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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1998年, 第18卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1998-01-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    我国土壤地球化学及其在农业生产中的意义
    龚子同, 黄标, 欧阳洮
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.1
    摘要   PDF (872KB)
    我国土壤地球化学特征受生物、气候、母质、地形及人为作用等因素影响,形成了我国独特的土壤地球化学类型和分布格局。不同地球化学类型,均有各自的元素丰度。土壤中元素与植物生长和人体健康的关系取决于土壤中元素的有效部分。影响土壤元素的有效性除受元素的赋存状态影响以外,还受pH、Eh和人为耕作施肥活动等因素的影响。根据土壤地球化学分布格局和类型,因地制宜、因土种植、合理施肥,对我国农业的持续发展有很大意义。
    Pedogeochemistry in China is affected by the factors such as bio climate, parent material, topography and human activities, forming the various geochemical types, including clastic soils, saline soils, gypsic soils, carbonate soils, siallic soils, ferrallic soils and ferrolysed soils, and the spatial distribution of soil geochemical regions which include saline, carbonate, siallic and ferrallic regions from northwestern to southeastern China. The different pedogeochemical type has its own different element abundance that depends on the spatial distribution of soil types. In the saline soil region, available Na, K, B, F, and Cu in soils are rich, but available P, Zn, Fe, Mn and I are deficient. sixty three percent of the region are deficient in P, 80% in Zn and Mn, and 50% in Fe. In the carbonate soil region, available K and B are still rich, but available Zn, Fe, Mn, Mo, I and Se are deficient. On the basis of statistics, about 60% of the region are deficient in P, and 80% in Zn, Mn, Fe and Mo. In the siallic soil region, deficiency of K, B and F is gradually evident, but the area of deficiency in Zn, Mn, Fe, and I decreases. Thirty two percent of the region is deficient in K, and 47% in P. In the ferrallic soil region, available K, B, Mo and F are lack due to strong leaching, on the contrary, available Zn, Mn, Fe in the region are more sufficient than those in the other regions. The toxic of Fe and Mn in some soils even appears. Fouty six percent of this region is inadequate in P, 60% in K, and 90% in B, Mo and F. In a word, the availability of elements are affected by pH, Eh and fertilizing activity besides the states of elements. On the basis of the soil geochemical distribution and types, rational plantation, application of fertilizer to soil types and rational utilization of soil nutrition will be of great significance in raising the yield and improving the quality of agricultural products. Authors suggest that fertilizers be utilized on the basis of soil geochemical characteristics, types, pH, Eh and special necessity of plants.
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    南方丘陵山区耕地现状、潜力与开发对策——以德庆县为例
    祝功武, 刘瑞华
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 10-15.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.10
    摘要   PDF (615KB)
    德庆县属南方丘陵山区,耕地详查面积较统计面积大40%,大部分耕地因洪、涝、旱、土质瘠薄而低产,高产优质田仅占30%,中低产达70%,远较传统认识的多,这在南方丘陵山区有普遍性。因此,必须进行优势开发,严格保护高产优质田,集中改造中低产田,继续大幅度调整农业结构,控制水土流失。
    Deqing is located in the tropic and subtropic mountain Area of China. Its area of Cultivated land from land use survey is 40% larger than the statistic. Of all cultivated land, owing to the flood, waterlogging, drought and barren soil, the high yield land occupys only 30%, and the mid low yield land 70%, which is far more than the percent statistic. These situations generally existed in tropic and subtropic mountain areas of South China. So the measures to protect the high yield cultivated land strictly, to improve parts of the mid low yield selectively, to adjust agricaltural structure further, and to control soil erosion, are necessary to make best use of its advantages and bypass the disadvantages.
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    海水入侵水化学指标及侵染程度评价研究
    赵建
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 16-24.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.16
    摘要   PDF (1093KB)
    选择Cl-M、Br-rHCO3/rCl及SAR5项水化学要素作为综合判断海水入侵的指标;侵染程度划分为4级;确定了各项指标入侵程度的等级范围。入侵程度的衡量采用模糊数学综合评判模型。用上述指标及方法对莱州湾沿岸地区海水入侵变化情况作了综合评判。
    The paper discusses the use of fiver hydrochemical indexes in evaluating the seawater intrusion, and ranking the intrusion degree for Cl-, M, Br-, rHCO3/rCl and SAR. The fuzzy mathematical comprehensive judgement model has been adopted as the method of adjustment. Based on more than 300 water samples obtained from four typical profiles in the coastal region of the Laizhou Gulf, during the period from June 1993 to June 1995, we made a comprehensive judgement of seawater intrusion degree.
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    自然灾害复杂性研究
    魏一鸣
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 25-31.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.25
    摘要   PDF (731KB)
    从自然灾害系统的观点出发,阐述了自然灾害系统的特点,提出了自然灾害复杂性的概念。基于前人研究的一些成果,讨论了分形、混沌、人工神经网络等非线性理论以及定性与定量综合集成技术在自然灾害复杂性研究中的应用。自然灾害复杂性的研究可以促进人类对自然灾害整体行为的探索。
    From the view point of system of natural disasters, some features of this system are described, a new concept of the complexity of natural disasters is put forward. On the basis of some research achievements in natural disasters, the application of fractal dimension and chaos, artificial neural network,as well as the comprehensive technology with qualitative and quantitative integration to the study on the complexity of natural disasters are discussed. Through the study on the complexity of natural disasters, the process of investigation on the whole behaviour of natural disasters will get a promotion.
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    基于专题图形库系统的科尔沁沙地动态研究
    赵永平, 徐斌, 黄芳, 王一谋
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 33-38.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.33
    摘要   PDF (582KB)
    以科尔沁典型沙区土地类型专题图形库为基础,对科尔沁地区30多年来沙地的动态演变进行了定量分析,认为该区由于人类活动因素的影响,50~70年代是沙漠化迅速发展时期;70~90年代是沙漠化发展加剧阶段;若减弱人类干扰或在人类帮助下,生态仍具可恢复性。
    A quantitative research on Horqin sandy area dynamic evolution has been done for more than thirty years, based on the thematic cartographic data base system of Horqin typic sandy area which has been established by themselves. Influenced by human activities the desertification developed very fast from the 1950’s to the 1970’s, and faster than before the 1970’s to the 1990’s. If reducing human interference or with the help of the people, the eco environment would be recovered again. And the research result will have an important effect on the general improvement and the eco environment recovery of Horqin sandy area.
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    陕南河流泥沙输移比问题
    吴成基, 甘枝茂
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 39-44.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.39
    摘要   PDF (592KB)
    通过分析陕南河流泥沙的输移比现状、输移比的时空变化及发展趋势,指出在特定的自然地理条件下,泥沙中推移质比例较大,致使该区泥沙输移比远小于1,这是陕南河流泥沙运移的重要特征;输移比在空间上有明显差异并且沿程逐渐增大。从时间上看,自50年代以来,输移比有不断减小的趋势,今后一段时间,随着区内河流径流量的减少和人为侵蚀作用的加剧,泥沙输移比仍会减小。
    This paper analyses the present situation of river silt delivery ratio, the delivery ratio change in time and space, and the development trend in South Shaanxi, indicates that under the spesific physical geography conditions, the tractional load ratio in the silt is rather great and it made the delivery ratio of this district less than 1. This is a very important character of river silt migration in South Shaanxi; the delivery ratio has an obvious difference in space; generally, it gets bigger along the river flow; considering the time, it has had the trend of decrease since the fifties, and in the coming days, with the decrease of river silt runoff volume and the manmade erosion worsening in this district, the silt delivery ratio will decrease further.
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    城市区域屋顶上与地上的风速和温度特征分析
    张一平, 彭贵芬, 张庆平
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 45-52.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.45
    摘要   PDF (927KB)
    以低纬高原城市昆明市为研究对象,利用城内外屋顶上和地上的风速和温度实测资料,分析了研究较少的,做为城市第二热力面的屋顶面附近的风速和温度特征、变化规律及其与地上的差异,得到了一些有益的结果。
    The microclimatic observation was conducted over the rooftop and the ground in urban and suburban areas of Kunming City of P.R.China. The main results obtained in this paper are summarized as follows: 1. The wind speed over the rooftop and the ground in the suburban are larger than in the urban area, and in daytime the differences are markable. 2. The air temperatures over the ground in the urban area are higher than in the suburban area at majority times. At night the differences are larger, the maximum is 2.7℃(at 7:00). Because the influences of different factors, in the same day the urban heat island appear, the urban cold island may appear too. 3. The variation of the urban heat island in rooftop is different from that on the ground. The maximum appears 14:00 of fine day. The mechanism responsible for urban heat island is the differences in the rooftop and on the ground. 4. The air temperatures over the rooftop are larger than over the ground. That expressed that the rooftop is the second thermodynamic surface in the urban area. There exist differences of vertical variations of the air temperature in the urban and suburban areas. 5. Because the position and the character of surface and the sky condition are different over the rooftop and on the ground in the urban and the suburban areas, the characteristics of the urban climate are different.
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    长江三角洲地区晚更新世硬粘土层成因研究
    陈庆强, 李从先
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 53-57.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.53
    摘要   PDF (531KB)
    长江三角洲地区全新统下伏的硬粘土层具有粘粒胶膜、裂隙、植物根茎等暴露成土标志,系古土壤。古土壤层厚度多在2.0m以上;剖面具有多个粘聚层,但缺乏钙积层;半数以上研究钻孔的古土壤层中出现有孔虫;剖面的磁化率值低而平稳,磁组构参数变化范围广。它是河水漫滩不断加积和成土作用持续进行的共同产物。
    The stiff clays beneath the Holocene strata at the Yangtze Delta are considered to be paleosols by their subaerial pedogenesis characteristics, such as cutans, cracks and microcracks, plant roots and debris, etc. The paleosol sections, which are more than 2.0 meter thick, contain several clay accumulation layers, however, the sections are lack of caliche. Foraminifera occurs in paleosols of more than half of the study cores. Magnetic susceptibilities of the paleosol sections are low and lack of distinct fluctuations, and the magnetic fabric parameters alternate within a wide scope. The above characteristics of the paleosol sections suggest that the parent materials of the paleosols are of flood plain deposits, and the paleosols are the results of successive deposition and continuing pedogenesis on flood plain.
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    中国传统民居建筑文化的自然地理背景
    沙润
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 58-64.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.58
    摘要   PDF (671KB)
    讨论了气候、地貌与水文、地质与植被等自然地理要素对中国传统民居建筑的格局、型式、风格、特色等方面的影响。在此基础上分析了以功利观、审美观和生态观为内涵的中国传统民居建筑文化的自然观。
    This thesis discusses the influence of such physical geographical factors as climate, landforms and hydrology, geology and vegetation on the general layout, forms, styles and features of traditional Chinese residential architecture. Furthermore, analysis on the basis of it hase been made to find out the view of the nature of traditional Chinese residential architecture with the connotative views of utility, aesthetic perception and ecology.
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    学科动态
    时间地理学的起源、主要概念及其应用
    柴彦威
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 65-72.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.65
    摘要   PDF (1153KB)
    时间地理学是瑞典地理学家哈格斯特朗及其领导的隆德大学研究小组提出的,最初应用于城市规划中的居民日常活动与设施规划的计算机模拟模型中。70年代末以前的时间地理学应用研究是沿哈格斯特朗的基本观点进行的,主要表现在对区域规划、人地关系及社会史的研究中。进入80年代以后的应用研究则在个人生活与社会结构关系、女性地理学、福利地理学及城市地域研究、城市交通规划等方面有创造性的展开。
    Time geography was originally developed by Swedish geographer, Torsten Hgerstrand and his associates at the Lund University, which first applied study using time geographical approach was a computer simulation model of daily activity programmes in urban planning. After a briefly explanation of the points at issues in time geography, this paper introduces time geography’s key concepts such as path, prism and constrain, and stressly reviews its various applications. Before the end of the 1970s, time geography was applied mainly to the studies of to regional planning, human environment relationship and social history along Hägerstrand’s basic viewpoint, but since entering the 1980s time-geographical approach have been extended to various fields such as the research of relationship between individual behavior and social structure, gender geography, warfare geography and urban area study, etc.
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    研究方法
    脆弱生态环境定量评价方法的研究
    赵跃龙, 张玲娟
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 73-79.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.73
    摘要   PDF (793KB)
    建立了一套系统、完整、客观、灵活且具较强可操作性的脆弱生态环境定量评价指标体系及方法,并通过用此法评价全国26个省、区生态环境脆弱度的方式,对其可操作性和准确性进行了验证。
    In this paper, a set of index and method on assessment of fragile environment are separately established. This is a systematic, complete, objective and flexible method of assessment of fragile environment. And it is easily used in practice. At last, its practicality and accuary are tested by using it to assess fragile degree of environment within 26 provinces of China.
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    研究报道
    长春市城区大气污染特征研究
    李文波, 翟贵华, 苏红时, 呼兴达, 王同彦, 杜兆忠, 宋子春, 赵利民
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 80-87.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.80
    摘要   PDF (908KB)
    研究了长春市地貌景观的变化,并以空气污染气象学为指导,重点探讨了由于城区粗糙度的变化,导致大气边界层的改变,从而形成了城市区域特殊的温度和风场。出现了城市热岛和“静风”下的环流现象,改变了城区各部分大气环境质量。局部地区呈现出污染加重的趋势。为今后制定城市发展规划,防治大气污染提供了科学依据和对策。
    This article makes a detailed study of changes in geomorphologic landscape with the guide of air pollution meteorology. The article discusses changes in the area of city for surface roughness. That leads to changes in atmospheric boundary layer that form special wind field and temperature field in the districts of the city. The phenomenon of thermal is land and calm has changed the districts of atmospheric environmental capacity for pollutants. There is a trend of worse pollution in some districts. All these provide a scientific basis and aim at policy for making plans of city’s development and measures aginst air pollution in the future.
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    新月形沙丘形态的模拟实验研究
    凌裕泉, 吴正, 刘绍中, 李长治
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 88-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.88
    摘要   PDF (677KB)
    新月形沙丘是风沙地貌基本形态之一,一般为高浓度非饱和风沙流所塑造。其形成过程始于风沙运动的“波粒二重性”,并经历沙物质积累(高浓度饱和风沙流)和形体塑造(高浓度不饱和风沙流)两个发育阶段,即耗散性增大和色散性减小过程;非沙质床面零星分布的单个新月形沙丘具有明显的移动性和形态的不稳定性(高大新月形沙山除外).风洞实验条件下形成的新月形沙丘形态(其尺度比床面沙纹大一个数量级),有助于新月形沙丘形成机制的了解。
    Barchan dunes is a fundamental pattern of aeolian landform. Generally speaking, it is moulded by non saturated wind-sand flow which is the high concentration. Its fomating process is caused by the wave grain duality of sand grain movement, and develop with two stages: sand material accumulation(high concentration saturated wind-sand flow)and form moulding(high concentration non saturated wind-sand flow), which shows the increase of dissipation and the decrease of dispersion. The scattered single barchan dunes on the non sand bed possess movability and form unstability except the high large crescent sand mountain. In wind tunnel, the formation of crescent dune form(its size is bigger one order of magnitudes than the ripples on the sand bed)will be helpful to understand the formation mechanism of the barchan dunes.
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    简报
    青康公路花石峡冻土路基试验研究站简介
    李东庆, 朱林楠, 郭兴民, 邢莉莉, 房建宏, 郭德存
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (1): 94-95.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.01.94
    摘要   PDF (294KB)
    在全球大气环境转暖以及铺筑黑色沥青路面施工等人为活动的影响下,多年冻土及其在公路沿线的冻土均已发生明显的退化。在国内外,以往研究冻土工程主要是针对稳定状态的冻土,包括我国的青藏公路冻土工程研究,这些工程经验已不能满足近期认识到全球气候转暖等因素造成冻土退化所产生的新的工程要求,它也不能简单地被推演到退化状态的冻土工程实践中。为研究在退化性多年冻土地区修筑公路的可靠性和施工措施,选择了具有代表性的典型路段,于1995年10月,在青海省花石峡以南、长石头山以北总计15 km范围内,结合214国道改建工程,受青海省交通厅委托,由青海省公路科研勘测设计院公路研究室和中国科学院兰州冰川冻土研究所冻土工程国家重点实验室联合建立了冻土路基试验研究站。
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