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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2009年, 第29卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2009-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国科学院地理科学知识创新十年进展
    翟金良, 赵涛, 冯仁国, 黄铁青
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.1
    摘要   PDF (1130KB)
    10年来,中国科学院地理科学知识创新工作取得显著进展:科技布局调整不断优化,平台支撑能力显著增强;学科基础与应用基础研究不断深入,学术水平得到提高;服务国家需求的应用、示范和决策支持领域不断拓展,经济社会效益显著;此外,承担重大科研任务的能力增强,科技产出显著提高,人才队伍建设和国际交流与合作等方面也取得良好进展。
    In the past 10 years, remarkable development has made and outstanding achievements have been attained in the field of Geographical Science Knowledge Innovatoin Program in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS).For example, structure has been optimized and supporting systems such as key labs and filed stations and databases have been dramatically constracted.Basic and applied basic researches have been deepened and academic level has improved obviously.Service sphere catering to national demands have extened and good economic and social benefits have been obtained.Also, capability of geographical institutes of CAS to undertake major scientific projects has been enhanced, and scientific output has been increased, and progress of talent team construction and international cooperation advanced smoothly.
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    中国科学院地理科学知识创新十年进展
    翟金良;赵涛;冯仁国;黄铁青;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.1
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    建国以来国家城市化空间过程研究
    顾朝林;庞海峰;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 10-14.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.10
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    建国以来国家城市化空间过程研究
    顾朝林, 庞海峰
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 10-14.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.10
    摘要   PDF (1278KB)
    建国以来,中国大陆城市体系空间格局发生了深刻的变化。传统的空间分析方法很难深入刻画城市体系空间格局的空间演化过程。运用Kernel空间密度分析方法,就建国以来国家城市化空间过程进行系统研究。结果显示:①中国城市空间分布密度在省区间存在明显的空间差异,且在1949~2003年间不断扩大。②中国城市空间分布具有"东密西疏/南密北疏"的基本倾向没有发生根本性变更。③中国城市空间分布在省区尺度上表现为"先减弱(1949~1965)、后增强(1965~1984)、再减弱并趋于稳定(1984~2003)"的趋势。④ 国家城市分布空间的节点结构发育逐渐趋于完善。⑤中国大陆城市空间从1949年的3个城市集聚区发育至2003年的20个。
    During the past 50 years, there were many changes in the study on spatial structure of Chinese urban distribution, such as the spatial inequality of cities’distribution, spatial aggregation of cities, spatial interaction of urban system and so on.Traditional approach, composed of qualitative analysis and simple data statistical analysis, can not describe the evolution of spatial structure of urban system efficaciously.As a useful method the Kernel spatial approach could be handled by the ‘non-sophisticated’.According to this paper the density of Chinese cities has obvious inequality which has been enlarging since 1949, and the spatial pattern of urban system has extended southwest with the obvious movement of concentrated areas.The intensity of spatial accumulation had been weaker from 1949 to 1985, stronger from 1985 to 1994 and weaker from 1995 to 2003.The model of spatial pattern of Chinese urban system was "slightly aggregative" before 1978, "random" from 1978 to 1985, "slightly aggregative" from 1985 to 1992, and "intensely aggregative" from 1992 to 2003.
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    中国大城市用地空间扩展若干规律的探索——以苏州市为例
    姚士谋;陈爽;吴建楠;张越;陈振光;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 15-21.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.15
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    中国大城市用地空间扩展若干规律的探索——以苏州市为例
    姚士谋, 陈爽, 吴建楠, 张越, 陈振光
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 15-21.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.15
    摘要   PDF (935KB)
    城市用地空间扩展是城市成长发展过程中在物质形态上的具体体现,是城市发育有机成长的各种因素综合作用下的结果。自改革开放以来,由于经济增长迅速,优越区位外资的集聚,开发区的形成,中国大城市的用地空间扩展迅速。经过多年来的建设实践,参照全球经济一体化的背景,结合苏州市个案研究,初步探索了中国大城市用地空间扩展的若干规律,即城市扩展沿交通走廊轴线发展的脉动规律,城市边缘地区定向开发以及城市经济集聚与扩散规律制约下的城市空间扩展过程,按照科学发展观,探索这些规律指导中国的城市规划与建设,构建和谐社会,防止城市用地盲目扩大、用地失控,并促进城市土地开发按资源节约型方向发展,走城市可持续发展,健康城市化的道路。
    Urban spatial expansion is the physical form of urbanization, resulting from complicated elements of urban growth.Since the reform and open-up policy the big city’s space has expanded rapidly because of fast economic development, concentration of foreign- invested enterprises, establishment of development zones and real estate development.Taking the case of Suzhou the paper explored the patterns of big city’s spatial expansion under globalization after reviewing the urban expansion cases in the recent thirty years.They included the rule of axis development along the transport corridors, oriented development rule and the urban spatial expansion procedure under the urban economic centralization and decentralization model.The rules may guide urban planning and construction to prevent urban space from unreasonable expansion, and facilitate urban health growth and sustainable development in China.
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    1990年以来浙江沿海区域差异及其成因分析
    陈修颖;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 22-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.22
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    1990年以来浙江沿海区域差异及其成因分析
    陈修颖
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 22-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.22
    摘要   PDF (1348KB)
    1990年以来浙江沿海各县市都获得了较快的发展,但区域发展差距也迅速扩大,沿海内部的区域差异成为浙江省区域差异的主要内容。运用锡尔系数分析1990年以来浙江沿海经济差异表明,浙江沿海总体经济差异呈先降低后上升的趋势,市内差异和市县间差异是总体差异的主要组成部分,而且市内差异不断扩大。影响区域差异的因子是多方面的,历史基础、中心城市规模、地理环境与自然资源、市场发育程度、全球化程度、信息化程度、区位和交通、人口数量与素质和区域发展策略等均对浙江沿海区域经济差异有不同程度的影响。通过多元回归分析各因素的影响程度,得出历史基础、市场发育程度、人口自然增长率、实际利用外资是浙江沿海经济差异的主要影响因素。
    All the counties and cities in coastal area of Zhejiang have been increasing quickly since 1990, and at the same time, the regional economy exists disparity on growth rate, the relative rate of development, stages of development, and other aspects.The spatial structure of regional economy presents three core-peripheries.By Theil index, the regional economic disparity is analyzed in coastal area of Zhejiang since 1990, the trend of disparity is tending to be down and then rise, and the urban internal disparity and the disparity between city and county are the main components.Furthermore, the urban internal disparity continues to widen.The factors that impact on regional economic disparity are many-sided.Historical economic base, scale of central city, geographical environment and natural resources, level of market development, impact of globalization, informationization, location and transportation, quantity and quality of the population and regional development strategy are the factors which impact on regional economic disparity of coastal area of Zhejiang.Among all the factors, historical economic base, level of market development, actual utilization of foreign investment, natural population growth rate are the main factors to cause regional economic disparity of coastal area of Zhejiang by multiple regression analysis.
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    省域经济增长与电力消费的局域空间计量经济分析
    吴玉鸣;李建霞;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 30-35.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.30
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    省域经济增长与电力消费的局域空间计量经济分析
    吴玉鸣, 李建霞
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 30-35.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.30
    摘要   PDF (800KB)
    中国各个地区经济发展对电力消费需求量大且存在地域差异,不同区域间的电力需求与经济增长之间的关系十分复杂,并非能由常系数的普通最小二乘回归分析所解释。采用电力消费模型,利用局域空间计量经济学模型方法——空间变系数的地理加权回归模型,对中国省域电力消费与经济增长之间的关系进行了局域空间计量经济分析。结果发现,中国大陆30个省域的电力消费和经济增长之间表现为一种非均衡的联动关系和局域性特征,制定差异化的区域电力消费调控政策是非常必要的。
    There is regional difference either in large electricity consumption demand or in regional economic development.The relationship between electricity demand and economic development is much complicated, and can not be explained by ordinary least squares (OLS) estimation with constant coefficients.Using geographical weighed regression (GWR) model of spatial varying-coefficient regression models (SVCRM) of spatial econometrics, this paper analyses the locally relationship between electricity consumption and economic development of 30 Chinese provinces.The results show that 1) the spatial factor influences the relationship between regional electricity consumption and economic growth, and the geographical weighed regression (GWR) model of spatial varying-coefficient regression models (SVCRM), taking the spatial effect into account, is a better model than OLS estimation; 2) there is a spatially associated relationship between the electricity consumption and economic growth and the spatial pattern of 30 Chinese provinces displays a local characteristics; 3) the electricity prices of most provinces have the unbalanced and negative impact on the regional electricity consumption; 4) the unbalanced industrial structure and population growth of most provinces have a positive impact on the regional electricity consumption; and 5) it is necessary to establish a regulative and control policy of electricity consumption diversity such as promoting the regional economic growth quality, reforming the electricity prices, persisting in the family control policy, and regulating and optimizing the industrial structure to realize the balance development of saving energy, lowering energy consumption and reducing pollutants discharge.
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    建筑视角的中国城市更新研究——以兰州市为例
    杨永春;张理茜;李志勇;伍俊辉;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 36-41.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.36
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    建筑视角的中国城市更新研究——以兰州市为例
    杨永春, 张理茜, 李志勇, 伍俊辉
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 36-41.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.36
    摘要   PDF (863KB)
    利用高精度卫星影象和大规模实地调查方法获取原始数据,采用GIS手段和数理统计方法,利用建筑占地面积比例与建筑更新指数(BRI)指标,以兰州市为例对中国城市建筑更新及其相应视角的城市更新进行了的研究。结果表明:①兰州市建筑更新以拆毁重建为绝对主导方式,几乎所有地域、所有用途的建筑都在同步更新,且更新水平空间分布波动较大;而城市更新却主要采用了建筑群体整体快速更新方式,使城市迅速形成了新的建筑景观格局和建筑文化,冲击了传统文化体系,更新水平空间差异较大,这也是中国城市目前普遍采用的更新方式;②兰州城市更新显然与人口因素、经济因素与需求因素、土地快速升值、空间功能调整、政府财力迅速增加、开发区建设、旧城与“城中村”改造、大规模基础设施建设、“城中村”改造、1980年代以前建设的成片建筑的老化与陈旧、居民需求结构转变迅速、规划管理转变等因素有关。
    Based on the theory of the factors and mode of urban building renewal, urban renewal pattern, the intrinsic relationship and interaction between building renewal and urban renewal, and Chinese urban renewal characteristic have been studied.Then, using both acreage proportion index of building occupying land and building renewal index(BRI), a case of Lanzhou froming its districts and building different use has been done with the data based on the high precision Satellite Image and massive fieldwork methods which last more than six months and data of GIS technology and mathematic statistics last about eighteen months.The conclusions below have been reached.Firstly, urban renewal gives rise to building renewal consequentially, and building renewal at certain spatial scale can bring urban renewal.There are two patterns which are slowly building renewal scattering in space (gradually renewal model) and fast renewal of architecture colony wholly (sudden change model), which is related to redevelopment of old town and the villages falling into the built-up area, a large scale land use change, the building becoming older on the large scale land, the great dwellers’change of demand structure and urban planning and management, urban rebuilding after disaster, and the main urban renewal mode of Chinese cities.Secondly, the buildings with different use everywhere have been renewed at the same time and the building renewal’s distribution is unbalance in Lanzhou, which adopted the rebuilding mode that means sudden change model of urban renewal makes Lanzhou form new landscape and architecture culture system slowly but its old ones vanish suddenly.Lastly, the process of urban renewal of Lanzhou is obviously related to such factors as urban total population, economic base, demand structure, land price change and spacial function adjustment, redevelopment of old town, the villages falling into the built-up area, the construction of new open area, large scale urban infrastructure, lower quantity of building designing and construction, and so on.Thirdly, the urban renewal of Lanzhou based on architecture character has such characteristics: first of all, the renewal mainly adopts the mode of fast renewal of architecture colony wholly; secondly, as a reason of the renewal speed difference, the architecture style of the resident or business area in the old urban area, for example, renovates the fastest and the old industry area renovates the slowst; thirdly, the new development area such as High-tech Development Area renovates fast; fourthly, the newly built streets and the area along the Huanghe River revonate fast; fifthly, the area which the commercial estates concentrate renovates fast; sixthly, the area which has monoply industries and those well-benefited firms renovates fast, while the area which located those poorly benefited firms renovates the slowest; and the last, the renewal speed fluctuates evidently, although the speed decreases from the urban center to the outer place as a whole.
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    生产性服务贸易的地理学探讨
    钟韵;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 42-49.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.42
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    生产性服务贸易的地理学探讨
    钟韵
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 42-49.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.42
    摘要   PDF (901KB)
    生产性服务贸易是一种非实物要素的空间相互作用,从地理学视角切入,将生产性服务贸易的研究核心确定为服务贸易流系统。通过分析生产性服务贸易的地理含义,评述国内外地理学界有关生产性服务贸易的研究,构建了一个生产性服务贸易流系统。探讨了生产性服务贸易,对促进服务业地理学及相关学科的研究均具有重要的意义。
    The producer services trade is a kind of spatial interaction of non-physical factor.No matter cross border or just cross city, the essential of the trade is a flow of producer services between the regions, which can also be regarded as spatial diffusion of the services.The paper takes the geographical view to research on the producer services trade, which is more focused by the international trade at present, and put forward the flow system of producer services as the core of the research.And the configuration, the connotation of the flow system, and the research content from the geographical view of each composition are illustrated.From the geographical view, the study of producer services trade should aim at the flow process of the producer service from the exportation city to the market city.Based on the analysis on the geographical definition of producer services trade and the review of the studies on the producer services trade in the Western and domestic geography, the paper puts forward a term named flow system of producer services trade.Because of the diverse character of each industry in the producer services, the way of services flow can be different.The purpose of the paper is to establish an analysis framework for the producer services trade, so the detail difference of the flow will not affect the study.There are four connotation of the flow system.Firstly, there are three components included in the system, which are the exportation city of services, the market city, and the medium circulating system.Secondly, the flow of the trade is not only the diffusion of producer services, but also the diffusion of production capability.Thirdly, the flow is a bidirectional process, which includes the reception and exportation of the services.Fourthly, the exportation city and the market city can both export and import the services.As to the contents of the system that the geographers may concern are illustrated, which includes the direction, carrier and way of the flow, the flux, the effect of the flow, the relation between the exportation city and the market city, the character of these two kinds of cities, and the factors affect the flow, etc.The research on producer services geography is in the initial stage, dropping behind the research on the industry geography.To study the producer services from the geographical view can not only improve the services geography, but also make the urban geography and economic geography more substantial.And the approach to study on the non-physical factor can be consulted in other research such as capital flow or technique flow.
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    城市化进程中郊区农民迁移意愿模型——对广州的实证研究
    王华, 彭华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 50-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.50
    摘要   PDF (728KB)
    基于行为地理学和经济学相关理论,依据农户调查数据,采用定量方法,对影响郊区农民迁移意愿的外在环境因素和内在自身因素进行了分析,构建了城市化进程中郊区农民的迁移意愿模型。模型表明:在市场经济环境下,农民的迁移行为选择是理性的,农民是否迁移取决于能否获得预期迁移收益的最大化,而农民的最大化收益又取决于其所处的外在环境因素和内在自身因素的综合作用。
    Building upon the theory of behavioural geography and economy, by quantitative analysis on the firsthand information of the peasants in the suburb of Guangzhou, this paper researches the external and individual factors influencing the migration desire of peasants in the suburb.As a result, this paper presents a migration desire model of peasants in the suburbs during process of urbanization.According to the model, the external factors influencing the peasants’ migration to the urban include the income gap between cities and countries, working opportunities, the better educational, medical condition in the cities, the higher living cost and working risk in the cities, housing and collective welfare in the countries, rural living environment, the system of registered permanent residence, the social security system and farmland system and so on.Among the individual factors, the household collective melon-cutting, age, school children and family types are the main factors.As a whole, in market economy condition, the behavior of migration decision-making of peasants is rational, the willing of peasants to migrate or not lies on whether they could gain the maximal anticipative income or not, that rest with the integrative effect of the external and individual factors.
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    城市化进程中郊区农民迁移意愿模型——对广州的实证研究
    王华;彭华;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 50-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.50
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    淮海经济区县域经济差异变动的空间分析
    仇方道;朱传耿;佟连军;杨如树;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 56-63.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.56
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    淮海经济区县域经济差异变动的空间分析
    仇方道, 朱传耿, 佟连军, 杨如树
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 56-63.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.56
    摘要   PDF (1420KB)
    以县域为研究单元,以人均GDP为测度指标,利用EDSA与统计分析的方法,对1995~2006年淮海经济区县域经济差异的时空格局及空间作用类型进行了初步探索。结果表明:淮海经济区县域经济总体差异呈扩大趋势,苏北、鲁南、豫东、皖北4地区之间的差异以及苏北内部、鲁南内部差异是淮海经济区整体差异的主要贡献者;高水平县域沿主要交通线方向扩展,形成沿京沪线(泰安-徐州段)、兖石线、沿海3条经济发展轴;低水平县域沿京九线形成不发达走廊,并在豫皖边界地区出现低水平-低增长并陷入贫困陷阱的集聚区;根据县域与相邻县域的关系,将淮海经济区县域分为扩散型、极化型、“沉陷”型、“传染”型。
    spatial-temporal pattern and spatial interaction types of economic disparities of county level in Huaihai Economic Region during 1995-2006 have been preliminarily probed into by the method of combining EDSA and Statistic analysis.The study is done on the base of county level and is measured by the index of per capita GDP.The following conclusions are found.The total economic disparities of county level in Huaihai Economic Zone have enlarged.The integral economic disparities of county level in Huaihai Economic Region are bred by the disparity among North Jiangsu, South Shandong, East Henan and North Anhui and the disparities inside North Jiangsu Province and inside South Shandong Province.The counties with high economic level have extended along the direction of main traffic lines.Three economic developing axles have shaped including Beijing-Shanghai Railway (Tai’an-Xuzhou ), Yanzhou-Rizhao Railway and along the coast.The counties with low economic level have shaped an undeveloped corridor along Beijing-Jiulong Railway.The low-level and low-growth poverty trap assemble areas have appeared in the boundary of Henan Province and Anhui Province.According to the relationship between the county and the adjacent county, the counties in Huaihai Economic Region can be divided into the diffuse pattern, polarization pattern,‘sinking’pattern and‘infection’pattern.
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    城市化进程中生态环境响应模型研究——以西安为例
    吴永娇;马海州;董锁成;仝彩蓉;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 64-70.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.64
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    城市化进程中生态环境响应模型研究——以西安为例
    吴永娇, 马海州, 董锁成, 仝彩蓉
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 64-70.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.64
    摘要   PDF (943KB)
    在建立城市生态环境评价模型,模拟预测城市化过程中引起的土地效益、社会经济发展与生态环境动态变化过程基础上。运用遥感影像解译技术,对城市扩张引起的城市土地利用和土地效益动态变化进行定量分析。采用GIS工具分析城市环境空间分布方式;根据社会福利最大化和绿色GDP(即,GGDP)等理论模拟城市生态环境在不同社会经济情景之下的城市化响应。模型是以西安1996到2006年城市扩张作为案例研究分析,结果表明:在现有的条件下,理论上西安城市扩张最优是在2021;在社会经济不断发展的条件下,城市扩张引起的边际生态环境成本小于平均土地效益时才会增加土地效益;技术进步与创新可降低生态环境成本,使城市化水平提高。
    This study aims to disclose dynamic relationship among land utility, economic growth and environmental efficiency by proposing an urbanization evaluation model.Firstly, we quantitatively describe the changes of land use and land utility from urban expansion by using the technology of remote sensing image interpretation.Secondly, environment efficiency is evaluated by analyzing of urban spatial distribution aided by GIS techniques.Finally, dynamic relationship between environment efficiency and socio-economic is simulated through proposed model which is constructed based on theories of the maximum social welfare and Green GDP (GGDP).The proposed model is applied to Xi’an, China.Our model is proved to be efficiency in simulating the dynamic relationship among land utility, economic growth and environmental efficiency through the analysis of urbanization process in Xi’an.Results show that urban expansion leads to land utility increasing under socio-economic development.However, land utility will increase only if the marginal eco-environment cost is not impaired by urban expansion; the improving technology and technological innovation can reduce the economical loss, and thus postpone the terminal of urbanization.The simulated result shows that the urbanization process in Xi’an will stop in 2021.
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    20世纪上半叶西辽河流域巴林左旗聚落空间演变特征分析
    韩茂莉;张暐伟;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 71-77.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.71
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    20世纪上半叶西辽河流域巴林左旗聚落空间演变特征分析
    韩茂莉, 张暐伟
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 71-77.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.71
    摘要   PDF (419KB)
    从1918年放垦,巴林左旗经历了近百年的聚落兴建与农业开垦历程,以20世纪30年代初为转折点,此前聚落分布以空间扩展为主,以后转为密度增加,在聚落空间分布形式变化的同时,聚落高程也表现出从400~600m高程区这一自然条件具有优势的区域向其它高程扩展。在人口的推动下,巴林左旗聚落空间演变与环境选择经历了由疏至密、由优至劣的过程,并随着农业发展,农田扩展与资源的有限性构成了人地关系的矛盾焦点。
    Since the reclamation in 1918, there has been almost 100 years of settlement building and agriculture developing in Bairin Left Banner of Inner Mongolia.Before the 1930s which is taken as a turning point, the distribution of the settlements there was charactered by spatial expanding, after that turning into density increasing.In the mean time, the elevation of the settlements also began to expand from the height of 400-600 m, where the natural condition is quite advantageous, to other areas.The distribution change of settlements shows that the environmental disturbance by human activity has been continuing strengthened since the 1930s.According to the connection between the settlements and the cultivated land, it is sure that the 23?103 ha of cultivated land reclaimed in about 1933 were mostly in the area of 400-600m height, while another 50?103 ha reclaimed in the succeeding several decades were mostly distributed in the area without good natural condition, some around the settlements of 400-600m height.Cultivated lands on different heights have brought on different environmental disturbance.Although the area of 400-600m height has the best natural condition within Bairin Left Banner and man-milieu relationship there is finely working, the ecological environment there is fragile.With the expanding of the settlement and the expanding of the cultivated land, distinct environmental problems come out.These problems become more severe in other areas with poorer natural conditions.Pushed by the population, the spatial variation and the environmental choice of Bairin Left Banner have gone a process of getting denser and worse.Hence there appeared the conflict of man-milieu relationship made by the expanding of the farm and the limit of the resources.
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    中国区域虚拟水战略优势度评价
    邹君;杨玉蓉;黄翅勤;毛德华;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 78-82.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.78
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    中国区域虚拟水战略优势度评价
    邹君, 杨玉蓉, 黄翅勤, 毛德华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 78-82.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.78
    摘要   PDF (663KB)
    提出虚拟水战略优势度的概念并对其概念内涵及影响因素进行分析,从4个方面构建包含12个具体指标的综合定量评价指标体系;运用数学方法对中国31个省级行政区虚拟水战略优势度进行定量评价。发现中国虚拟水战略优势度存在显著的地域差异,区域优势度等级存在“两头多,中间少”的结构特点和“东部高、西部低”,“南部和北部高、中间低”带状空间分布规律。其中北方4省市和东南8省区优势度最大,是全球虚拟水战略背景对其影响最深远的区域,也是中国虚拟水研究及虚拟水战略实践的关键区域。
    Advantage Value of Regional Virtual Water Strategy(AVRVWS) is defined to estimate the feasibility of implementing virtual water strategy and the regional economic, social and ecological effects to different regions under virtual water strategy background all over the world.The connotation and impact factors of AVRVWS are analyzed afterwards, then an assessment index system including 12 indices is established, which consists of four aspects: supply of water resources, demand of non-agricultural water resources, water resources management and development of agriculture.And the grades of AVRVWS of 31 provinces in China are calculated.The assessment results demonstrate that the grades of AVRVWS in China have notable regional discrepancy.Most of the provinces have the medium grades of AVRVWS, the grades in east China are higher than those the west region, and the grades in the south and north are higher than those of the central region.The grades of AVRVWS in Inner Mongolia, Shanxi, Beijing, Tianjin in North China and Hainan, Guangdong, Guangxi, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shanghai in the south eastern China is the highest in China, so they are the key regions of the virtual strategy research and practice in China.
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    黄河河口泥沙扩散规律分析——以钓口河流路为例
    师长兴;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 83-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.83
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    黄河河口泥沙扩散规律分析——以钓口河流路为例
    师长兴
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 83-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.83
    摘要   PDF (732KB)
    分析黄河口钓口河亚三角洲不同时期泥沙沉积速率和水沙条件变化,发现来沙输沙率是影响黄河三角洲沉积速率的主要因素,随输沙率增加三角洲泥沙沉积速率增大。来水流量和来沙粒度组成变化对沉积速率的影响不明显。还发现来水含沙量与三角洲泥沙淤积占来沙的比例(沉积比)之间为双值关系,在某一含沙量时沉积比达最大值。对比显示,在河口河道畅通,沙嘴突出时期,三角洲泥沙沉积比反而比河口改道初期大,意味着集中水流入海可能降低海流带走泥沙的比例。另外,根据前三角洲的地形测量资料分析发现,进入远海的泥沙随距离增加呈指数递减。对黄河口这些独特的泥沙扩散规律发生机理进行了深入分析。
    The Huanghe (Yellow) River delta is characterized by retaining a high percentage of riverine sediment input.It was about 3/4 for the case of the Diaokouhe lobe over the period of 1965-1974.The rate and sediment retention index (the proportion of sediment accumulation behind the delta front) vary considerably over time.It is found that the main factor responsible for the variation in sediment accumulation rate is the change in sediment discharge of the river.The anticipated negative relationships are not statistically significant between the sediment accumulation rate in the delta and the water discharge and clay content of sediment carried by the river.It is also found that with the increase of sediment concentration of river water, the sediment retention index increases and then decreases after a certain sediment concentration.Contrary to the common sense, the sediment retention index is positively related with the mouth channel efficiency.The nonlinear relationship between the sediment retention index and sediment concentration of river water is associated with the different sediment dispersal patterns at varying sediment concentrations of river water.With the increase of sediment concentration of river water, plumes of the Huanghe River mouth change from hypopycnal plumes, through sediment-charged hyperpycnal plumes to hyper-concentrated underflows.The hypopycnal plumes and hyper-concentrated underflows tend to carry a higher portion of riverine sediment beyond the delta front.In contrast, the rapid extinction of hyperpycnal plumes leads to both fine and coarse particles they carried depositing on the delta front.The hyperpycnal plumes, which are likely to occur when the daily mean sediment concentration of river flows is in the range of 30-110 kg/m3 or so, are dominant in the plumes of the Huanghe River mouth.Also, overbank flows leave the sediment carried by them on the delta plain.These two processes result in a high portion of riverine sediment being deposited on the Huanghe River delta.They are also the causes for the close relationship of the sediment accumulation rate on the delta with the sediment discharge but the poor ones with the river discharge and grain size composition of sediment carried by the river.Moreover, the dominance of hyperpycnal plumes can be used to explain the disconnection between an unblocked mouth channel and a higher proportion of sediment escaping from the delta front because more sediment will be deposited from the hyperpycnal plumes, which are enhanced when more highly sediment-loaded flows are carried into the delta front.Since fine particles account for a low proportion in the sediment escaping from the delta front as a result of deposition of both fine and coarse particles in hyperpycnal plumes on delta front and overbank flows on delta plain, the sediment tends to deposit in a short distance.According to the bathymatric measurements in 1968 and in 1974, the amount of sediment dispersed to the sea reduced exponentially with the distance from the delta front.
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    珠江三角洲咸潮活动的空间差异性分析
    欧素英;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 89-92.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.89
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    珠江三角洲咸潮活动的空间差异性分析
    欧素英
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 89-92.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.89
    摘要   PDF (531KB)
    在珠江三角洲各口门水道的多年月平均含氯度及逐时同步观测资料的基础上,采用聚类分析方法,对珠江三角洲各口门水道咸潮活动的空间差异性进分析。结果表明,珠江三角洲不同位置的咸潮活动可分为两大类型:一为潮优型,主要指虎门水道,一为径控型,包括崖门水道、蕉门水道等多个水道。两种不同类型的水道其含氯度随时间变化的规律不同,主控动力不同,盐淡水混合类型也不相同,潮优型水道的盐淡水混合类型一般为垂向均匀混合型和部分混合型,而径控型水道的盐淡水混合类型一般为高度分层型及部分混合型。
    Based on the monthly average salinity data and the field data in the outlets of the Pearl (Zhujiang) River delta, the spatial variation about the activity of the saline water intrusion was studied by clustering method.The result shows that two types of outlets were divided according to the variations of monthly average and hourly salinity data.TypeⅠis tide-dominated outlet including only Humen outlet, and TypeⅡis river-dominated outlet including the other outlets such as Yamen, Jiaomen outlets.With the different variation of salinity and the dominated dynamic, the mixing process and the mixing type of saline water with fresh water between TypeⅠand Type Ⅱ were different.Well-mixed and partial-mixed type occurred in TypeⅠoutlet, and highly-stratied and partial-mixed type occurred in Type Ⅱoutlet.
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    上海极端气温变化特征及其对城市化的响应
    崔林丽;史军;周伟东;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 93-97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.93
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    上海极端气温变化特征及其对城市化的响应
    崔林丽, 史军, 周伟东
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 93-97.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.93
    摘要   PDF (730KB)
    利用上海气象站逐日最高和最低气温资料,分析上海极端气温时间变化特征及对上海城市化的响应过程。结果表明上海1873~2007年极端最高气温总体上无显著变化趋势,极端最低气温以0.27℃/10 a的线性倾向率显著增加,2001~2007年,上海高温日数最多,低温日数最少。1960~2007年,上海极端最高气温和高温日数在市区增加较多,近郊和远郊增加较少;极端最低气温和低温日数市区和近郊减少较多,远郊减少较少。
    Based on the daily maximum and minimum temperature in meteorological stations of Shanghai, the temporal characteristics of extreme temperature variation during 1873-2007 and the response of extreme temperature to urbanization during 1960-2007 were studied.The results show that, as a whole, the extreme high temperature and high temperature days varied without significant tendency, but the extreme low temperature varied significantly with a rate of linear increasing tendency of 0.27 ℃ per 10 years, and the low temperature days varied significantly with a rate of linear decreasing tendency of 1.14 d per 10 years from 1873 to 2007.In the period from 2001 to 2007, Shanghai had the most high temperature days and the least low temperature days in the past 135 years.The extreme high temperature was mainly negative anomaly in the periods from 1876 to 1884 and from 1960 to 1989, but it was mainly positive anomaly in the periods from 1885 to 1955 and from 1990 to 2007.The extreme low temperature was mainly negative anomaly before 1994, then, in the continuous 14 years from 1994 to 2007, it was positive anomaly.High temperature days were mainly positive anomaly in the periods from 1891 to 1898, from 1920 to 1953, and from 2000 to 2007, but they were mainly negative anomaly in the periods from 1874 to 1888 and from 1961 to 1989.Low temperature days were mainly positive anomaly before 1988, then, in the continuous 20 years from 1988 to 2007, they were negative anomaly.From 1960 to 2007, the extreme high temperature and the high temperature days increased more in urban areas, and less in suburbs and exurbs of Shanghai.The extreme low temperature and the low temperature days decreased more in urban areas and suburbs, and less in exurbs.The difference of extreme high temperature between urban areas and suburbs increased significantly with a rate of linear tendency of 0.26 ℃ per 10 years, but that difference between suburbs and exurbs varied insignificantly.The difference of high temperature days between urban areas and suburbs increased significantly with a rate of linear tendency of 1.95 d per 10 years, and the difference between suburbs and exurbs increased significantly with a rate of linear tendency of 0.77 d per 10 years.From the 1980s, extreme high temperature in urban areas was higher than that in suburbs and exurbs, and the high temperature days in urban areas was more than that in suburbs and exurbs in Shanghai obviously.From the 1990s, extreme high temperature in suburbs was higher obviously than that in exurbs, and at the beginning of the 21st century, the high temperature days in suburbs were more obviously than those in exurbs in Shanghai.The difference of extreme low temperature between urban areas and suburbs varied insignificantly, but that between suburbs and exurbs increased significantly with a rate of linear tendency of 0.31 ℃ per 10 years.From the 1960s, the extreme low temperature in urban areas was higher than that in suburbs and exurbs, and from the 1980s, the extreme low temperature in suburbs was higher than that in exurbs in Shanghai.The difference of low temperature days between urban areas and suburbs varied insignificantly, but that difference between exurbs and suburbs increased significantly with a rate of linear tendency of 0.79 d per 10 years.The low temperature days in urban areas and suburbs were nearly same from 1960 to 2007, and from the 1980s, they were less than that in exurbs in Shanghai obviously.
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    近50年黄土高原侵蚀性降水的时空变化特征
    信忠保, 许炯心, 马元旭
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 98-104.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.98
    摘要   PDF (1025KB)
    利用黄土高原及其附近地区99个站点逐日降水观测资料,分析了1956~2005年黄土高原年降水量、侵蚀性降水量、暴雨量的变化趋势和空间特征。研究表明:1956~2005年黄土高原降水在波动中呈现下降趋势,尤其自1980年年以来,降水减少趋势显著。黄土高原地区降水变化具有显著的空间差异,降水偏少最为显著区域位于黄河中游的河口-龙门区间,尤以无定河流域、汾河流域和山西中北部最为典型,年降水量和侵蚀性降水偏少10%以上。存在从北向南沿朔州-离石-临汾-三门峡一带的暴雨异常偏少地带,偏少在20%以上。
    In this study, the spatio-temporal variations of annual precipitation, erosive precipitation and rainstorm over the Loess Plateau were investigated on the basis of the observed data of daily precipitation at 99 stations for the period 1956-2005.The annual precipitation showed a decreasing trend over the Loess Plateau in the past 50 years.The significant decreasing region mainly appeared in the middle Huanghe (Yellow) River, especially in the Wuding River basin, the Fenhe River basin and the northern and central Shanxi Province, where the annual precipitation and erosive precipitation decreased more than 10%.Rainstorm variation showed a notable spatio-temporal difference in the Loess Plateau and an decreasing zone range from Shuozhou, Lishi, Linfen to Sanmenxia, where rainstorm have descended more than 20%.In the past 20 years, the annual precipitation had a significant decreasing trend over the Loess Plateau, whereas the decreasing of erosive precipitation was more intensive than annual precipitation variations and rainstorm changes more intensively than the erosive precipitation.
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    近50年黄土高原侵蚀性降水的时空变化特征
    信忠保;许炯心;马元旭;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 98-104.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.98
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    基于GIS纸坊沟小流域土壤侵蚀强度空间分布
    李斌兵;郑粉莉;龙栋材;江忠善;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 105-110.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.105
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    基于GIS纸坊沟小流域土壤侵蚀强度空间分布
    李斌兵, 郑粉莉, 龙栋材, 江忠善
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 105-110.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.105
    摘要   PDF (1322KB)
    给出水蚀预报模型各因子计算方法,利用GIS空间数据提取和运算,结合水力侵蚀强度分级,获取流域土壤侵蚀强度空间分布特征。结果表明,流域实际土壤侵蚀强度分布特征是流域沟头侵蚀面积大,侵蚀强度高于沟口,且极易发生极强烈和剧烈侵蚀;流域中部以轻度和中度侵蚀为主,同时左岸侵蚀强度明显强于右岸。流域强烈侵蚀区位于苦荞沟、拐沟、大范家沟、大罗锅沟、正沟,年均侵蚀模数23000~33000t/(km2·a);浅沟侵蚀是造成沟间地剧烈土壤侵蚀发生的主要原因,流域土壤侵蚀强度空间分布受地面植被覆盖和坡度制约。
    Based on calculating factor parameters of soil erosion predication model, spatial distribution map of factor parameters at Zhifangguo Watershed was drawn.By using Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, spatial distribution characteristics were also gotten.In addition, the distribution map of soil erosion intensity in Zhifangguo Watershed was gained too.The results indicated that soil erosion intensity in the upstream of the catchment was more severe than that in the lower stream; severe and extreme severe soil erosion occurred at the upstream.In the middle-stream, slight and moderate erosion intensity happened; soil erosion intensity in the left side of the catchemnt was more than that in the right side.Extreme severe soil erosion area was located at Guaigou, Kuqiaogou, Dafanjiagou, Zhenggou and Daluoguogou, where soil erosion intensity reached to 23000-33000 t/(km2·a).Ephemeral gully erosion was a major factor causing occurrence of extreme severe soil erosion on hillslopes.Soil erosion intensity distribution was dominated by vegetation coverage and slope gradient.
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    基于混合像元分类的城市地表覆盖时空演变格局研究
    戴晓燕, 过仲阳, 张利权, 吴健平
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 111-116.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.111
    摘要   PDF (1244KB)
    基于可能性理论和中心点聚类方法的原理,提出可能性C中心点(PCRMDD)聚类方法。运用该法对上海市中心城区Landsat ETM+遥感影像进行混合像元分类,并自动获取地物端元盖度分布图及影像端元光谱,解混精度的检验结果表明该方法能在噪声环境下获得精度较高的分类结果和端元光谱信息。根据各时期研究区域的地表覆盖分类结果,应用GIS空间分析功能,进一步探讨在城市化过程中上海中心城区土地利用时空演变格局,揭示城市用地空间扩展模式。
    In this paper, we propose a Possibilistic C Repulsive Medoids (PCRMDD) clustering algorithm, based on possibility theory and principle of c-medoids clustering method.The PCRMDD algorithm is applied to mixed-pixel classification on Landsat ETM+ images of Shanghai central city, and endmember fraction images and spectral reflectance of endmembers on images are automatically acquired.Accuracy analysis of pixels unmixing demonstrates that PCRMDD represents a robust and efficient tool for mixed-pixel classification on remote sensing imagery to obtain reliable soft classification results and endmember spectral information in noisy environment.Furthermore, according to the obtained multi-temporal land cover classification of the study area, the pattern of spatio-temporal land use evolvement and urban land spatial sprawl with urbanization in Shanghai central city are explored with the application of spatial analytical function of GIS.Results show that the urban land use structure is optimizing during vigorous urban renewal and large-scale development of the whole Pudong District, which will have an active influence to improve urban space landscape and enhance quality of ecological environment.
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    基于混合像元分类的城市地表覆盖时空演变格局研究
    戴晓燕;过仲阳;张利权;吴健平;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 111-116.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.111
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    土地利用/覆被变化下的暴雨径流过程模拟分析——以太湖上游西苕溪流域为例
    陈莹;许有鹏;尹义星;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 117-123.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.117
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    土地利用/覆被变化下的暴雨径流过程模拟分析——以太湖上游西苕溪流域为例
    陈莹, 许有鹏, 尹义星
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 117-123.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.117
    摘要   PDF (378KB)
    应用水文模型HEC-HMS模拟分析太湖上游西苕溪流域未来土地利用/覆盖变化对不同重现期暴雨下洪水过程的影响。结果表明,城市化进程中研究区土地利用变化将导致径流总量和洪峰流量增加,而建设用地扩展幅度则直接影响径流总量和洪峰流量增加的程度;同时发现,随着暴雨重现期的增加,研究区土地利用变化对洪水过程的影响逐渐减小;此外,研究区土地利用变化及其水文效应具有显著的空间差异性,以靠近城市中心的子流域响应最为显著。
    Taking the Xitiaoxi Basin in the upstream of Taihu Lake Watershed as a case, this study applied, rainfall-runoff model HEC-HMS to quantitatively predict the influence of future land use changes on the storm-runoff generation under designing rainfall events associated with different recurrence intervals.The results indicate that in the course of urbanization, the generated future land use scenarios result in obvious increases in peak discharge and total runoff, and the magnitude of their impacts relates to the expansion rate of built-up area.And the sensitivity of hydrologic response to land use change tends to increase as the recurrence interval of the rainfall events decreases.Furthermore, remarkable spatial variations of the land use changes and its impacts can be observed at the subbasin level, and the most sensitive subbasin is identified to be located near the center of the urban area.
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    开封市不同功能区城市土壤有机碳含量与密度分析
    孙艳丽;马建华;李灿;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 124-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.124
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    开封市不同功能区城市土壤有机碳含量与密度分析
    孙艳丽, 马建华, 李灿
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 124-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.124
    摘要   PDF (697KB)
    研究开封城市土壤有机碳,发现不同功能区类型间及城区与郊区间的有机碳特性存在差异:土壤表层有机碳含量为工业区>休闲区>交通区>文教区>行政/居民区;表层有机碳密度为休闲区>工业区>交通区>文教>行政/居民区;土壤剖面有机碳密度为文教区>交通区>工业区>休闲区>行政/居民区。城市土壤表层有机碳密度和剖面有机碳密度均沿城郊剖面线呈下降式梯度变化,城区分别是郊区的2.53和1.56倍。城市土壤有机碳积累主要在地表之下0~30 cm范围内。
    Urban soil, a special soil type, forming along with the development of city, has unique properties of soil organic carbon.On the basis of field investigation and laboratory analysis, the soil organic carbon (SOC)of Kaifeng City, Henan Province was studied, and the results showed that the characteristics of SOC were different not only among function districts in urban area, but also between urban area and suburb.The contents of SOC in topsoil followed the order of industrial district> recreational district > traffic district > cultural and educational district > administrative and residential district.The orders of densities of soil organic carbon(SOCD) in topsoil and profile were recreational district > industrial district > traffic district > cultural and educational district > administrative and residential district, and cultural and educational district > traffic district > industrial district > recreational district > administrative and residential district, respectively.SOCD in topsoil and profile decreased along the transection line from urban area to suburb, and urban area had 2.53-fold more SOCD in topsoil and 1.56-fold more SOCD in profile than suburb, respectively.SOC decreased with the depth and was mainly distributed within the scope of 0-30 cm.
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    小兴安岭森林生态系统中小型土壤动物生态地理分布特征
    辛未冬;殷秀琴;秦丽杰;陈颖彪;张雪萍;陈鹏;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 129-133.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.129
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    小兴安岭森林生态系统中小型土壤动物生态地理分布特征
    辛未冬, 殷秀琴, 秦丽杰, 陈颖彪, 张雪萍, 陈鹏
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 129-133.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.129
    摘要   PDF (933KB)
    对小兴安岭森林生态系统10个生境中小型土壤动物的数量和类群组成、多样性、生态地理分布及群落排序进行研究。从水平分布看,中小型土壤动物个体数最多的是人工云冷杉林,类群数最多的是赤杨林,个体数和类群数最少的均为林间草甸。中小型土壤动物在土壤中的垂直分布具有明显的表聚性,但各生境的变化情况略有不同。10个生境多样性指数和丰富度指数在人工林和相应的天然林内的变化趋势相反。而均匀度指数和优势度指数差异不大。排序结果显示云冷杉红松林、云冷杉林、赤杨林和林间草甸与其它生境差异较大。
    This paper investigated soil mesofauna of ten habitats in forest ecosystem of the Xiao Hinggan Mountains and analyzed the composition of number and group, biodiversity, ecogeographical distribution and community ordination.Results show that the total individual number and group number of soil mesofauna in man-made Picea-Abies forest and Alnus hirsuta forest are the most, those of meadow are the least.The vertical distribution of soil mesofauna is gathering to the surface, but there is little difference in different habitats.Shannon-Wiener and Margalef Index of man-made forest have the adverse changing trend with the corresponding virgin forest.Pielou Index and Simpson Index have no significant difference.Results of Correspondence Analysis show that there is significant difference in Picea-Abies and Pinus koraiensis forest, Picea-Abies forest, Alnus hirsuta forest and meadow than in other habitats.
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    丽江市旅游城市化特征及机理分析
    葛敬炳;陆林;凌善金;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 134-140.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.134
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    丽江市旅游城市化特征及机理分析
    葛敬炳, 陆林, 凌善金
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 134-140.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.134
    摘要   PDF (1274KB)
    20世纪后期,旅游城市化现象在西方发达国家出现,成为多元城市化道路的一种模式。在实地考察、问卷调查等基础上,分析了丽江市的旅游城市化现象。研究表明,与传统的工业城市化相比,旅游城市化表现出了一些不同的特征。具体表现为:①在城市性质和功能上,丽江由工商业城镇逐步向旅游城市转变;②在城市空间结构上,丽江城区逐步演变成以大研古城为重心呈“扇”形发展;③在城市建设用地上,旅游业用地增长迅速,大量城市绿地被侵占;④旅游的快速发展,大大加快了丽江的人口城市化过程,旅游业成为丽江市居民就业的主要渠道;⑤随着旅游业的迅速发展,丽江基础设施建设出现了超常规发展。在中国旅游发展的大背景下,丽江的资源比较优势、云南省及丽江市政府的推动、民营经济的参与、旅游消费是引起丽江旅游城市化的主要机制。
    Tourism urbanization, a product of social and economic development, is an inevitable social phenomenon accompanied by the ever-increasing development of tourism and urbanization.As one kind of pattern of urbanization, tourism urbanization appeared in developed Western countries since the 1970s.The paper points out that urbanization is the base of building a well-off society in an all-round way, and tourism urbanization as one mode of urbanization in turn paves the way for Chinese urbanization.Strengthening both the theoretical and empirical research on tourism urbanization is of great benefit to the healthy and constant development of China’s urbanization.Compared with the actual development of tourism urbanization, the theoretical research is relatively lagging behind and needs to be broadened and deepened.The paper makes a depth analysis of tourism urbanization in Lijiang City by the fieldwork and questionnaire.Five characteristics have been summarized: 1)On functions, Lijiang changes from industry and commerce town to tourist city step by step;2) On urban spatial structure, Lijiang develops with Dayan ancient town as the centre of gravity and assumes the "fan" shape;3) On urban construction land, the tourist land increases rapidly, large amount of urban green space is invaded and occupied;4) Having accelerated population urbanization process in Lijiang, tourism industry becomes main channel for residents to obtain employment in Lijiang City;and 5) With the rapid development of tourism industry, infrastructure construction has appeared to unconventional development in Lijiang.Under great background of tourism development in China, the mechanism factors of tourism urbanization in Lijiang composed of the resources comparative advantages of Lijiang, impetus from Yunnan Province government and Lijiang local government, participation of private economy and tourist consumption.
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    地方理论应用社区研究的思考——以阳朔西街旅游社区为例
    张中华;张沛;王兴中;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (1): 141-146.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.141
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    地方理论应用社区研究的思考——以阳朔西街旅游社区为例
    张中华, 张沛, 王兴中
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (1): 141-146.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.01.141
    摘要   PDF (704KB)
    地方是一个充满意义的空间,地方理论从人的感觉、心理、社会文化、伦理道德等角度来认识人与地方之间的关系。社区是一个地方,社区意识与社区感等概念有着与地方理论概念相似性特征。本研究试图从以人文主义现象学为哲学基础的地方理论研究取向出发,探讨地方理论的基本内容,并以阳朔西街旅游社区为典型案例区,来探讨和分析其在社区应用研究中的重要意义。而且这对当前的 "和谐社会"建设也具有重要的理论指导意义。
    Place is a space filled with meaning.Proceeding from senses, psychology, social culture, ethics, etc., the place theory identifies the relationship between places and human being.Community is a place.Such concepts as awareness and sense of community have a lot in common with the concepts of the place theory.Based on humanities and phenomenology, this thesis exploits basic content of the place theory.Then taking the West Street tourism community at Yangshuo as an example, the author tries to analyse and discuss the significance of applying the theory into communities.This application study also sheds some lights on the current construction of harmonious society.
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