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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1995年, 第15卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1995-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    全球增暖下我国旱涝灾害可能情景的初步研究
    陈家其, 施能
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 201-207,297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.201
    摘要   PDF (2658KB)
    在全球变暖的情况下,我国东南沿海、西南、西北、内蒙古和东北部分地区,洪涝灾害可能增加;而黄河中游以南和华北平原干旱可能增加.这一变化特征与本世纪暖期降水分布变化,以及与CO2倍增情况下气候模似结果基本一致.
    According to Prof. Zhu Kezhen’s(Chu. K. C) historical climatic division, the last 500 years in China can be divided into several alternately cold and warm periods. The periods of 1470-1520, 1620-1720,1840-1890 had cold winters, while those of 1550-1600,1770-1830 had warm winters. Based on such a division, in four kinds of periods, i. e cold, warm, cold-warm and warm-cold(transition period), the differences between flood/drought degree in 120 stations in China and the average of flood/drought degree in the last 500 years have been calculated. Positive anomaly indicates drought-prone area, while negative anomaly indicates flood-prone area. This historical experience provides a background to analyze the possible scenarios in the case of global warming in the future. The final results suggest that in the case of global warming the disaster of flood probably increase in many parts of China, such as southeast coastal area, the southwest, northwest, some parts of northeast and Inner Mongolia while the disaster of drought probably decrease in the North China Plain, the middle reaches of the Huanghe River and its southern adjacent area. This distribution resembles that of precipitation in warming period in this centruy and that resulted from climatic model in the case of Co2 doubling.
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    论中国建制镇发展、地域差异及空间演化——兼与“中国反城市化论”者商榷
    顾朝林
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 208-216,297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.208
    摘要   PDF (4347KB)
    通过建制镇的发展、地域差异和空间演化的研究,宏观地再现中国近40多年来的城市化过程.尽管中国建制镇经历了一个曲折的发展过程,但总体上讲,中国建制镇的增长是一个浙进的城市化过程,中国事实上并不存在所谓的“反城市化”过程.
    Growth of China’s small towns is a continuing process of urbanization. By the analysis of regional disparity and comprehensive development level of Chinese small towns, their development depends mainly on the regional agriculture and social development level. Their spatial distributions are restricted by population distribution and regional economic development level. China’s urbanination, just as the same of urbanization in developed countries, is a sign of socio-economic vigour and prosperity, is not related to social and political systems. Thus, it is worth to discuss China’s anti-urbanism with abroad scholars.
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    对东北区经济地域系统形成发展机制的再认识
    陈才, 修春亮
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 217-225,297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.217
    摘要   PDF (2821KB)
    阐述了东北区经济地域系统形成发展的特点,揭示其经济地域系统形成发展机制转变过程中存在的主要问题,进而提出经济地域系统建设的新思路以及地域结构类型、发展模式和区域发展战略等.
    The Northeast Economic Area with a short cultivative history in its forming process of economic regional system, has connected with international markets and developed its modern industries at a relatively early time compared with other districts in China. The distribution of productive forces manifests evident continuity. International circumstances are always an extremely improtant factor in developing the regional economy of the northeast. Natural conditions and resources have exerted a tremendous influence on the regional structure.As an improtant national industrial base, the northeast has been on the decline in national economy during recent years(that is so-called"the Northeast Phenomenon"). So there ought to be a new sense of strategic standing of the northeast in China, that is, the northeast has become devoid of main resources required in developing heavy industries continuously, its economic regional type has turned into a mixed resource-processing one from a resource typed one, and the northeast ought to become a high-graded diversified industrial base. Besides the causes from industrial structure, administrative system, history and subjective respect, the innermost is that the general train of thought in developing regional economy has been deduced from the repidly changing inner conditions and outer circumstances, which results in disadvatageous situation. Changed circumstances in and out of China are a rare opportunity to the northeast’s e-conomy.New train of thought in building up regional system is:1)Break through the old self-closed, self-perfected deve loping train of thought and establish a new one based on wider reformation, wider opening and wider circulation. Attach more importance to establish widely a special position in Northeast Asia. 2)Reorganize industrial structure and raise its grade in order that the northeast will be made into the centre of interflow of commodities, and one of the economically vigorous areas in Northeast Asia. 3)Renew old regional pattern with new one.There are objectively three economic zones, three levels of economic area system, multi-grade belts and various economic type districts, so choosing regional pattern ought to be in accordance with specific features of various regions, constructing pattern of basic regional structure, establishing two-direction channals leading to the middle belt, opening frontier belt and two exits to sea in the near future.
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    天山石冰川的形态与发育条件
    刘耕年, 熊黑钢, 崔之久, 宋长青
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 226-233,297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.226
    摘要   PDF (2848KB)
    本文以乌鲁木齐河源区和沙湾县为例,讨论天山现代冰缘环境中多年冻土带发育的石冰川的形态、大小、类型、发育条件和形成年代等问题.石冰川主要出现在年均温0~-9℃的阴坡或半阴坡,形成于10000a,B.P以来.
    Based on field survey and air photo interpretation, the shape, size, type, environmental condition, and forming date of the rockglaciers are considered in permafrost belt of the periglacial area at the Tianshan Mountains. Small size talus-typed rockglaciers are predominant in the head area of the Urumqi River, while on halt of the rockglaciers are large moraine-typed in Shawan County. The rockglaciers are distributed at the areawhere mean annual air temperature is 0-9℃, and mostly on northward slopes. Therockglaciers formed since 10000a B. P.
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    新疆喀什平原水文地球化学特征和水质评价
    汤洁, 林年丰, 华璀
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 234-242,297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.234
    摘要   PDF (3015KB)
    对喀什平原355个水样进行了22项常量分析和24项微量元素的测试.在此基础上,制订了水质评价分级基准(1~V级),采用模糊数学综合评判法和综合指数法对饮水和灌溉水进行了水质评价.
    Since the beginning of the 1960s, some endemic diseases, such as endemic diarrhoea, potassium-deficiency in blood and endemic sterility, had been found in Kashi Plain in Xingjiang. These diseases severely threaten human health. It is considered that bad drinking water relates to these diseases. Inhabitants in this area have a fear of the drinking water. According to the above condition, the author made a research on hydro-geochemical characteristic. In late of the 1980s, 22 common elements and 24 trace elements of 355 water samples were analysed. Based on the analysis the evaluating grades( I-V)of water quality were formulated, and methods of fuzzy mathematics and synthesis index are used to evaluate the quality of drinking water and irrigating water. The results show that the healthy drinking water( I-Ⅲ) made up 68. 16% of the whole water samples, the unhealthy water made up 31. 84% of the whole water samples and moderate irrigating water made up 83% of the whole water samples.The research plays an important roly in rational development and utilization of water resources, assurance of human health and improvement of agricultural production, and obvious social, economic and environmental effects had been obtained.
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    东北区农业气候土壤资源潜力及开发利用研究
    马树庆, 郭顺姬, 白亚梅, 戴阁文
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 243-252,297.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.243
    摘要   PDF (2897KB)
    采用新的热量、水分、土壤条件订正函数,建立了东北区玉米、水稻、大豆气候生产潜力和资源生产潜力模式,分析了东北区主要作物光合、光温、气候和资源生产力的地理分布,指出了各地改善热量、水分、土壤资源条件和充分开发利用农业科学技术的增产潜力,分析了逐步实现气候潜力和光温潜力的可能性及其途径.
    In this paper, the models for the resource potential of photosynthesis and light-temperature of corn, rice and soybean, climate-soil resources potentials in the northeast region of China were esteablished by using the new functions that the crops yield response on temperature, water and soil resources, the geographic distribution of the potentials were analysed, too. Also, the maximum crops yield increase potential were analysed in improving and exploitting the water, thermal, soil resources conditions and agro-tech utilization. The result showed that the light, light-temperature, climate and resource potential productivity of the main crops are high in every area of northeast region and their geographic difference are quite marked. In the main areas of the northeast region, the main crops potential productivity of photosynthesis are 4-5 times that the actural mean crops yield, the light-temperature potentials are about 21,000 kg per ha, it is about 3. 5 times as large as the actural yield, the climate potential productitvty of corn and rice are about 17000 kg per ha, the soybean is 5,000kg per ha, and they are about 2.8 times that the actural yields. The resource potentials of corn and rice are about 12,000kg per ha, that of soybean is 3,500kg per ha, and they are about 2.0 times that the actural yields. The climate yield in the south area of the northeast region are about 2. 5 times that of the north. The exploitation and utilizable potentials of the resources and agro-tech are great, the crops yield could increase by 40-60 percent with improving the thermal condition in the north and east areas, it could increase by 40 percent with building irrigation work in the southwest and the Sanjiang Plain areas, it could increase by 40 percent with improving the soil ecological condition. The resource, climate and light-temperature potential productitvity of main crops are realizable progressively with making great effort.
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    西宁地区湟水阶地的形成与发育研究
    曾永年, 马海洲, 李珍, 李玲琴
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 253-258,298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.253
    摘要   PDF (2657KB)
    西宁地区是湟水谷地河流阶地发育最典型的区域之一.根据湟水6级阶地上黄土的沉积年代,推算出湟水及其各级阶地在西宁地区的形成年代.青藏高原间歇性的构造抬升和全球气候演比控制着湟水阶地的形成与发育过程.
    Xining Region is located in the Huangshui River Basin where terraces have been typically developed. According to the age of the loess stratigraphy on the Huangshui River terrace, it is calculated that the Huangshui River appeared in Xining Region in about 1.2 Ma B. P.. Since 1.2Ma B. P six terraces of the Huangshui River in Xining Region had been formed in about 1.19,0.78,0.54,0.12,0.05,0.01 Ma B. P. individully from the highest one to the lowest one. Tectonic upheaval and climatic changes have controlled the terrace development in the Huangshui River Basin.
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    江苏宜兴茶园若干元素的生物循环
    彭补拙, 濮励杰, 李春华, 胡志燕, 高翔, 陈复振, 黄来明
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 259-265,298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.259
    摘要   PDF (2729KB)
    江苏宜兴茶园中,F、Al、Mn、Fe等元素在茶树叶中呈较强的富集化现象.茶树年吸收量最大的元素是Mn,其次为Al、Fe和F;茶树年归还量最大的元素为Mn,其次为Al、F和Fe;茶树吸收系数最大的为F。其次为Mn,利用系数和循环系数最大的也是F,元素F的循环周期最短,Cr循环周期最长.
    The biological cycle characters of ten elements in the artificial tea garden ecosystem in Yixing County, Jiangsu Province is studied in this paper. The results obtained from experiments and analysis reveal that:(1) the contents of ten elements are different a-mong various parts of the tea plant, and F, Al,Mn, Fe have the characters of accumulation in the leaves;(2) in all elements, Mn has the largest absorption amounts and return amounts annually;(3) F has the largest utilization coefficient and cycling coefficient;(4) F has the smallest turn period and Cr has the longest.
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    抚顺煤矿区域工业化过程的社会背景与劳动力因素研究
    宋玉祥, 李国平
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 266-273,298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.266
    摘要   PDF (2907KB)
    抚顺煤矿区域工业化过程与特定的社会背景密切相关,劳动力因素对其产业配置和发展有很大影响,由殖民地时期确定的重工业体系,解放后进一步强化,形成以重工业为中心的产业体系,当前在市场经济体制下,又而临艰巨的产业结构调整.
    The regional industrializing proccess of Fushun Coal Mine is closely related to its specific social background. The labor force has a great effect on the industrial disposition in this area. The heavy industry, which was established during the colonial period, has been srteng thened ander the planning economy since the liberation, and formed an industial system around chemical industry. Under the situation of present market economy, Fushun Coal Mine is facing an arduous task to adjust its industrial structure.
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    技术方法
    PERT在地图编制中的应用研究
    刘红玉, 朱金花, 尹星
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 274-280,298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.274
    摘要   PDF (2673KB)
    应用系统论的观点和系统工程方法研究了地图编制工作中进度控制问题.在阐述了PERT技术方法及其应用的基础上,分析了PERT技术方法的特点,为地图编制工作走向规范化、科学化提供了新的方法.
    The progress controlling problems in the course-of map-making are approached by systematic theory view and system engineering method in this paper. PERT technical method and its application are studied completely. And the characteristics of PERT technical method are analysed. PERT technical method is a new suitable method which can promote the standardization and scientificness for map-making
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    研究报道
    广东沿海的晚更新世沙坝
    刘尚仁
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 281-288,298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.281
    摘要   PDF (2881KB)
    广东沿海较普遍存在晚更新世沙坝(老沙坝).根据一系列特征说明其成因为海成,且晚更新世中期的高海面接近现在海面.
    There are generally sand barriers of Late Pleistocene Epoch( old sand barrier) along Guangdong coast, on its top and nearby, palaeocoast dunes were often generated and eolian old red sand is distributed. It has been recognized by features that the old sand barrier can change river’s course, form tombolo, its size is main middle sand and coarse sand, contains grail and shelfish in the sand layer etc. and the old sand barrier is marine but eolian. It has been recognized by features that the old sand barrier and sand barrier of Holocene Epoch exist generally by side and are similar height below 10m, height at top of Q32 marine clay under the old sand barrier is zero metre or so, width of marine-erosion platform formed solid rock in sites in Guangdong is tens metres etc. the high sea level at middle period of Late Pleistocene Epoch approaching now sea level comparatively accords with actual situation in Guangdong.
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    长春市大气SO2时空分布与气象条件分析
    王德宣, 刘洋, 徐宁
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 289-294,298.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.289
    摘要   PDF (2635KB)
    长春市大气SO2浓度具有采暖期明显高于非采暖期的特点,大气SO2浓度与风速、通风系数呈负相关,与气压呈正相关;与云量的关系依时间变化而不同.大气SO2的垂直变化在2000m以下梯度较大,在2000m以上梯度变化趋缓.
    The Annual change of atomspheric sulphur dioxide content, which is much higher from middle November to early March than from April to October, and the daily change which is the highest in daybreak and nightfall, are very obvious in Changchun City. There is a close relationship between them. Through correlation analysis, it can be found that atomspheric sulphur dioxide content is negatively correlated with wind speed, ventilation quantity, and cloud amount in the evening, and positively correlated with atmospheric pressure and cloud amount in the morning.
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    论文
    《中国土地沙质荒漠化》简评
    董治宝
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (3): 295-296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.03.295
    摘要   PDF (986KB)
    在荒漠化问题倍受国际社会广泛关注之际,由朱震达和陈广庭教授等合著的《中国土地沙质荒漠化》一书由科学出版社正式出版发行.该书是作者多年潜心从事我国土地沙漠化研究成果的总结,是代表我国目前土地沙漠化研究水平的又一力作.由著名科学家、中国科学院院士刘东生教授组织的评议组认为,该书研究成果有突破,处于国际领先水平.全书38万余字,共11章,资料翔实,图文并茂,对了解我国土地沙漠化现状、成因、发展史及治理对策具有极高的参考价值.与以往同类著作相比,该书在以下几方面别具特色,见解独到.
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