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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1995年, 第15卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1995-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    青藏高原降水中δ18O与温度和降水量的关系
    章新平, 姚檀栋
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 1-7,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.1
    摘要   PDF (2577KB)
    青藏高原大气降水中δ18O与取样温度存在显著的正相关关系.当温度大于等于7-3℃时,沱沱河降水量效应显著,当温度大于等于8.3℃时,西宁降水量效应显著.取样站δ18O低温度、降水量的相关关系随温度、降水量的变化而变化.说明相关关系在不同的温度、湿度条件下是不同的.
    This paper attempts to reveal the regional variation features of δ18O in the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the relations between δ18O and influencing factors on the basis of the analyses of precipitation δ18O sampling in the stations:Tuotuohe (34°13’, 92°26’; 4533.1m a.s.1.),Delingha(37°22’N,97°22’E; 2981.5 m a.s.1.)and Xining (36°37’N, 101°46’E; 2261.2 ma.s.1.).The analytic results show that, there are marked positive correlated relations between δ18O and temperatare in the three sampling stations; the amount effect of Tuotuohe is marked while temperature is greater than and equal to 7.3℃, and so is that of Xining while 8.3℃;the correlation of δ18O in sampling stations against temperature and precipitation amount are changeable with temperatare and amount.
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    区域工业经济增长过程中劳动力、资金和技术的作用——以1973~1988年我国九省市国营工业为例
    赵令勋, 曹勇
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 8-13,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.8
    摘要   PDF (2645KB)
    本文以1973~1988年我国九省市国营工业为例,运用生产函数对不同省区国营工业的劳动力、资金技术进步等要素对产出的贡献进行比较分析.
    This paper analyzes the contribution of capital and labor inputs and technical change to the growth of output in the manufacturing sector for nine provinces in China during the period 1978-1988.We use a flexible translog production function to analyze each province’s growth process instead of estimating the parameters econometrically.The result shows that even though there are somewhat regional differences,the contributions of capital to regional economic development is the most significant,whereas the contributions of labor to industrial growth are not positive but negative to the regional industrial growth.That means that the problems of surplus employment are very serious for state-owned enterprises and that to leave away surplus employee is the most urgent countermeasure for the state-owned enterprises.
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    环渤海滨海地带大中城市的发展
    王淑华, 张平宇, 杨莉萍
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 14-23,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.14
    摘要   PDF (2997KB)
    本文论述了我国环渤海地区滨海地带城市发展概况及其优势.滨海地带城市发展布局的现状特点和存在问题,滨海地带大中城市的发展趋向、最后对城市发展中的职能作用、外向型经济、经济开发区建设等问题进行了探讨.
    The paper is based on practical researches.It analyses 29 cities in the Bohai Sea coastal zone, and probes into their development conditions including location, traffic-transport, tourist resources.marine and mineral resonces which altogether compose the seven major advandages.The paper also summarize both the present characteristics and existing problems of the coastal urban system using methods such as comprehensive quantitative and qualitative analysis, regional comparison and economy radiating field analysis.On purpose of expanding foreign-oriented economy,the three key cities are oriented.Tianjin is the core city in company with two peripheral key cities-Dalian and Qingdao.Also, the other large and medium-sized cities developing trends are defined.These cities will lay a strong fundation for the Huanghai-Bohai Sea economy rim.In addition, some constractive suggestions are conducive to performing key city function, expanding foreing-priented economy, building urban economy development zone and protecting the coastal environment.
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    《现代冰缘地貌研究》
    朱诚
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 23-23.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.23
    摘要   PDF (2149KB)
    本书是由朱诚著录的我国第一部现代冰缘地貌研究专著.它根据作者和国内同行多年来对中国天山、南极长城站地区和南美中安第斯山地的冰缘地貌过程野外考察观测以及大量实验分析所获资料撰写而成.全书共分十章,第一章主要阐述冰缘地貌的研究内容、现代冰缘地貌研究的意义及其主要研究方法和手段.
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    沙漠化危险度评价模型初探
    董玉祥
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 24-29,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.24
    摘要   PDF (2635KB)
    分析了国内外的研究现状,制定出沙漠化危险度评价因子体系及其分级标准,建立了综合评价模型,并以内蒙古奈曼旗为例进行了应用与验证.
    Sandy desertification is one of the most important problems in the world.The hazard degree assessment is an important and basic study subject of sandy desertification issues.This paper first analyses the conditions of study on the assessment hazard degree of sandy desertification at home and abroad,establishes the criteria system of hazard degree assessment and gives the classification standards (class limits) of every assessment criterion.The assessment model for hazard degree of sandy desertification is given the first time: where:SDH:index number of hazard degree; Wi:weighting number;Fi:degree index number.This paper gives one simple but very useful method to assess the hazard degree of sandy desertification.At last,Naiman county in Inner Mongolia is taken as an example to examine the assessment model, it has been proved that the assessment model or method is very favourable to assess the hazard degree of sandy desertification.
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    从泥炭分布的演化过程分析中国东部和日本一万年来的干湿变迁
    白光润
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 30-38,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.30
    摘要   PDF (2763KB)
    根据泥炭形成水热系统指数(Z=5.7K+12-T)、埋藏泥炭层14C年代测定及利用孢粉等手段推测的古温度变迁研究成果,定量地推测出以湿润系数(K)和降水量(P)所表示的中国东部和日本一万年来干湿变迁的大势及其区域差异.
    Peat formation is considered to be controlled by both water and heat conditions in this paper.A comparison made by the author between present peat distribution and the climatic record of 841 stations in the world during the years of 1961-1970 provides the climatic condition of peat formation.It is well explained by the following equation:Z=5.7K+12-T T(mean air temperature of days with >10℃) respresentes the thermal condition of those days, it can be evaluated from palynological information.Z(water-heat index of peat formation) can be acquired by 14C dating of peat deposits.Therefore,K(ratio of precipitation to evapotranspiration) can be obtained from T and Z.The humid and arid fluctuation curves are figured at Kyoto,Tokyo and Sapporo in Japan, and Beijing, Changchun and Zhenjiang in the eastern part of China.The humid and arid fluctuation of East Asia in the last 10000 years on peat foma-tion are summarized as follows:1)ca.10000-8500 a.B.P.Arid climate is prevalent especially in the northern part of Esat Asia.2)ca.6000-5000 a.B.P.Humid climate accompanied by the warm period“Hyp-sithermal”is generally predominant.The beginning of humid climate is, however, delayed ca.2000 years and the humid period are not coincide with the warm period in the northern part of East Asia.3)After ca.3000 a.B.P.Increased aridity are recognized in the eastern part of China.
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    新疆艾比湖全新世沉积特征及古环境演化
    吴敬禄
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 39-46,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.39
    摘要   PDF (2817KB)
    运用沉积地层学、地球化学和生物地层学方法分析了艾比湖沉积剖面,结合测年资料,重建了湖区全新世古气候的演化序列.
    On the basis c’f lacustrine sedimentary profile of Aibi Lake, sequences of evolution of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in Aibi Lake area have been rebuilt by analysing the sedimentary stratigraphy, bio-stratigraphy and geochemistry as well as the chronological records.The results show that, during the last 10ka years, the general change trends of the paleoclimate in Aibi Lake area can be divided into three stages;(1)10.2ka-8.3kaB.P., a warm-cool dry climate stage; (2)8.3ka-3.5kaB.P., a warmer moist climate stage (specially, 7.3ka-6.4kaB.P.,a relatively stable humid temperate stage); (3) 3.5kaB.P.-present, a draught temperate climate stage, similar to the present climate.In addition, there existed clearly several times of secondary undulations of dry-humid climate,i.e.8.3ka and 7.3ka for dry climate.
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    大城市边缘区土地利用动态遥感试验研究——以北京市朝阳区为例
    郑兴年, 胡宝新, 崔伟宏
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 47-54,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.47
    摘要   PDF (2819KB)
    以北京市朝阳区为例,探索研究了利用遥感技术和地理信息系统进行大城市边缘区土地利用动态变化研究的方法途径,同时对大城市边缘区土地利用动态变化的数量和空间特点进行了深入分析研究.
    Taking Chaoyang District of Beijing City as an example, the paper does a study on landuse change in big urban edge area by using remote sensing technology and Geographic Information System (GIS), develops different remote sensing image computer classification methods for landuse investigation in big urban edge area, and analyzes landuse characteristic and change process and tendency on the basis of GIS.The results present that remote sensing image computer classification method based on knowledge has a higher precision for recognizing landuse types, and the combinaton of remote sensing technology and GIS is an effective way for monitoring and studying landuse change of big urban edge area.
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    西藏羊卓雍错水位动态研究
    刘天仇
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 55-62,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.55
    摘要   PDF (2658KB)
    羊卓雍错位于青藏高原南部.是较大的内陆湖泊,储水量的160亿m3,降水是湖泊的主要补给水源,融水补给量占16%,湖水位年平均变幅0.6m,年最高水位出现在9月或10月,正常年份湖水位呈周期变化,干早年全年呈下落趋势.
    The Yamzho Lake is the largest closed inland lake at the north foot of Mt.Himalayas,with a drainage area of 6100 km2.The lake covers an area of 621 km2 with an altitude of 4440 meters and a storage capacity of 16 billion m3.Precipitation is the main recharge source of the lake.Melt water makes up only 16 percent of the total recharge.Yearly lake level variation is within 0.6 meter.Due to self-regulation the highest water level of the lake does not appear in July or August when the rainfall is plentiful but in September or October.In a rainy year the lake level exhibits periodic variations and in a dry year the lake level has a fall tendency.The lake water level variation was influenced by temperature in the past 30 years.The analysis of the data for the last one hundred years shows that there is a tendency of lake level fall, the fall rate is 0.6meter/100 year.
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    旅游地拓展开发研究——以丹霞山阳元石景区为例
    保继刚, 彭华
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 63-70,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.63
    摘要   PDF (2617KB)
    分析了丹霞山面临的困境,主要是游客近年停滞增长,过夜游客比例低,总体经济效益不高,原因是丹霞山旅游形象直传不够.文章提出开发新的高质量旅游资源、扩大景区、加强宣传、树立崭新的旅游形象.
    Danxia scenic spot is now facing two problems:a.stagnation of tourist growth from 1983-1992;b.very low rate of overnight tourists,causing low pinancial gains .Danxia scenic spot received more than 200,000 tourists in 1982,both domestic and overseas.Since then,the number of annual tourists has been around 250,000.1987 wint-nessed the best year for Danxia scenic spot with 307,000 tourists.However,1989 saw the worst year with 224,700 tourists.Attention should be paid to the big drop of overseas tourists from 1991 to 1992:while 1991 brought in 44,200 tourists,1992 brought in only 28,200,with a drop of 36.2%.Most of Danxia’s tourists are excursionists.Among the 228,700 domestic tourists in 1992,only 33,000 stayed overnight.It was only 14.46% of the total .The same year saw 28,200 overseas tourists,with 3681 staying overnight.It was 12.85%of the total.From the point of view of stages of tourist area life cycle,Danxia scenic spot is in the stages of consolidation and stagnation.Judging from the fact of tourist resource devleopment in Danxia scenic spot,Danxia’s problems lie on the deficiency in scenic development and the aging of the scenic spot.The solution will be to develop new resource and make a new image.Yangyuan section is a part of Danxia scenic spot.It has its special attraction for tourists and serves as a strong complement for the developed spot.Its development will prevent Danxia scenic spot from decline and therefore rejuvenate.The life cycle of many tourist resorts in China is in the stages of consolidation,stagnation or decline.Some of them can rejuvenate through the expansion of the resorts.Those that have no complements for the developed resorts can only go to decline and then close.
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    黄土地区水土保持专家系统试验研究
    傅炜
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 71-79,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.71
    摘要   PDF (2804KB)
    黄土地区水土保持专家系统采用压缩编码方式存贮各种地学图形与遥感图象数据.该系统可对黄土地区的土壤侵蚀进行快速预测、预报,并对综合治理和规划提出建议.用该系统对山西省离石县王家沟流域羊道沟的土壤侵蚀进行了试验研究.
    This paper presents the approaches and principles for building a Water and Soil Conservation Expert System (WSCES) in loess regions.The system can be used coding.The WSCES can be also used to store,update,inquire,search,analyse,process,display data and images, and to make map automatically.In addition,the system can be used to predict the soil erosion in loess regions precisely and quickly.Furthermore,several plans and decisions for comprehensively harnessing soil erosion can be obtained by consulting with the system,so that users can select a practical program from them for bringing the water under controllig and improving the soil.Moreover,the author makes a test research with the system on soil erosion in Yangdaogou gully of Wangjiagou Watershed in Lishi County, Shaanxi Province, and evaluates the results systematically.
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    东北地区上空水汽平衡状况及其源地
    崔玉琴
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 80-87,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.80
    摘要   PDF (2717KB)
    采用不规则9边形作为东北地区模拟边界,计算该区上空1981~1986年平均水汽年总输入量为+60622.70亿m3,年总输出量为-60604.43亿m3,净输送量为一正值,构成该区主讯期的水量是来自外境水汽成云致雨而成;该区的枯水期则是上空水汽外流耗散时期.还探讨该区水汽输入的主边界、输出主边界及水汽主源地.
    Based on an irregular polygon simulating the natural border of northeast China,the amounts of water vapour transpoting for the period 1981-1986 have been computed.It shows that:mean annual water vapour importing and exporting are 60 622.70?108m3 and 60 604.43?108m3,respectively, and the net transporting 18.27?108m3 is a positive.In the whole year, only in Summer, the net importing of water vapour of this region is a positive (+3373.15?108m3).The runoff value in the main flood season for this region is precipitation which are caused by the water vapour impoiting from the outaide surrounding rveas.While the dry season is the dissipating period of water vapour.In this paper, the main importing and exporting boundaries as well as source areas of water vapour are also given.
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    研究报道
    皖南旅游区布局研究
    陆林
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 88-95,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.88
    摘要   PDF (2577KB)
    本文对皖南旅游区的类型效应、集聚效应和强度效应等以及旅游区的通达性进行了论述,在此基础上提出了旅游区总体布局和区域旅游线路设计等.
    A study on the distribution of tour regions is one of the important study fields of tourism geography.So,the author, with the study on the distribution of south Anhui tour region,makes analyios of the regional tour resource effect,the regional tour openness, the general regional tour distribution and the regional tour roads.On the basis of the analyses, the model of general distribution of south Anhui tour region is put forward.
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    评介
    《长春投资环境地图册》评介
    黄方
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (1): 96-98.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.01.96
    摘要   PDF (707KB)
    地图作为空间信息的载体已存在几千年.随着时代变迁和社会进步,作为信息的图形表达形式与分析研究手段,地图日益受到经济建设和科学研究等部门的重视,得到广泛应用.90年代,我国改革开放的新格局促使地图适应市场经济的需要,不断扩大应用领域与范围,涌现了许多地图新品种.
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