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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1996年, 第16卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1996-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    黄土地区气候演变的有机地球化学标志
    贾蓉芬, 赵林, 刘友梅, 文启忠
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 97-105.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.97
    摘要   PDF (2718KB)
    对渭南阳郭黄土剖面So~L2层段作了总有机碳(TOC)和Rock-Eval热解烃分析.建立了TOC气候变化曲线及其变化周期,与其它气候指标进行了对比.揭示了黄土剖面中与气候变化有关的两种烃类,推导并验证了古湿度公式,计算了各层段的湿度分布及其演变趋势.
    The samples collected from Weinan loess section (L2-So) have been analysed by TOC(total organic carbon) and Rock-Eval.The curve of TOC with depth has been set up and compared well with other climatic markers.The main periods of TOC variation of the last 0.14 Ma are 67.08 Ka and 18.29 Ka,which is near with the period of the variation of sunshine,showing that the TOC variation may be controlled by the variation of 65°N sunshine.The distribution of pyrolysis hydrocarbon and its parameters have been researched in detail in the section.It shows that there are two kinds of hydrocarbon associated with climatic change.One is called biological reduce hydrocarbon (pHC2-1) which is in the range of Tmax 350℃ ~500℃,and associated with atmospheric water.The other is called carbonate inclusion hydrocarbon (pHC2-2) which is in the range of Tmax 500~600℃ and formed by evaporation and associated with dry climate.The formula calculating humidity has been deduced: Qg=pHC2-1/(pHC2-1+pHC2-2).The range of humidity of the section is 47%~77% and the reducing order is S1-3>S1-2>O>S1-1>L1-4>L1-1>L1-3>L1-5.And the trend of the humidity is still increasing today.
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    东北老工业基地衰退机制与结构转换研究
    李诚固
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 106-114.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.106
    摘要   PDF (2778KB)
    分析“东北现象”及世界主要老工业基地发展衰退特征,运用产业结构及经济增长理论,探讨了我国东北老工业基地和世界主要老工业基地发展衰退的制约因素,归纳、总结了老工业基地发展的衰退机制.在分析、借鉴国外老工业基地改造成功经验的基础上,提出了我国东北老工业基地改造与振兴的目标、途径和措施.
    On the basis of analying the features of“Northeast phenomenon”and the historical development process of western old industrial bases,using the industrial structure theory and economic growth theory,this paper discusses the restrictive factors in old industrial bases recession and studies the mechanism of recession of old industrial buses.According to the successful experience of western old industrial bases transforming,the paper point-ed out the aim,way and measure of northeast old industrial base transforming in China.The main conclusions drawn from the study are as follows:1. The main feature of recession of old industrial bases is low increase,low speed and bad benefit.2. The regional superiority is the objective foundation of industrial base formation and development.3. The main reason of lod industrial base recession is the industrial structure aged.4. The adjustment industrial structure is the dey way of northeast old industrial base transforming.5. The aims of northeast old industrial base transforming inelude adjusting the relationship between raw industry and manufacture industry,light in-dustry and heavy industry,adjusting industrial technical structure and product structure.6. The way of northeast old industrial base transforming consists of making new industrial development pattern,adjusting industrial allocation,improving regional investment environment,speeding up the developlment of southern coast zone,developing greatly town industry,laying down a series of measures that promote the reform of northeast old industrial base.
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    新疆盐湖卤水成分及其成因
    郑喜玉, 刘建华
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 115-123.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.115
    摘要   PDF (2738KB)
    根据野外考察和室内研究资料,论述了新疆盐湖的概况,卤水主要和次要成分,盐湖的水化学类型,探讨了盐湖卤水化学成分的来源和集散特点.
    According to field survey and laboratory study,the authors discuss the general situations of salt lakes in Xinjiang,the major and minor compositions of salt lake brines,the hydrochemical types of these salt lakes,and also the matter sources of the brine composition and their enrichment characters.
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    水系的分形维数及其含义
    何隆华, 赵宏
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 124-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.124
    摘要   PDF (2457KB)
    在分述水系分维数的几个计算方法基础上,对两个试区采用地图照相缩小后扫描以及遥感图象处理的方法提取河流信息,以计盒方法计算水系的分维数,并据此提出划分流域地貌侵蚀发育阶段的方法.
    This paper describes the fractal characteristics of river network,the computation methods and the interpretation of the fractal dimension of the river networks.Based on the calculation of fractal dimension in fourteen large basins and sixty-seven subbasins in China the following points are pointed out in this paper;(1) The river networks are fractals.Their geometric structrures has some self-simialrity.(2) The fractal dimension of river networks can be computed by box counting method.Suitable box size should be selected before reliable result can be got.(3) The real river system is too complicated to be described by just one fractal dimension.Multi-fractals is more suitable for depicting large river systems.Because the large river basins have many subbasins.And in every subbasin,the environment is quite different and there can be calculated a dimension.(4) The fractal dimension of river network reflects the degree of the river evolution.Using the fractal dimension,we can divide the evolution stages of the cycle of erosion through which the river systems are on.The larger the fractal dimension,the later the stage.The threshold for separating the three evolution stages are:D=1.6 and D=1.89.These two values remain further improvement.
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    人类活动对长江中游湿地生态系统的冲击
    蔡述明, 周新宇
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 129-136.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.129
    摘要   PDF (2733KB)
    长江中游平原湖区是中国湿地资源的重要组成部分.由于人类对湿地资源的开发利用,给平原湖区带来了“鱼米之乡”的美誉,成为中国重要的农业生产基地和经济发达地带,同时也对生态环境带来了一系列的冲击,湿地资源与环境亟待保护.
    The plain lake area in the middle reaches of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River is an important part of Chinese wetland resources.Because of its long-time exploitaton and development,it is a main base of agricultural production and developed economic zone,and is renowned as“Country of fish and rice”.But in the meantine,it also has resulted in a series of impact on the ecological environment,thus it is urgent to protect the wetland resources and environment.
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    黄河上游的阶地与水系变迁
    杨达源, 吴胜光, 王云飞
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 137-143.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.137
    摘要   PDF (2535KB)
    黄河上游于贵德盆地和共和盆地中有7级阶地,再往上游方向存在阶地级数递减的趋势.共和盆地中还有3级古黄河阶地.黄河上游水系是通过一级级河流袭夺相继贯通的.共和盆地与贵德盆地间的黄河古道始于中更新世末期,龙羊峡河段始于60ka B.P.前后.玛多与唐乃亥间的峡谷河段是20ka B.P.才贯通的.
    The upper reaches of the Huanghe (Yellow) River,a length of 1350 km from Gyaring Lake to Guide county,cuts through the great slope of the northeast part of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibet) Plateau and it runs through a few of Mesozoic-Cenozoic depositional basins,for example,Guide basin,Gonghe basin,Xinghai basin,Zoige basin,Ngoring-Gyaring basin etc.,the sections between them are a series of gorges of the Huanghe River.Based on author’s investigation,there is a terrace of 7 steps in the Huanghe River valley by Guide county,a terrace of 3 steps being formed by the ancient Huanghe River and 7 steps in Gonghe basin,6 steps by Gamao Yangqu town,5 steps by Tangnaihai town,Xinghai County,3 steps by Maqu town,Gansu Province,and one step by Ngoring-Gyaring Lake.The overall upper reaches of the Huanghe River was linked up by a series of the stream captures occurred after strongly uplifting of the Qinghai-Xizang area into a plateau.A section of the ancient Huanghe River through the place Gahaitan located on northeastern Gonghe basin towards east into Guide basin was developed during the end of Middle Pleistocene to the middle of the Late Pleistocene,and then it migrated towards southeast to the place Longyangxia Gorge about 60000 years ago.And the gorge from Maqu to Tangnaihai was linked up about 20000 years ago.
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    塔里木河流域突发性洪水初步研究
    王润, 高前兆
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 144-149.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.144
    摘要   PDF (2499KB)
    突发性洪水是于旱区河流重要的水文事件.塔里木河流域突发性洪水主要包括暴雨突发性洪水和冰川湖崩决洪水.本文例举了发生在上游支流的两种类型突发性洪水,对其发生、发展进行了比较分析.同时,分析了不同类型不同支流发生的突发性洪水对干流的影响.
    Flash floods are the important events of the hydrological regime of rivers in arid areas.In the Tarim River,northwestern China,flash floods are being monitored.The observed data and investigation demonstrate the difference in time,place,frequency and intensity of their occurrences.Two main flash floods are put forward,they are rainstorm flash flood (RFF) and glacier lake outburst flood (GLOF) by two cases of flash flood in the two tributaries of the Tarim river presented in this paper.It analyses and compares the causes and the development of the two kinds of flash floods.Through further discussion about influence of flash floods on the main channel of the Tarim River,conclusion can be drawn that the greatest flood in record of the main channel come from the GLOF of the upper reaches of the Kunmalik River,especially augmented by great ablation flood.Finally the advantages and disadvantages from flash floods to the environment of the catchment are demonstrated in the paper.
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    华北山区坡地方位和海拔高度对降水的影响
    王菱
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 150-158.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.150
    摘要   PDF (2711KB)
    根据华北山区降水随海拔高度变化的不同参数,将地形按不同坡地方位进行分区.在分区的基础上,研究降水随地方海拔高度和宏观地形高度变化规律,并求其宏观区域最大降水高度的分布.
    Impacts of orientation of slopes and elevation in some mountatious areas are complicated.In North China,mountainous region may be divided into 14 sub-regions according to the variations of different parameters of rainfall with elevation.The variation of rainfall with the local elevation shows an increasing tendency of logarthmic function while the variation of rainfall with macro-regional height shows a decreasing tendency of exponential function.On the basis of sub-regions,the variations of the distrubusions of rainfall in mountainous regions may be expressed as a linear function of geographical coordinates:Pi= a0i+a1iψ+a2iλ+a3ih where Pi is the rainfall calculated.a0i is a constant,a1i,,a2i,a3i are the partial correlation coefficients,ψ is the latitude,λ is the longitude and h is the height.The maximum rainfall height often occurs in the range of a warm and wet air current forced to rise.The wetter this current is,the lower the maximum rainfall hight is,vice versa.
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    研究报道
    黄土高原全新世黄土重矿物研究及其土壤发生学意义
    贺秀斌, 唐克丽, 雷祥义
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 159-163.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.159
    摘要   PDF (2360KB)
    对黄土高原三个典型全新世黄土-古土壤剖面进行密集采样,对样品中的重矿物进行了半定量统计.利用不稳定矿物与稳定矿物比值的F值指标作为矿物风化指数,说明重矿物含量变化与气候环境变迁、成土作用强度时空变化的关系.分析结果表明,F值是反映矿物风化程度较敏感的指标,也是反映生物气候环境变化、成土作用强度的敏感指标;F值表明全新世中期是成土的最佳期.黑垆土的形成过程可分为4个时期:古土壤母质黄土沉积期(12000~8500a B.P.);古土壤发育与剖面加厚期(8500~3500a B.P.);盖层形成期(3500~2500a B.P.)和盖层加厚与人为影响盖层熟化期(2500a B.P.~现今).因此,黑垆土剖面是多次环境演变和风沙沉积形成的多元发生剖面.
    On the Loess Plateau,three typical Holocene loess sections are investigated and sampled.Compositions of heavy minerals in all samples are distinguished under microscopy and their contents are semi-quantitively analysised.The content ratios of unstable minerals to stable minerals are considered as the index to reflex the degree of weathering and pedogenesis.The results indicate that:1) The categories of heavy minerals in all samples are complex and diverse,and the dominant heay minerals (opaque minerals,epidoteand hornnlende) are almost the same.However,some differences in contents are noted,especially in contents of unstable minerals.2) The F value is susceptible index of degree of weathering and pedogenesis.3) From the view piont of pedogenics,the Hei Lu Tu soil has given rise to different natural weathering conditions and human actions,the profile of Hei Lu Tu is a multi-profile.
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    沉积物中水溶性天然有机物吸着系数的动态测定
    林滨, 陶澍
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 164-169.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.164
    摘要   PDF (2441KB)
    探讨了直接测定沉积物中水溶性天然有机物吸着系数的可行性,提出了改变水土比和连续提取两种动态测定方法,从理论上分析了两种方法的操作误差.结果表明,这两种方法均能同时测定样品中水溶性有机物的含量和吸着系数;改变水土比法明显优于连续提取法.用该方法测定了伊春河沉积物样品中水溶性有机物的含量与吸着系数.
    Two procedures of Multiple Solid-Water Ratio(MSWR) and Sequential Extraction (SE) for determination of sorption coefficients of water-soluble organic matter in river sediment were proposed.The operational feasibility of the procedures and the procedural errors were analyzed.It was demonstrated that the MSWR method is favored over the SE method due to its operational easiness and relatively high accuracy.The content and the sorption coefficient of water-soluble organic matter of a sediment collected from the Yichun River determined with MSWR procedure are 0.247 mg/l and 0.0045 l/g respectively.
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    技术方法
    城市经济、社会与环境协调发展的多目标交互式决策方法
    王宏伟, 任永琳
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 170-175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.170
    摘要   PDF (2374KB)
    为建立城市经济社会与环境协调发展的多目标决策模型,考虑了模型特点、数学模型的结构以及模型的求解方法.据此,建立了西安市2000年经济、社会与环境协调发展的多目标决策模型,应用交互STEM方法,实现分析者和决策者连续交互求解,最后得到一组满意结果.
    Taking the output value of each industrial department as decision variable,we build the economic-social-environmental co-ordinate growth multiobjective decision model.It can be solved using step method (STEM).This model provides a useful decision method for the policymaker.
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    城市商业土地级差地租的GIS评价方法研究
    徐建刚, 屠帆, 韩雪培
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 176-183.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.176
    摘要   PDF (2635KB)
    本文尝试在地理信息系统的支持下,以商业土地级差地租为研究对象,通过建立土地、交通和人口等空间数据库,分别对商业区位、交通和人口三个评价因子定量化,并采用地理环境辨识模型建立了综合评价指标来进行城市商业地租的等级划分.本文同时还以上海市普陀区为例,讨论了运用地理信息系统软件ARC/INFO进行数据提取的一系列方法.最后,建立了该区土地等级空间数据库,并根据输出的土地等级分布图初步分析了土地规划方向.
    This paper approaches to grade commercial land differential rent in cities based on Geographical Information System(GIS).Firstly,the three quantitative indexes of evaluating factor: commercial location,traffic condition and population density,are established separately in the support of the spatial database of land,traffic and population.Then,a unified evaluating index is created by using the model of discriminating geographic environment.Finally,the spatial database of commercial land rent class was established and primitive land plan was discussed according to the map of land rent class in the example of Putuo district,Shanghai.Meanwhile,a series of methods for extracting the data are developed by using PC ARC/INFO toolkits.The result shows that the study provides not only a valid means to appraise commercial land prices for land administration,but also the reliable basic data for urban planning.
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    计算机辅助绘制流域等流时线
    王腊春, 陈晓玲, 都金康, 杨晓轩
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 184-190.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.184
    摘要   PDF (2539KB)
    采用地理信息系统方法,对流域的地形地貌特征进行分析,模拟水质点在流域上的运动轨迹,并根据水质点汇流时间与汇流路径、坡度、坡长的关系,建立了流域汇流等流时线模型.经实例验证,效果较好.
    After analysing the watershed landform with the method of Geography Information System(GIS),the movement of a water particle can be conveniently traced in the process of watershed flow concentration.Its flow concentration time,which is from the starting point to the watershed outlet,is connected with the length and gradient along the flow pathway.According to the method,the flow concentration time of a water particle can be computed,which makes it possible that creates the model of equivalent flow duration contour aided by computer.The simulation method is proved effective by examing Huangshan runoff experiment basin.
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    评介
    评王缉慈编著《现代工业地理学》
    李小建
    地理科学. 1996, 16 (2): 191-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1996.02.191
    摘要   PDF (558KB)
    发达国家高等教育的发展,离不开广泛的国际交流.正因为如此,不少发展中国家把高等教育的国际化作为促使其水平提高的一个重要途径.高等教育国际化所含内容甚广,其中融汇当前国际最新成果、可与发达国家同类专业所学知识内容接轨的高水平教材的推出可谓必不可少之一项.
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  2016-05-11



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