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    书讯
    钱学森新著《论地理科学》即将出版
    吴明华
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (4): 388-388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.04.388
    摘要   PDF (463KB)
    钱学森先生是我国著名的系统工程专家.自1983年开始,他从系统科学角度对地球表层学进行深入研究,1986年正式提出“地理科学”这一划时代的慨念,并将其列为第十大科学技术部门、他认为地理系统是一个“开放的复杂巨系统”,而研究这类系统只能用由我国科技工作者独创的“从定性到定量的综合集成法”。钱老之所以花大量精力来研究地理科学,是因为他认识到地理环境是我们人类赖以生存的基础,地理环境直接关系到我们国家社会主义物质文明和精神文明以及社会主义民主和法制建设的成败.由此,钱老又提出“地理建设”这一崭新慨念。
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