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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1998年, 第18卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1998-05-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    人地关系地域系统研究的开拓者——庆贺吴传钧院士80华诞
    黄锡畴, 佟连军
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 197-198.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.197
    摘要   PDF (1065KB)
    在我国杰出地理学家、人文地理学的开拓者、中国地理学会理事长、国际地理联合会前任副主席、中国科学院院士吴传钧先生80华诞之际,我们向他老人家表示衷心的祝贺,致以崇高的敬意,并祝他健康长寿.吴传钧先生是我国享誉海内外的著名地理学家.他作为我国地理学界的领导者和组织者在农业地理、农业区划、土地利用、国土开发整治、人地关系及人地关系地域系统以及区域持续发展战略等研究领域,硕果累累,成就巨大,为该领域的典范.60年来一直坚持在科学研究的第一线,致力于发展我国地理科学事业,开拓了我国当代地理学一系列完整研究领域,发展了全国地理学界的联合与协作,促进我国地理学在为国民经济建设服务方面取得了一系列重大成果,并推动了中国地理学走向世界.吴传钧院士为发展我国地理学,促进国内国际学术交流,不遗余力,特别是在“文革”后为恢复我国地理学界在国际地理联合会中的席位,呕心沥血,并以外交家的风度,在国际上做了大量的宣传和争取工作.他不顾身体欠佳,甚至抱病奔走于世界各地,经他近10年的不懈努力奋斗,终于使我国地理学界重返国际地理联合会,从而提高了我国地理界在国际上的地位和信心,为中国地理学做出了卓越贡献.
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    奉献农业 发展学科——对黄秉维院士农业研究工作的认识
    唐登银
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 199-204.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.199
    摘要   PDF (2497KB)
    简述了黄秉维院士的农业研究工作的光辉历程,分析了黄秉维农业研究工作的特色,强调学习黄秉维的精神.
    This paper is divided into four parts: (1) the brilliant march; (2) the unique research work; (3) the complete academic thought system; (4) the heartening spirit.The author briefly reviews Prof. Huang’s research work related to agricutlure which is the main component of his scientific activities. About 50 years of research work have been experienced in agriculture. Wide range of topics was concerned. His research work in agriculture resulted in great influence on China’s agricultural practice and geographical development.In the second part of this paper the author thinks that Huang’s research work has the following characteristics: (1) the practicability, (2) breaking through the constraints of traditional geography, (3) doing researches in the front of era, (4) observing agriculture with the view of wide angle, (5) experimentation.In the third part the author analysizes Huang’s academic thought system consisting of the following components: (1) the integration is the base for geography, (2) the core task of integration is to discove the relationship of the geographical components, processes, and between them, (3) the approach to enhance the capability of geography depends on the analysis under the guidance of integration, (4) application of integration thought to the geographical complex in the defferent spatial scale, (5) the resolution of the practical problems needs integration, (6) a long way to go to reach the integration.Finally, Huang’s spirit would encourage the geographers. Some aspects of Huang’s spirit include: (1) loving our homeland and devoting himself to agriculture, (2) continuously bringing in the creation to his research work, (3) deep theoretical thought.
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    论我国河流水环境容量空间分异与工业生产力的宏观布局
    鲍全盛, 姜文来
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 205-212.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.205
    摘要   PDF (2672KB)
    在分析我国各地区经济发展与河流水环境容量资源之间矛盾关系及其成因的基础上,揭示了水环境容量与生产力宏观布局之间的关系,并探讨了根据河流水环境容量条件进行生产力宏观布局与调整产业结构的策略.水环境容量是影响生产力宏观布局的重要因素之一,在工业生产力布局时,如果能充分考虑水环境容量资源的承载力,则能够以最小的经济代价,换取最佳的环境效益,使经济与环境得以持续、协调发展,促进区域经济增长.
    Based on the analysis of contradictory relation between economic development and water environment capacity of rivers in various regions of China, the relation between water environment capacity and macrolayout of productivity is revealed. In addition, strategy on making macro-layout of productivity and regulating industrial structure according to water environment capacity of rivers is approached. It is pointed out that water environment capacity has important restrictive effect on macro-layout of productivity. So when macro-layout of industrial productivity is made, carrying capacity of water environment has to be fully considered at the same time, so as to ensure optimum environmental benefit with minimum economic cost. As a result, sustainable and coordinative development of economy and water environment can be reached, regional economic growth can be enhanced.
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    西藏一江两河地区农业景观调整研究
    王家骥, 高吉喜, 舒俭民, 菅小东, 李京荣, 常虹, 童岩
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 213-218.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.213
    摘要   PDF (2564KB)
    西藏一江两河地区是经济快速发展地区,由于高寒和多风少雨,生态环境条件极其恶劣,景观系统抗御和修复干扰的能力微弱.因此,在该地区实施大农业开发工程不能走传统的开荒要粮的道路,而应实施农业景观调整规划,规划的重要内容有3项,即实施现代农业技术使现有的高产田改造成稳产高产田;使现有的大量中低产田改造成有灌排条件的高产田;选择干旱坡地、不平整土地和与当地农民生活相关不密切的旱地退耕还林还草.从而解决粮食需求问题,遏止生态环境急剧退化的趋势.
    The three rivers area is the rapid economic development area in Xizang. As the weather is frigid with frequent wind and little rain, the ecological environment condition in the area is extremely bad, and the resistance and rehabilitation ability of landscape system is weak. Therefore, in the implementation of agriculture development program in the area, it is advisable to adopt the traditional method of wasteland reclamation, instead, the a-griculture landscape in the area should be modified. The primary contents of the modification plan are implementing modern agricultural technology to improve the current fields with high yield to the fields with high and stable yield, improve the middle and low-yield fields to the high-yield fields with irrigation system and transform the dry land on the slopes, non-smooth land and dry land with non-importance to the residences’ living to the forest land and grassland. So the problem of food demand will be solved and the degenerating trend of ecological environment will be controlled.
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    江苏省近两千年气候变化研究
    陈家其, 姜彤, 许朋柱
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 219-226.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.219
    摘要   PDF (2547KB)
    建立一个温度指数序列和苏南、苏北两个旱涝等级序列,序列长度在600~1800a间.分历史气候时期(近2000a)和实测资料时期(近百年)对冷暖(温度)和旱涝(降水)变化规律作研究,提出宏观趋势.
    One series of temperature index and two series of flood/drought degrees in the north and south of Jiangsu Province are established. The major conclusions are as fllows.1. Since 200 A. D. until the end of 14 th century, it was warm in the former period and cold in the later period. There were three coldest sub-periods in the later period, for instance, from the end of 15 century to the beginning of the 16 th century, middle and later period of 17 th century, middle and later period of 19 th century.2. There was a heavy drought period from the end of 12 th century to the beginning of 13 th century since 800 A.D.. And then a relative humid period occurred from the middle and later period of 13 th century to the middle of 17 th century when a huge climatic abrupt (from the 1230’s to the 1260’s) happened since the last 2000 years in the south of Jiangsu Province.3. There was a relative drought period in the north of Jiangsu Province from the end of 16 th century to the beginning of 20 th century since 1400 A.D., and relative humid forwards and afterwards.4. The change of temperature can be divided 4 stages during the last 100 years, in which mean annual temperature obviously rose after the end of the 1980’s. Annual precipitation is typically shown on the periodicity of 30 years and 11 years in the southern and northern Jiangsu Province respectively. At present, the precipitation is shown in the normal and much more situation.
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    新疆天山山地自然灾害垂直带谱及其特征
    熊黑钢, 刘耕年, 崔之久
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 227-233.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.227
    摘要   PDF (2676KB)
    分析天山山地由气候原因引起的自然灾害分布的垂直带谱,主要灾害类型有12种,可分为3个带:(1)基带(暴雨-塌方带):主要是由中、低山突发性的降雨引起的各种灾害.此带灾害频发时期与最大降水期是同步的.(2)中带(融水-冰冻带):其灾害大多同温度的变化有密切的关系.(3)上带(风吹雪-雪崩带):由积雪运动造成的灾害多集中在这里.山地坡向和高度对自然灾害垂直带谱的组成和灾害出现的频率影响很大.由于温度和降水的地区差异,不同纬度和经度地带自然灾害的垂直带谱是不相同的.
    With the mountain elevation increase and climate condition change, the rule of distribution, happening and development of the various natural disasters, which is caused by climate, produce some change and form the vertical zone spectrum of special mountain natural disasters. This research is helpful to finding effective variety measures of prevention disasters, avoiding and reducing the harm of natural disasters. There are 12 types of disasters in Tianshan Mountains, they can be divided three zones.1. Base zone (torrential rain-collapse zone): The various disasters of this zone are caused by sudden precipitation in the low-middle mountain of the arid area. The disasters occur mainly from May to August. Thus, the frequency period of their hurst is simultaneous with the maximum period of precipitation in every year.2. Middle zone (snowmelt water-icing zone): Most disasters, which happen in the middle-high mountain area, have close relation with variation of temperature. The kinds of disasteres include destruction of thawing snow water, iceing damage, glacial debrisflow, glacial lake burst, thawing sinking, snow drift of middle mountain and middle mountain avalanche.3. Upper zone (snow drift-avalanche zone) : The movement of snow creates disaster in this zone. There are snow drifts of high mountain above the wooded-line in mountain and the avalanches of high mountain, which is above 3500 meters and mainly form in summer.
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    大连市内部地域结构转型与郊区化
    曹广忠, 柴彦威
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 234-241.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.234
    摘要   PDF (2730KB)
    在回顾大连城市内部地域结构形成发展的基础上,分析了80年代以来大连城市土地利用结构的总体变化趋势,并尝试提出了大连市内部地域结构模式图.80年代期间,大连市内部地域结构已开始由单中心集聚型向多中心集聚与扩散并存型转型.而这种转型是大连市郊区化现象在城市地域上的空间反映.
    Urban internal structure can be regarded as the spatial reflection of social and economic activities in urban area. According to the model of spatial changes of population and economic activities, the process of urbanization can be divided into three stages: typical urbanization stage in which agglomeration is the main power, initial suburbanization stage in which agglomeration and dispersion are also important, and typical suburbanziation stage in which dispersion is the dominant character. Accompanied with these urbanization stages there are three types of urban internal structure: one center and mixed land-use pattern, transformation pattern from one center to multiple nucleus and multiple nucleus, specialized land-use pattern.Dalian City was selected as a case in this paper, and the land-use maps of 1980 and 1989 were collected. According to the land-use patterns in different periods, the urban area can be divided into three zones. After discussing the transformation of land-use structure of Dalian City since the 1980’ s by analyzing the changes of the degree of mixed land-use in every zone, the model of urban internal structure for Dalian City is summarized. The conclusion is that Dalian City is in a transitional period of urban internal structure, and suburbanization in Dalian City is the result of the urban internal structure’s transformation.
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    分形方法在洪涝灾害预测中的应用——以广西梧州为例
    王良健, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 242-248.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.242
    摘要   PDF (2475KB)
    洪涝灾害是由暴雨洪水形成的一种突发性、最常见的自然灾害,它的发生在时间序列上具有分形特征.以广西梧州解放以来发生的特大洪涝灾害年份建立灾变日期序列,运用分式布朗运动模型中的R/S分析对洪涝灾害发生的时间序列进行模拟,计算了H指数值,建立R(t)/S(t)的幂函数关系式等,并以此为依据,预测下次灾年将在1999年出现.
    The flood disaster, caused by rainstorm and flood, is a sudden and the most common natural disaster. The occurrence of the flood disaster is neither of full certainty nor of thorough haphazard. It is both periodic and chaotic. It reappears on the different time scale and has the self-similarity. So the occurrence of the flood disaster has the fractal characteristics on time sequence. Wuzhou City is in the southeast of Guangxi. With the disproportionate distribution of the time and space of precipitation, susceptibility to the typhoon plus its location at the lower reaches of three rivers, with 90 percent of the river’s water flowing into Guangdong by the Xunhe River, the flood disaster frequently occurred in the history. This paper establishes the catastrophic time sequence with the years of the greatest flood disasters since 1949. The time sequence of the flood disaster is simulated by the rescaled range analysis of the fractional Brownian motion model and the ’H’ exponent is calculated and the power function of ’R(τ)/S(τ)’ is established. According to this calculation, the next disaster will appear in 1999.
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    柴达木盆地东缘晚更新世气候变化的(古)土壤发生记录
    郝永萍, 方小敏, 奚晓霞, 胡双熙, 管东红
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 249-254.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.249
    摘要   PDF (2568KB)
    柴达木盆地东缘典型剖面(古)土壤及其黄土母质的宏观特征和理化分析表明,本区晚更新世以来气候曾有几次较大的波动,反映了全球冰量影响的气候波动以及东亚季风气候的强弱变化特征.揭示出气候变化过程中温度和降水并不同步,温度主要受地球轨道变化引起的太阳辐射的影响;降水则主要取决于冬、夏季风的强弱对比关系.夏季风盛行时,降水丰沛.间冰段古土壤Sm的土壤发生特征和强度,揭示了除低温引起的蒸发减少外,降水丰沛也是导致5~3万a左右气候相当湿润的重要原因.
    Based on TL-dating, 14C-dating, soil macro-structure and physical-chemical analyses of samples from the Angutan section, the east region of Qaidam Basin, the following conclusions are proved. Since the Late Pleisto-cence, the climate has fluctuated several times, revealing the intensity of East Asia moonsoon system. Temperature and precipitation in the climate system didn’t coincide with each other. When summer moonsoon was relatively strong, the precipitation increased; the pedogenic properties of Sm indicated that precipitation was also an important factor in the humid climate episode from 50 to 30 ka. B. P., except for the factor of low temperature.
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    安徽省长江沿岸港口体系规模组合与空间结构分析
    曹有挥
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 255-262.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.255
    摘要   PDF (2749KB)
    借助差异指数和罗伦兹曲线等技术刻划了安徽沿江港口体系规模组合与空间结构的地域差异特征;并运用多元回归分析方法探讨了该港口体系规模组合与空间结构地域差异的成因机制;最后在定性与定量上阐述了该港口体系规模组合与空间结构的动态演变规律.
    To study the law of regional port system is great significance, both in theory and practicae. The main purpose of this research is to study the regional differences and dynamic evolution of the size combination and spatial structure of the Changjiang River port system in Anhui Province.By calculating the concerned statistics, the author holds that there are obvious regional disparities of port distribution and its size not only between the south and north banks but also among sub-regions. The regional differences of the size combination and spatial sturcture of the port system and their causes are analysed with the aid of multiple-regression analysis in which 16 counties and cities along the Changjiang River in Anhui Province are as the cases. Calculated results show that the cause of formation is mutual interaction between the law of port development and four economic factors-level of urbanization, communication condition, total output value of industry and agriculture and industry output value per capita in the cities.The development and changes of the port system could be divided into three stages. 1 Embryonic stage, from the end of the Ming Dynasty to the middle of the Qing Dynasty, the port system did not exist hierarchies and its spatial structure was characterized by a stable decentralized state. 2 Initial forming stage, after the middle of the Qing Dynasty it had single rank hierarchies and a unstable centralized spatial state. 3 Forming stage, since the 1950s the port system’s evolution has been characterized by multiple hierarchies and a more centralized spatial structure.Using the Gini coefficient, it can be seen that port traffic has generally become more concentrated from 1985 to 1995. During this time, however, deconcentration to some extent also existed sometimes.
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    巢湖流域非点源污染初步研究
    阎伍玖, 王心源
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 263-267.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.263
    摘要   PDF (2420KB)
    巢湖是我国五大淡水湖中污染最为严重的湖泊之一.对巢湖流域自然、经济、社会系统进行全面分析,运用对应分析技术剖析了不同土地利用方式与营养物地表径流输入之间的关系,为巢湖流域非点源污染的控制提供依据.
    Chaohu Lake is one of the five largest fresh water lakes in China, it is being polluted and eutrophication is very serious now. This paper deals comprehensively with the physical-geographic features and social economic situation in the Chaohu Lake drainage basin. On the basis of this, correspondence analysis technique was applied to the correlational analysis between the salt load of surface water runoff and each type of land use, thus providing scientific basis for the control of the non-point sources pollution on the Chaohu Lake drainage basin.
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    松嫩平原土地次生盐碱化研究
    李取生, 裘善文, 邓伟
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 268-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.268
    摘要   PDF (2509KB)
    松嫩平原是我国土地次生盐碱化最严重的地区之一.由于盲目开垦、过度放牧及一些水利工程带来的负效应,土地次生盐碱化迅速发展,每年增长速度达1%~1.4%.到下世纪初将有45%左右盐碱化土地退化为基本无利用价值的重盐碱地.主要防治措施有水田、芦苇开发和以灌代排的水利措施,改革草原经营机制、封原育草、秸杆利用等草场改良和畜牧业发展措施,改土培肥、种植耐盐经济作物等农业技术措施.
    This paper analyzed the distribution and the change trend of the saline-alkalized land in Songnen Plain since the 1950s using the data of the first and second soil investigation and the Landsat images in the 1990s. We conclude that the secondary saline-alkalized land here increased 1% - 1.4% per year. Through field investigation and sampling, we analyzed the reasons of saline-alkalization and proposed that the saline-alkalization of wetland was one of the main types and the main characteristic of the wetland degradation. According to the practical experience and achievements of the study on the saline-land management and agricultural sustainable development in Da’an Demonstration Region, we proposed the management techniques such as planting paddy field, reed and grass, forbiddening grassland, using straw to raise livestock and improving soil.
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    教学研究
    英美经济地理学教材特点及我国同类教材改革思路
    李小建
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 273-278.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.273
    摘要   PDF (2424KB)
    近10a来,英美诸国使用的经济地理教材可被概括为理论分析型、部门分析型、实际问题型和综合型.我国面向21世纪经济地理教材应以理论和研究方法为重点,在理论选择上以可适用理论为主,尽量反映我国经济地理学家的理论成果,在教材组织上应利于培养创造型人才.此外,在教材编写中应树立严谨的学风,给学生以样板.
    The commonly used textbooks of economic geography in UK and USA in the past 10 years are categorised into theoretical analysis dominated, economic sector structured, major practical problem emphasized, and all above combined. In comparison, the current used textbooks of the same kind in China are very weak in the theoretical and methodological analysis. The development in the past decade in the international academia hardly appears in the related texts. It is true that internationally economic geography holds a weaker position in theory as compared with other disciplines. It is also true that in China the status turns to even weaker than in the more developed world. Therefore, in order to narrow the gap the new textbook of economic geography should emphasise theoretical and methodological analysis. In consideration of the difference from the Western world in development phase and social and economic systems, the theories that suit China’s current reality should be paid more attention to. Those that can not be used in present China but reflect the directions of progress in the field should also briefly appear in the new textbook. As a textbook used in China the contributions by Chinese geographers should be considered in detail. The main purpose is to give students tools to solve problems not just some economic geographical facts. Therefore, the exercise and practical works should be carried along with the theoretical explanation and methodological analysis. In addition, it is suggested that the new textbook use more figures, maps and tables to demonstrate the theories that usually be considered very dry by students.
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    研究报道
    天山荒漠景观内土壤机械地球化学垒的研究
    黄标, 龚子同, 黄钺
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 279-287.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.279
    摘要   PDF (2738KB)
    天山荒漠景观内土壤中存在两种形式的机械地球化学垒,即由水流流速变化形成的机械地球化学垒和由于空气流速变化形成的机械地球化学垒.由于地球化学垒内土壤中粘粒的聚集,使得铁族元素Ti、V、Mn、Fe、Co、Cu、Zn及Li、K、B、F等元素在其内聚集.B、Cu、Fe等元素的有效性随其全量的增加而增加,F元素的有效性除与全量有关外,还受其它因素影响,变化较复杂.
    Mechanic geochemical barriers are the main types of geochemical barriers. There are two forms of mechanic geochemical barriers on the basis of author’s researches. The first mechanic geochemical barrier is formed by change of water-flow velocity, which is distributed in exit of river or depress along piedmont of the Tianshan Mountains. The second one is formed by decrease of air-flow velocity due to resistance of the mountains, which is distributed along margins of the Tianshan Mountains. The studies on element geochemistry and availability show that Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Li, K, Ba, B and F are accumulated in mechanic geochemical barriers due to accumulation of clay in soils. The availabilities of B, Cu, Fe are increased with their total contents. The availability of F is affected by the other factors besides its total content, resulting in complex changes in soils. These conclusions have great values for evaluation of environmental quality and planting and fertilizing according to soil types in agriculture.
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    海滩岩在连云港的发现
    李春生
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (3): 288-292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.03.288
    摘要   PDF (3571KB)
    作者在江苏连云港海滨首次发现了全新世海滩岩.经岩石样品及簿片、扫描电镜、14C同位素等分析测定,海滩岩主要由陆源碎屑和生物碎屑组成,胶结物为文石和高镁方解石.该地海滩岩主要形成于全新世早期,当时气温高于现在8~10℃,据此对连云港全新世早期古气候、水动力条件、海岸线的发展变化及古地理环境等作了初步探讨.
    Holocene beachrock was fired found in places along the coast of Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province. According to analysis, beachrock is mabe up of terringenous clastic and bioclast, the cement are mainly aragonite and high Mg calcite. 14C dating data of beachrock samples show that Lianyungang beachrock formed in the Early Holocene. The temperature when the Lianyungang beachrock formed was 8 - 10℃ higher than now. In this paper, the author has made a preliminary study on the Early Holocene changes of paleoclimate, change of dynamic condition, shifting of coast line and paleogeography environments etc.
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