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  • 地理科学
      2009年, 第29卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2009-05-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    地理学的十四大原理
    梁进社;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 307-315.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.307
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    地理学的十四大原理
    梁进社
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 307-315.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.307
    摘要   PDF (1033KB)
    已有的地理学原理可以概括成十四大要义。其中的"区位选择与放弃、区位选择是一种空间优化"这两条是关于区位选择的基本要义。关于地球表面差异性的要点包括:"差异性的度量和解释受到尺度和规模的影响;热力差异是地表差异的基础;外驱动力对地理环境的形成与演变具有重要影响;风化、侵蚀、搬运和堆积是形成地表特性的一种基本自然过程;两地间的相互作用随其距离的增加而减小;地方的创造和发展建构了地球表层上差异化的关于人的世界;人口迁移、产品贸易与地表上的差异性互为因果。" 关于人地关系的原理包括:"人的个体或群体对空间上利益的竞争是人地关系的第一要义;地球表面的绝大多数要素的相互作用不能为人的个体或群体在其占据的空间内所掌控"。"空间临界点"是地理分析的基本方法性原理。"地球表面不同尺度上人类活动的外部性是分析环境问题产生的起点;个人之间观念的差异,地区之间、国家之间利益的差异是人们在对地球资源、环境的利用与保护方面发生分歧或对立的基本因素"是关涉地球表面开发保护政策的要义。
    In the paper, fourteen principles in geography are refined. The first two principles show how peoples do location decision-making: (1) peoples would face the location choices; (2) in selecting location, one person, he or she, is interested in not only a place but also the benefit from others connected with the place. The other seven principles are about spatial difference analysis: (3) size and scale principles; (4) spatial thermodynamic difference principles; (5) environmental effects of the earth rotation force, the Earth crust movement and the gravitation between the Earth, Sun and Moon, which come from outside of the Earth’ surface; (6) the effects of weathering, erosion, transport and deposition on the Earth’s surface; (7) Distance decay principles; (8) the perspective from space, location and region for the establishment and development of places; (9) causality between the spatial differences and migration, interregional trade. The above seven principles embrace the aspects from natural and social forces, as well as spatial effects. There are two principles related to the relationships between men and their environment: (10) human competition in space; (11) mosaics, dependence, interaction and interdependence relationships existing in the Earth’s surface. The twelfth principle lays a foundation of geographical analysis methods: (12) spatial critical point principle. The last two principles sum up the bases of policy-making for the use and conservation of the Earth: (13) externality principles of human activity on the Earth’s surface; (14) peoples face how to balance their interregional benefit in resources developing and environmental conservation on the Earth. Although the intention of writing the paper is for teaching, the author considers that the principles may have some meanings for geographic research, including setting up more common academic language and integration between human and physical geography.
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    地理学理论研究和科学分析的一般方法探讨
    陈彦光;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 316-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.316
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    地理学理论研究和科学分析的一般方法探讨
    陈彦光
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 316-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.316
    摘要   PDF (935KB)
    根据近年来地理学家和物理学家对城市发展和演化分析的有关成果,总结出地理理论研究方法的一般模式:第一步,根据观测数据建立经验模型;第二步,构造假设、建立理论方程并且求解,求解的结果要与经验模型及其参数一致;第三步,基于第二步的假设条件进行计算机模拟实验,模拟结果要与观测的结果一致。第一步用到的方法从地理学"计量运动"时期开始发展,至今已经比较成熟;第二步用到的方法发展多年,但进展较慢;第三步用到的方法目前正在快速发展,但没有与第二步的方法有机结合。强调的方法在于,将地理学的经验建模、理论解析和模拟实验有机结合起来,形成一个完整的、不同步骤相辅相成的研究程序。这一套方法在一定条件下可以推广到地理应用研究领域,推广之后的第二步可以大为简化,但第三步则会更加复杂。
    There used to be two obstacles for progress of geography. One is that it is hard to be mathematically modeled in an efficient way because of nonlinearity of geographical processes and regularity of geographical phenomena, the other is that it is impossible to perform controlled experiments on geographical systems because of irreversibility and uncontrollability of geographical evolvements. Fortunately, as the development of the postmodern mathematics of fractals and chaos and others, certain geographical systems can be modeled with the aid of mathematical equations today. As the development of cellular automata (CA) model, geographical information system (GIS) based computer simulation can be employed to make geographical analysis as an experiment approach to revealing causalities (cause and effect). In this case, a new study procedure termed "three-step method" for theoretical geographical research is propounded as follows. Step 1: building mathematical models empirically based on observational data and estimating the values of parameters. Step 2: constructing theoretical equation based on certain postulates. The solution to the theoretical equation should be found in some way, and the solution must be identical in form and structure to the empirical model made in the first step. Or else repeat step 2 by giving new postulates and new theoretical model until the solution is satisfying. Step 3: carrying out experiments of computer simulation upon the studied object based on the postulates raised in the second steps. The result of simulation should be identical in pattern or structure to the observed phenomena in the first step.The first step relates to the quantification of geographical research, the second step to the theorization of geographic discipline, and the third step to the demonstration and experimentation of geography. The method used in the first step is mature at the present time. Building of empirical models with mathematical theory has been developing since the well-known "quantitative revolution" of geography from the 1950s to the 1970s. Of course, "the purpose of models is not to fit the data, but to sharpen the questions." The means employed in the third step is rapidly developed in recent years and in its full flourish now. Simulation of a geographical system may be very helpful practically, but geo-simulation doesn’t help us conceptually, in understanding the rules of behavior at the higher level. Comparatively speaking, the process utilized in the second step is still a difficult problem to be solved despite the fact that the theorization of geography began long ago. The three-step method is proposed for the purpose of theoretical exploration of geography, but it can be extended to the domain of applied geography. In application research, the second step can be simplified dramatically by giving up mathematical derivation. However, the third step will be more difficult when it is designed for use in practice, as the simulation device should be drastically altered before it becomes even vaguely realistic representations of geographical systems.
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    山东省城乡发展协调性空间差异分析
    王富喜;孙海燕;孙峰华;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 323-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.323
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    山东省城乡发展协调性空间差异分析
    王富喜, 孙海燕, 孙峰华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 323-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.323
    摘要   PDF (757KB)
    遵循全面性、主导性、可比性及可获得性原则,构建了城乡发展协调性评价指标体系,运用主成分分析方法分别计算出山东省17地市城市子系统和农村子系统的综合发展指数。在此基础上,通过城乡协调度系数对各地市城乡发展协调性进行了分析评价。结果表明:①山东省城乡发展协调性空间差异非常明显,总体而言,东部地区好于中西部地区。②城乡协调度与经济发展水平总体呈正相关,经济发展水平越高,城乡发展协调性越好。③协调是个相对、动态的概念,城乡协调发展亦没有绝对的标准,同样的协调度反映的信息不一定相同。
    "Coordination" is a conception of describing fine correlation between things, which meaning is "unanimous harmonious and tie in". From systemic point of view, coordination is unanimous harmonious of system or factor in process of development and evolvement. city and country belong to two different systems, reviewing from historical angle. The relation of them are commonly considered to successively go through four development phase, that is urban-rural intergrowth, urban-rural abruption, urban-rural opposition, and urban-rural amalgamation(urban and rural coordinated development or urban-rural integration).Urban and rural development coordination is an idea or think of urban and rural development aiming at urban and rural opposite to each other. Urban and rural development coordination can be measured by calculating urban-rural coordination degree. Coordination degree is a temporal conception and postural representation which pursues systemic whole furthest excellent. The bigger coordination degree, the upper consistency among system or factor development; otherwise, system or factor development is out of line and needs controlling systemic operation. Urban-rural coordination degree which is ration index of measuring urban and rural coordination status reflects coupling degree of aspect of nature, society and economy of specified time and area in urban-rural terrain system. To measure urban-rural coordination degree needs to figure out comprehensive development status of urban and rural subsystems first of all. Following the principle of comprehensive, dominant, comparable and securable, the paper sets up urban and rural development coordination evaluation index system, figures urban-rural subsystem comprehensive development index of 17 cities in Shandong Province using principal component analysis, analyzes and appraises urban and rural development coordination of those cities through urban-rural coordination degree coefficient. Basing on coordination degree coefficient and urban and rural subsystems development status, the paper classifies seventeen cities in Shandong Province to six types, that is, coordination, basic coordination, border on maladjustment, elementary maladjustment, intermediate maladjustment, and severe maladjustment.As a result, the paper considers: ①Coordination is a relative and dynamic conception, urban and rural development coordination has not absolute standard, and the same coordination degree reflects diverse information. ②Urban-rural coordination degree coefficient is a nondimensional numerical value base on the urban and rural comprehensive development index, which has not any actual meaning with sole region except many regions' contrast analysis. ③There is evident spatial differences of urban and rural development coordination in Shandong Province, and the Eastern Shandong excelled the Midwestern Shandong as a whole. ④There is positive correlation between urban-rural coordination degree and economy development level, and the higher economy development level, the better urban and rural development coordination.
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    基于对外经济联系与地缘经济关系匹配的广州国家中心城市战略分析
    邓春玉;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 329-335.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.329
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    基于对外经济联系与地缘经济关系匹配的 广州国家中心城市战略分析
    邓春玉
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 329-335.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.329
    摘要   PDF (892KB)
    利用2007年全国30个省会城市市区主要外向产业、非农业人口、GDP、固定资产投资总额、职工工资总额、年末金融机构存款余额、实际利用外资总额、城市间公路距离数据,借鉴区位商、城市引力、欧氏距离测算法,对广州市产业集中度、对外经济联系和地缘经济关系及其匹配状态进行了分析。结果显示,广州市与其国家中心城市、综合性门户城市和区域文化教育中心地位不相称,存在差距。调整地缘经济发展战略、优先发展现代服务业、加快出省通道建设是提高其中心城市地位的首要任务。
    Using data of main export-oriented industries, non-agricultural population, GDP, the total investment in fixed assets, total wages, the year-end financial deposits, distance of inter-city highways of national 30 capital cities,in 2007, the matching state analysis of the industrial concentration external economic links, Geo-economic relations in Guangzhou based on the location quatient,city gravity,Euclidean distance calculation method. The results showed that, Guangzhou has disproportionation and gap with the National Center City, as an integrated gateway cities and regional cultural and educational center.It is the primary task to improve the status of central cities,adjust the geo-economic development strategy,give priority to the development of modern service industries, and speed up the construction of the provincial route.This method can provide an effective reference for city government to map out Regional Center Development strategies.
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    地区全球化的一种新模式 ——以广州狮岭镇皮具产业为例
    吕拉昌, 余国扬, 高晶华, 刘毅华, 林彰平
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 336-341.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.336
    摘要   PDF (1134KB)
    全球化与地区化是两个相对的过程,其相互作用是通过两个重要的过程:全球地区化与地区的全球化,对全球地区化过程已有许多研究成果,但对地区全球化过程的研究相对较少。基于广州花都狮岭镇皮具产业集群的案例研究,认为在贸易导向型的专业化产业集群的基础上,发展中国家的地区形成了产业集群—专业市场—会展经济的"地区结构",这一结构形成了发展中国家自下而上的地区全球化的新模式。这一模式提出的意义在于对于发展中国家,全球化不仅是生产领域的全球化,也包括流通与市场领域,发展中国家的产业全球化需要一种系统的"地区结构",这是地区走向全球的重要途径。
    The globalization and localization are two reverse processes,which created by two important processes: the glocalization and the local globalization.Scholars have conducted a number of researches on the glocalization from top to bottom,however,few studies on the local globalization.Based on the case studies of leather cluster in Shiling Town of Guangzhou City,the paper suggests ‘regional structure’,consisted of specialized cluster,specialized market and exhibition and conventions,is the emerging model of local globalization from bottom to up in less developed countries,on the basis of trade oriented industrial cluster one of advantages.The significance of these findings has shown that globalization is not just in production areas and also in circulation and market areas in less developed countries.In order to link in globalization,less developed countries need a structural system,that is an important approach for local globalization.
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    地区全球化的一种新模式——以广州狮岭镇皮具产业为例
    吕拉昌;余国扬;高晶华;刘毅华;林彰平;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 336-341.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.336
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    海湾型城市建设用地扩展的时空动态特征及驱动力研究——以厦门市为例
    陈松林;刘诗苑;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 342-346.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.342
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    海湾型城市建设用地扩展的时空动态特征及驱动力研究——以厦门市为例
    陈松林, 刘诗苑
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 342-346.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.342
    摘要   PDF (1154KB)
    解译了厦门市1986~2007年6个时间点的遥感影像,提取建设用地斑块,借助ArcGIS9.0空间分析模块和空间统计功能,进行缓冲区分析。通过绘制建设用地类型扩展量曲线图,分析波峰-波谷时空变化,结合同期自然和人文因素的变化,揭示建设用地扩展的驱动力。结果表明:① 自然因素和人文背景影响城镇用地扩展的基本格局;② 社会经济实力积累推动建设用地空间分布的演变;③ 城市化和工业化相互作用快速推动建设用地的扩展;④ 政策因素多层次地影响建设用地的时空变化。
    After interpreted 6 periods of RS images from 1986 to 2007, this article extracted built-up land patches from them, got the area-weighed center for buffer analysis and generated curves of built-up land in Xiamen by the ArcGIS9.0 spatial analysis and spatial statistic model. Then, it analyzed the curves, which the peaks and troughs were changed by the spatiotemporal change. According to what had been done above, the driving forces of built-up land dynamics change were discussed, combined by the changes of physical and human factors in the same period. The results suggested that: firstly, physical and human backgrounds affected the basic spatial pattern of built-up land growth; secondly, the accumulation of socio-economy development impeled the evolution of built-up land growth distribution; thirdly, the interaction between urbanization and industrialization promoted the extension of built-up land rapidly. At last, administrative policies influenced built-up land spatio-temporal change on different spatial levels.
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    “十五”时期环渤海城市群经济联系分析
    姜博;修春亮;赵映慧;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 347-352.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.347
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    “十五”时期环渤海城市群经济联系分析
    姜博, 修春亮, 赵映慧
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 347-352.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.347
    摘要   PDF (1081KB)
    环渤海城市群是中国北方重要的经济增长区域,未来发展前景十分广阔,分析“十五”时期环渤海城市群经济联系的动态变化规律必将为"十一五"乃至更长一段时期环渤海城市群空间经济联系产生"抛砖引玉"的功效。选取“十五”时期环渤海地区京津冀、辽中南、山东半岛共28座城市的市区从业人员、GDP、人均GDP等指标,利用城市流强度等模型测度了三大城市群内部经济联系强度,并与长三角、珠三角共25座城市相比较。结果表明:京津冀城市群经济联系强度居环渤海地区首位,辽中南次之,山东半岛位居最后;“十五”期末与期初相比,京津冀、辽中南的经济联系强度均呈上升态势,其中,尤以京津冀上升幅度最大,而山东半岛则出现了明显的下降;与长三角、珠三角相比,京津冀经济联系强度虽弱于长三角,但略强于珠三角,而辽中南、山东半岛与长三角、珠三角的差距则更为显著。
    The urban groups in Bohai Sea Rim are important growing regions in North China and their dvelopment are very bright in the future. To promote the urban economic contacts in the future, it is necessary that their varying rules of the economic contacts in these days should be analyzed. Based on urban population, employees, GDP, per capital GDP, etc. of 28 cities in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis, South-Central of Liaoning metropolis and Shandong peninsula metropolis in Bohai Sea Rim, the extrovert energy, the intensity of urban flow and the degree of tendency of three urban groups in Bohai Sea Rim are measured in the Tenth Five-Year Plan period. The 28 cities of three urban groups in Bohai Sea Rim are contrasted to 25 cities in two urban groups of Yangtze delta and Pearl River Delta in Southeast China. And the three urban groups in Bohai Sea Rim are contrasted to the two urban groups in Southeast China in the same. It is concluded from our studies that the economic contacts of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis is the strongest in Bohai Sea Rim and South and Central Liaoning metropolis is the second and Shandong peninsula metropolis is the weakest. In the Tenth Five-Year Plan period, the economic contacts of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis and South and Central Liaoning metropolis became stronger but Shandong peninsula metropolis became weaker in the end. The economic contact of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolis is weaker than Yangtze Delta metropolis but stronger than Pearl River Delta metropolis. South and Central Liaoning metropolis and Shandong peninsula metropolis are much weaker than Yangtze Delta metropolis and Pearl River Delta metropolis.
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    居住郊区化背景下消费空间的特征及其演化——以广州市为例
    林耿;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 353-359.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.353
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    居住郊区化背景下消费空间的特征及其演化——以广州市为例
    林耿
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 353-359.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.353
    摘要   PDF (1352KB)
    以广州市居住郊区化过程中出现的消费错位现象为切入点,从消费社会学的符号消费视角对其原因进行新的解释。消费空间剧场化、消费空间时尚化以及消费空间对消费者社会身份的建构功能,使北京路传统商业步行街作为高级商业中心地的符号功能得以建构。现代购物中心的符号表征功能,使天河区商业中心成为一个消费者自我实现的情感化消费空间。两者重构了大城市的中心-边缘关系,使到郊区的居住空间得以拓展而消费空间受到抑制,难以发展高等级的现代业态。随着城市快速轨道交通的建设,城区商业中心进一步加强了对消费者和经营者的吸引力,新时期的地下商业文化也加速了商业中心的符号化。城市消费空间正向城区商业中心极化力量增强的方向演化。
    Focused on the phenomenon of consumption mismatch during the process of residential suburbanization in Guangzhou, this paper re-explains the reason from the perspective of symbolic analysis in consumption sociology. The theatricalization, fashionalization, and functionality for constructing the consumer’s social identity of consumer space symbolizes the Beijing Road as an advanced business center. Apparently, Tianhe Business Center also has become a consumer space to help consumer’s affective reaction for self-realization due to the symbolic representation function of modern shopping center. Both of them reconstructed the relationship of urban core-periphery area, and formed a symbolic consumption rule which is separated and paralleled from original economic rule. During the process of residential suburbanization in Guangzhou, on one hand, a suburbanized lifestyle emerged as a symbolic commercial product and catered for the taste for exquisiteness in housing market; on the other hand, the different demands of residents can not be met well except routine shopping in suburbs and people still go to urban central area to satisfy themselves for entertainment, image appeal and quality culture, because advanced business center is absent for a long time although there has a large population. Influenced by core-periphery model, the residential function was developed but commercial function was restricted in suburbs, so advanced modern retailing center can hardly exist. In recent years, the system of rail rapid transit is being constructed and it will further intensify the interaction between urban core-periphery area. Around the Tianhe Road, a more large-scale commercial conglomerate is being formed and it supposed to reduce the possibility of same functional business center in suburbs. With the development of rail rapid transit, urban business center will have more attractions for shops and consumers and the symbolization will be strengthened by the sequent new-developed type of operation—underground commercial culture. Urban consumer space will have a tendency of evolution to a stronger polarization.
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    旅游发展与乡村劳动力回流研究——以西递村为例
    张骁鸣;保继刚;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 360-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.360
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    旅游发展与乡村劳动力回流研究——以西递村为例
    张骁鸣, 保继刚
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 360-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.360
    摘要   PDF (785KB)
    采取社会资本的研究视角,以安徽省南部世界文化遗产地西递村旅游发展与社会经济变迁的基本事实为案例,主要提出了一种对乡村外出劳动力向原社区回流并参与非农产业生产现象的社会经济解释。研究发现:① 社区按年向有本社区户口的普通社区成员提供总收入相当比例的稳定收入,是吸引外出劳动力回流的重要原因;② 社会资本和社会关系网络的效力在社区的空间范围之内才能得到发挥,是社区精英人物及与其有亲密关系的社区成员留守或回流的原因。
    This paper offers a critical review of the popular economic models on labor force migration, and return migration and points out the main theoretical and technical problems when practicing these models in the real world. Conversely, this paper chooses a social capital perspective to outline a socio-economic explanation for the behavior of rural returnees and their participation in non-agricultural industry, based on a case study in Xidi Village of southern Anhui Province, China. It concludes with two elemental findings: 1) returnees in this village returned because they could get paid annually and steadily as a local hukouholder; 2) community elites and their intimate relations returned or stayed because their social capital or social network could only take effect inside the community boundaries.
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    近30年广州市土地覆被变化时空特征分析
    陈颖彪;周倩仪;陈健飞;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 368-374.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.368
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    近30年广州市土地覆被变化时空特征分析
    陈颖彪, 周倩仪, 陈健飞
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 368-374.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.368
    摘要   PDF (1130KB)
    以1979、1990、2002和2006年4个时相的遥感数据为主要数据源,利用遥感图像处理软件ENVI4.4对影像进行预处理,在ArcGIS 9.2软件的支持下提取城市土地利用斑块,比照广州市土地利用现状图,结合实地调查,建立土地利用数据库,揭示广州市土地覆被变化时空特征,旨在为改善城市生态环境,提高土地利用效率提供科学依据。研究结果表明:广州市近30年土地覆被类型以林地、农田、建筑用地为主,农田和裸地逐年减少,人地矛盾突出;20世纪90年代后期以来,林地、水域面积小有增加,生态环境保护的政策效应初步显现。土地覆被类型的变化速率呈现先快后慢趋势。1979~2002年是土地类型变化剧烈,变速较快的时期,平均变化率为36.55%。2002~2006年期间,随着民众环保意识的普遍提升,加之各项政府政策的逐步落实,可开发土地面积的逐步减少,土地变化速率趋于平缓。
    Four TM remote sensing images of Guangzhou in 1979, 1990, 2002 and 2006 are taken as data for the study. The images fully cover the area of Guangzhou. The data sources of land-cover landscape are translated under supervised and un-supervised interpretations with Envi4.4. By using ArcGIS 9.2 software to extract urban land use speckle and contrast land use map of Guangzhou City. Through investigation to create land use database, the analysis demonstrated spatio-temporal characteristics of land use so as to improve urban eco-environment and land use efficiency. The research demonstrates that forest and water area increase during the past 30 years and environment protect policy has the obvious effect. The ratio of land use to cover change has the characteristics of fast in beginning and slow in recent years. In the 1979-2002 the change of land use was rapid and the average change rate was 36.55%. In the 2002-2006, with the improvement of protect environment and other policy induces the ratio of land use turned into be stable.
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    成渝经济区的耕地土壤质量特点及保护对策
    何毓蓉;徐祥明;吴晓军;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 375-380.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.375
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    成渝经济区的耕地土壤质量特点及保护对策
    何毓蓉, 徐祥明, 吴晓军
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 375-380.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.375
    摘要   PDF (851KB)
    成渝地区是国家正式列为全国重点发展的四大经济区之一。通过对成渝经济区耕地主要土壤类型的质量状况进行分析,看出耕地的非农业占用、土壤肥力和土壤环境质量退化问题,呈现不同程度的严重态势,加强土壤保护已经刻不容缓。研究结果表明,成渝经济区的耕地土壤质量退化主要表现为"蚀、旱、板、酸、薄、生(熟化度低)和毒化(污染)",已成为成渝经济区农业发展的障碍。针对土壤质量主要的特点和问题,提出了扭转土壤利用结构性逆向变化等几点保障成渝经济区农业可持续发展的对策。
    Cheng-Yu (Chengdu-Chongqing) economic area is officially recognized as one of the four national key developmental economic zones. Based on the analysis of the main types of soil quality status in Cheng-Yu economic area, the non agricultural occupation of cultivated soil, soil fertility and soil environmental quality degradation showed severe situation in different degrees and the soil protection was imperative. The results showed that the degradation of cultivated soil quality had become the obstacle to agricultural development and been mainly manifested as "erosion, drought, soil hardening, soil acidification, thin, low ripening degree and contamination". Based on the soil quality characteristics and degradation, the following soil protection countermeasures were brought forward: the retortion of the reverse change of land use structure; the implementations of cultivated soil protective tillage integrated technologies and the restoration of fallow system to prevent soil fertility degradation; the implementations of "three decrease and three increase" (to decrease chemical fertilizer, pesticide, plastic sheeting and to increase organic fertilizer, straw returning, green manure) to improve the soil environmental quality to guarantee the agricultural sustainable development in Cheng-Yu economic area.
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    向海湿地不同植被群落下土壤氮素的分布特征
    白军红;丁秋祎;高海峰;王庆改;肖蓉;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 381-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.381
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    向海湿地不同植被群落下土壤氮素的分布特征
    白军红, 丁秋祎, 高海峰, 王庆改, 肖蓉
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 381-384.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.381
    摘要   PDF (517KB)
    对比分析向海湿地8种植被群落下表层和亚表层土壤氮形态和全氮含量差异,研究不同植被群落下土壤氮素分布特征。结果表明,各植被群落下表层和亚表层土壤全氮主要以有机氮的形态存在;沼柳群落下表层土壤全氮含量最高,三棱群落最低;而香蒲群落下亚表层土壤全氮含量最高,碱蓬群落最低;根系分布较深的植物群落下表层和亚表层土壤氮素一般高于根系分布较浅的植物群落;除辣蓼群落下土壤无机氮以硝态氮为主外,其它各群落下土壤无机氮均以铵态氮为主。相关分析表明,土壤全氮和有机氮含量与土壤有机质含量显著正相关,与土壤pH值呈现显著负相关关系。
    Contents of total nitrogen and nitrogen forms in surface and subsurface soils with eight different plant communities in Xianghai Wetland were measured and analyzed in order to study the spatial distribution characteristics of all nitrogen forms in marsh soils with different plant communities. Results showed that total nitrogen in marsh soils was dominantly composed with organic nitrogen. There were highest contents of total nitrogen in surface soils with Salix rosmarinifolia community, while lowest in the surface soils with Sparganium stotoniferum community. However, as for subsurface soils, the highest or lowest contents of total nitrogen appeared in Typha orietalia community and Suaeda acuca community, respectively. Nitrogen contents in surface and subsurface soils were higher in plant communities with deeper root system than those with shallower root system. Inorganic nitrogen in those soils mainly consisted of nitrate nitrogen for Polygonum hydropiper community, while ammonium nitrogen for other plant communities. Correlation analysis showed total nitrogen and organic nitrogen were significantly positively correlated with soil organic matter, but they showed significantly negative correlations with soil pH values.
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    念青唐古拉山东南坡高寒草原生态系统表层土壤有机碳分布特征及影响因素
    王建林;欧阳华;王忠红;常天军;李鹏;沈振西;钟志明;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 385-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.385
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    念青唐古拉山东南坡高寒草原生态系统表层土壤有机碳分布特征及影响因素
    王建林, 欧阳华, 王忠红, 常天军, 李鹏, 沈振西, 钟志明
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 385-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.385
    摘要   PDF (837KB)
    对念青唐古拉山东南坡高寒草原生态系统表层(0~20 cm)土壤有机碳分布特征进行研究,结果表明:有机碳密度平均为5.002 8±1.103 7 kg/m2,变异系数21.96 %;在拔4 421~4 598 m内,随海拔升高表现增加→减少→增加的分布特征;与地上及10~20 cm土层生物量、20~30 cm含水量、土壤有机质、速效N、全N和全P含量呈显著正相关,与20~40 cm容重呈显著负相关。影响其的第1因子是植被盖度、地上生物量、20~30 cm地下生物量和20~30 cm含水量,第2因子是0~20 cm和20~40 cm容重及全P量,第3因子是有机质含量和速效N含量,第4因子是0~10 cm地下生物量,累计贡献率92.83 %。
    The distribution characteristics and the infulential factors of the topsoil (0-20cm) organic carbon in alpine grassland eocsystem at the southeast slope of Nyainqêntanglha Mountain were studied. It was shown that the average density of the topsoil (0-20cm) organic carbon was 5.0028±1.1037 kg/m2 and variability coefficient was 21.96%.With inreasing altitude, the distribution characteristics of the topsoil (0-20 cm) organic carbon density was increase→decrease →increase within the altitude range of 4421-4598 m.There was significant positive correlation between the topsoil organic carbon density and overground biomass, 10-20-cm underground biomass, 20-30-cm underground soil moisture,soil organic matter,soil active N, soil total N and soil total P content, but there was significant negative correlation between it and soil bulk density. The first factors were vegetation coverage, overground biomass, 20-30-cm underground biomass and 20-30-cm soil moisture, the second factors were 0-20-cm and 20-40-cm underground soil bulk density as well as soil total P content, the third factor were soil organic matter and soil active N content, the last factor was 0-10-cm underground biomass, and they contribution rate was 92.83 %.
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    1961~2000年中国生态区紫外辐射的时空演变特征
    黄梅玲;江洪;朱求安;余树全;周国模;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 391-396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.391
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    1961~2000年中国生态区紫外辐射的时空演变特征
    黄梅玲, 江洪, 朱求安, 余树全, 周国模
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 391-396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.391
    摘要   PDF (1063KB)
    通过ANUSPLINE空间插值以及气候学意义上的幂函数换算,探讨中国大陆生态区紫外辐射时空动态变化规律。结论如下:(1)紫外辐射多年平均值和多年季节平均值大致以季风区和非季风区分界为界线,呈现西部高东部低的总体格局,这主要与中国的地势和气候特点有关。(2)部分生态区40 a来年和四季紫外辐射呈显著减少趋势;冬季的紫外辐射年际间变化程度较大,其次是夏季和秋季,春季和年均紫外辐射年际变化较小;可分1961~1972、1973~1990、1991~2000 年3个时段,大部分生态区第二时段年和季节紫外辐射平均值较小,第三时段普遍又开始增大,比第一时段小。
    The UV of some eco-regions of China present reduction trend; the inter-annual change of winter is the biggest among four seasons, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. The annual change UV is small. It can be divided into three stages i. e. 1961-1972, 1973-1990 and 1991-2000. The second stage of the annual and seasonal average UV in a large part of eco-regions is lower than the first stage and the third stage, and the first stage takes on the biggest stage.
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    采煤塌陷地水域淹没范围模拟分析
    吴泉源;刘廷祥;黄丽梅;王晓怡;张晓丽;王艳泽;徐刚;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 397-401.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.397
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    采煤塌陷地水域淹没范围模拟分析
    吴泉源, 刘廷祥, 黄丽梅, 王晓怡, 张晓丽, 王艳泽, 徐刚
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 397-401.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.397
    摘要   PDF (1309KB)
    采煤塌陷改变了矿区周边的地形地貌特征,使大量的耕地、园地变成水域。选择山东省龙口采煤塌陷区为研究对象,运用ArcGIS软件采集五期1:1万等高线和离散高程点数据,生成1×1 m2正方形网格的数字地面模型(DEM),以地表没有发生塌陷前的1978年DEM为标准高程数据,与其他各期DEM数据进行差值运算处理,得到不同时期采煤塌陷区面积。然后根据水利部门48年来的观测数据,计算出采煤塌陷区不同频率年份丰水期水文特征值,采用"无源淹没"分析法,计算给定水位条件下的采煤塌陷区水域淹没范围。
    In China, being a big coal mining country, subsidence caused by coal mining has become a serious artificial geological disaster. Coal mining subsidence not only changes physiognomy morphological character around the mining areas but also makes abundant cultivated land, garden plot, holt, traffic land and construction land change to water area. Coal mining subsidence has become a major obstacle to the sustainable development of society, economy and environment in mining area. Imaginal, intuitive and accurate simulation of the submerged area of confirmed water level in the different periods and with different subsidence scale is the foundation of governance and reclamation of subsidence area. With Longkou coal mining subsidence area in Shandong Province as case study, on the base of 1: 10000 contour lines and dispersed elevation point data of the research area of five periods gathered by ArcGIS software, which were 1978, 1984, 1996, 2000 and 2004, this paper has completed contour line’s density interpolation, then the digital elevation model (DEM) of uniform grid with 1* 1 m2 can be gained from triangulation by linear interpolation. This paper considers the DEM data of 1978 before subsidence as standard elevation, and calculates the coal mining subsidence region and area through the difference operation between DEM data of the other later periods and the standard elevation. Obviously, when z value of a certain place is less than zero, which represents elevation, the place has become subsidence area. According to the data observed by water department during 48 years, the author figures out the hydrographic feature values of different frequency year flood season in coal mining subsidence area. Then the water submerged area of confirmed water level in coal mining subsidence district were calculated by "non-fountainhead flood" analysis method and verified by contemporaneous result of remote sensing image interpretation. The main conclusions are as follows: firstly, the analysis method used in the paper is very dependable, whose maximum relative error and minimum relative error are 5.76% and 2.83%, respectively. Secondly, the general trend of the change of the water submerged area is that it will be enlarge with the enlargement of subsidence area. In addition, the increasing amount of the water submerged area is less than that of subsidence area. In the future, subsidence area in the continent will be joined with that in ocean bottom. If people can’t prevent and what treat the trend effectively, seawater intrusion will occur widely in subsidence area, and along with it is the irreversible ecological change in the land. Lastly, the primary factor influencing on calculation precision is DEM data.
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    基于分形的中国地均农畜产品虚拟水规模分布的时空演变研究
    孙才志;张蕾;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 402-408.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.402
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    基于分形的中国地均农畜产品虚拟水规模分布的时空演变研究
    孙才志, 张蕾
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 402-408.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.402
    摘要   PDF (1427KB)
    虚拟水是当今水科学的研究热点,被认为是解决粮食与水资源安全的重要策略。在测算中国各地区农畜产品虚拟水总量的基础上,计算出1996~2006年中国农畜产品虚拟水与耕地资源的基尼系数,表明二者地区差异不大且在逐年减小。运用位序-规模法则,探讨差异背后的分形特征。研究表明:中国地均农畜产品虚拟水体系不具有首位分布的特征;双对数回归方程拟合度较高,符合位序-规模分布;分维值D大于1,且逐年升高,地均农畜产品虚拟水规模分布整体差距在缩小,均衡程度在增强;规模分布呈双分形结构,体现出地均农畜产品虚拟水大规模省市发展较慢且辐射带动作用较弱,中小规模的省市比较发育且发展较快。本文旨在揭示地均农畜产品虚拟水的空间分异特征规律,为制定不同区域类型的农业发展决策提供相应的理论参考。
    Virtual water has become the central issue of water sciences, and has been regarded as a main countermeasure to solve risks of food security and water security. On the base of calculating the total quantity of main crop-livestock product virtual water, this paper calculated the Gini coefficient of crop-livestock product virtual water verse cultivated land and the result showed that the Gini coefficient of crop-livestock product virtual water verse cultivated land were less than 0.4 (warning limit) from 1996 to 2006, which indicated that the spatial-temporal differences of crop-livestock product virtual water verse cultivated land was slowly decreasing. This paper analyzed changes of the virtual water per cultivated land in the provinces of China from 1996 to 2006.Then, according to the theory of primate city distribution and rank and size law which have been frequently used in urban geography since the 1920s, based on the data of thirty provinces of China this paper used the rank and size curves to explain virtual water per cultivated land size distribution, which can probed into the internal difference mechanic of fractal feature. The result showed that virtual water per cultivated land size distribution didn’t follow primate city distribution, and the coefficient of determination (R2) about the model of the bi-fractals were more than 0.975. The rank and size double logarithm regression of the virtual water per cultivated land accords with the Pareto distribution well, and the size and its rank turn out to follow the rank-size distribution. Meanwhile, the fractal dimension D was more than 1 and slowly decreased by year, which showed the spatial differences of the virtual water per cultivated land in provinces of China reduced and the equilibrium tended to strengthen. The rank and size distribution took on bi-fractals structure. The conclusion showed that large-scale provinces developed more slowly than medium-or small-scale provinces, and leading function of these large-scale provinces was limited. Furthermore, according to the rank and size double logarithm regression curve shapes of bi-fractals, we claimed that Chinese virtual water per cultivated land could be divided into three categories. Large-size of the virtual water per cultivated land was 14000~26000m3/ha, the medium-size was 7000~14000m3/ha, and the small-size was less than 7000 m3/ha. At last, this paper also discusses the impacts of the facts, aiming at offering a new method for researches of the virtual water per cultivated land size and assisting the formulation of agricultural policies at national and regional levels.
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    兰州黄河高漫滩沉积与洪水变化研究
    赵景波;王长燕;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 409-414.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.409
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    兰州黄河高漫滩沉积与洪水变化研究
    赵景波, 王长燕
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 409-414.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.409
    摘要   PDF (1145KB)
    根据兰州黄河高漫滩沉积剖面的观察和81个样品的粒度分析,研究兰州黄河马滩剖面沉积特征和当时的洪水变化。结果表明,马滩剖面明显分为15个沉积层,指示15次较大的洪水。这15个阶段河漫滩洪水深度和规模由大到小的变化顺序依次为第10>12>11>13 >15 >14 >3 >5 >7 >8 >6 >1 >4 >9 >2阶段。据历史文献推算,马滩高漫滩沉积代表的15次洪水发生在170 a B.P.以来。兰州洪水沉积不连续,这15次洪水的每一次一般代表1 a雨季的短暂时间,两次洪水间隔时间通常为10 a左右,这10 a是没有洪水发生或洪水规模小的阶段,也是降水量正常或偏少的阶段。
    According to the investigation of the section on high floodplain of the Huanghe (Yellow) River and grain size analyses of 81 samples in Lanzhou, the paper researched the sediment characteristic of the section and the flood variation at that time. Results indicate that the flood sediment layers of the Huanghe River are clear in Lanzhou area, which reflects clearly the variation of the floods and the high resolution short-term precipitation, and is a good target indicating the changes of the flood and precipitation. The coarse grain of the sediment indicates the bigger scale flood and the more precipitation at that time, and the fine grain indicates the smaller scale flood and the less precipitation. The Matan section is divided into 15 phases, which indicates 15 bigger-scale flood stages, and the sediment are mainly composed of the coarse silt, the very fine sand and the fine sand. The content of the coarse silt is the most, the very fine sand and the fine sand are the second and the colloidal particle, the cosmid, the fine silt, the medium sand and the coarse sand are all little. The grain composition of the whole section has obvious change rule from above to bottom. Sufficiently considering the effect of landform heightened by sediment on grain composition, the order of the depths and scales of floods on the high floodplain of Matan section from big to small is the 10th>12th>11th>13th>15th>14th>3rd>5th>7th>8th>6th>1st>4th>9th>2nd. Reckoned by the historical documents, these 15 floods that sediment layers of Matan section reflect occurred since 170 a B.P. The flood sediment is not continuous, each of 15 floods generally indicates transitory rainy season of one year, the interval of two floods is generally about 10 years, and in the interval of 10 years there are no floods or small scales floods, indicating there are normal or less precipitation. According to the causes of modern floods of Lanzhou, it is concluded that the causes of 15 floods of Matan section is the annual precipitation’s obvious increase and the dates of the most precipitation are same or near in Huanghe River drainage basin above Lanzhou and branch drainage such as the Yao River, the Datong River, the Daxia River and so on.
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    基于TM图像的潮滩表层沉积物含水量推算模型研究——以江苏辐射沙洲区为例
    沈永明;杨劲松;张忍顺;刘咏梅;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 415-420.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.415
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    基于TM图像的潮滩表层沉积物含水量推算模型研究——以江苏辐射沙洲区为例
    沈永明, 杨劲松, 张忍顺, 刘咏梅
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 415-420.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.415
    摘要   PDF (264KB)
    潮滩表层沉积物含水量是反映潮滩与潮水周期性作用并指示潮滩高程的重要指标,了解潮滩表层沉积物含水量是开发利用潮滩资源的重要工作之一。以江苏辐射沙洲为例,在对应于2000年4月的TM遥感图像成像时潮位特征的潮汐周期时,测量了两条断面的表层沉积物含水量,然后通过对辐射沙洲TM遥感图像的多种处理及其比较,找出了TM图像与潮滩表层沉积物含水量的相关系数绝对值最高的数字图像处理方法,然后再进行傅立叶变换等处理,并推算出可决系数较高的表层沉积物含水量推算模型。
    Surface sediment humidity of the tidal flat reflects the periodicity action of the tide, and it is connected closely with the elevation of the tidal flat. The remote sensing image of TM can show the surface sediment humidity fairly, so the elevation of the tidal flat can be deduced by the remote sensing image of TM, and it is very important to know the elevation of the tidal flat in studying the sands movement and using the tidal flat resources which can not be measured easily by traditional method because of the poor topographical environment. In this study, the main purpose is to find the relationship between the surface sediment humidity of the tidal flat and the data of the remote sensing image of TM with the case of the Radial Sands Banks in Jiangsu Province, China. The two sections were selected, which can represent the Radial Sands Banks nearly, one is near Xiaoyangkou, the other is on Tiaozini sands, and the surface sediment samplings of the two sections were collected when the tidal period were equivalent to the moment of the TM remote sensing image taken, and the sediment humidity were measured. Then the data in the remote sensing image of TM corresponding to the surface sediment sampling point were collected, and the transforming method to the remote sensing image were carried out, and the relativity coefficients were calculated between the humidity of the surface sediment samplings and the the light value of the remote sensing image of TM after the transforming. The results of correlation coefficients were compared with each other, and the highest correlation coefficient was selected, which was the first component after the principal component analysis of the 2, 3 and 4 wave band. After that, Fourier transform, filter the waves and the contrary Fourier transform was taken to the first component after the principal component analysis, the result show that the correlation coefficients between the surface sediment humidity and the image data is high. At last, surface sediment humidity by the remote sensing image of TM was calculated, which has high coefficient of determination, and the result can be used easily for calculating surface sediment humidity of the radial sands banks.
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    基于Radon域描绘子乾安湖群湖泊形态变化遥感信息提取
    李晓峰;张树清;那晓东;于欢;潘欣;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 421-426.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.421
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    基于Radon域描绘子乾安湖群湖泊形态变化遥感信息提取
    李晓峰, 张树清, 那晓东, 于欢, 潘欣
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 421-426.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.421
    摘要   PDF (926KB)
    以乾安湖泊群为研究对象,利用1989年和2001年乾安县TM影像分割得到两个时期的湖群对象,利用具有几何不变性的Radon域描绘子提取每个湖泊对象的形态特征向量,根据所定义的湖泊相似度指数计算出两个时期湖泊对象的相似度,定量地描述了湖泊对象的时空形态变化特征。通过对所建立的面向对象数据库的挖掘,得到了比传统的湖泊面积变化检测更加丰富有效的信息,为防止湖泊进一步萎缩制定有效的保护性措施提供了数量化依据。
    Remote sensing technology is introduced by many related research as an efficient method to monitor dynamic change of lakes.But most of them only pay attention to lake area change,less to the information extraction of lake shape.In this paper,Qian′an Group Lakes are taken as the study objects,and lake objects of two periods are obtained by the segmentation of TM images in 1989 and 2001,then shape character vectors of each object are extracted using geometric invariance Radon descriptor.Similarity indices of each lake object between two periods are also computed according to the definition,so shape spatial-temporal variation of lake objects can be quantitatively described.Through information mining for object-oriented database in which shape character vector and similarity indices are saved,the obtained information is more abundant and efficient than that by traditional area change detection of lakes.These provide quantitative base for devising effective conservation measures to prevent lake drying up further.
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    基于TIC的多时相遥感影像相对辐射归化处理
    张友水;林广发;刘玉锋;韩春峰;王伟杰;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 427-432.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.427
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    基于TIC的多时相遥感影像相对辐射归化处理
    张友水, 林广发, 刘玉锋, 韩春峰, 王伟杰
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 427-432.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.427
    摘要   PDF (1073KB)
    采用不变点群法(temporally invariant cluster, TIC),由两时相影像的NDVI点密度图确定两个TIC中心并建立辐射归化处理方程,对影像的NDVI进行相对辐射归化处理。与其它辐射归化处理方法相比,该方法简单、有效且精度高,对轻微的植被物候变化敏感且影像不变特征点较少时也能进行辐射归化处理,可有效应用于土地利用/覆盖、植被物候及景观等变化监测。
    Radiometric consistency is hard to maintain between separate images due to variations in atmospheric conditions, solar illumination angles, sensor characteristics and sensor view angle. Therefore, radiometric corrections are often performed on multi-temporal imagery to any or all of the variations. This article reports a new relative radiometric normalization technique of multi-temporal satellite imagery of the same terrain. In this study, image data in Xiamen area were acquired on March 4, 2001 and March 26, 2003 (Landsat 7), and the newly developed temporally invariant cluster (TIC) method was used to normalize the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of multi-temporal imagery directly. The TIC centers were identified via a point density map of NDVI pixels from the base image and the target image, and a normalization regression line was created to intersect the TIC centers in point density map of NDVI. Target image NDVI values were then recalculated to base image radiometric level using the regression function so that these two images could be compared on a common radiometric scale. After normalization, the accuracy of NDVI was significantly improved. The TIC method provides a simple, effective and repeatable method for radiometric normalization. Compared to previous relative radiometric normalization methods, the new method does not require high level programming and statistical skills. In addition, the TIC method maintains sensitivity to subtle changes in vegetation phenology and enables normalization even when invariant features are rare. This normalization method is effective for detection of a range of land use, land cover, and phenological changes.
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    基于空间数据挖掘技术的森林防火智能决策支持系统研究
    万鲁河;王继富;臧淑英;崔金香;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 433-438.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.433
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    基于空间数据挖掘技术的森林防火智能决策支持系统研究
    万鲁河, 王继富, 臧淑英, 崔金香
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 433-438.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.433
    摘要   PDF (1081KB)
    从智能空间决策支持系统的功能需求出发,分析了森林防火是复杂的空间决策问题,它具有动态性、分布性、数据量大、数据性质复杂等特点,决策者面对突如其来的灾害及海量的、复杂的、易变的和分布的数据和信息,很难做出及时、科学和准确的决策。因此,建立集成空间信息分析处理的、具有知识发现能力的智能决策支持系统是十分必要的。而空间在线分析处理(Spatial OLAP)和空间在线分析挖掘(Spatial OLAM,Spatial OLAP mining)是集成空间数据处理的OLAP和OLAM,能够在空间数据仓库上发现隐含的知识和规则,并在不同的维、度上进行查询和分析。从系统需求分析、功能设计、系统实现和系统运行实例方面,论述融合了GIS、空间OLAP和空间OLAM技术的空间智能决策支持系统的设计思想和关键技术的实现。提出基于空间OLAP和OLAM知识发现机制,建立一种集成GIS、空间数据仓库、空间OLAP/OLAM和决策支持系统的新型决策分析工具。
    This paper analyzes a complicated space decision question to fire prevention in the forest from function demand for intelligent spatial decision support system (ISDSS). Its data quantity is big, data character is complex, and it has dynamic and distributed characteristics and so on. Facing the unexpected disaster and massive, complex, volatile and distribution of data and information, it is difficult for policy-maker to make in time, accurate and scientific decision-making. Therefore, it is essential to set up integrated spatial information analysis processing system, having knowledge to find intellectual DSS of ability. And spatial on-line analytical processing (Spatial OLAP) and spatial on-line analytical processing mining (Spatial OLAM, Spatial OLAP mining) are on daty of the integrated space data processing, which can find implicit knowledge and rules on the space data warehouse, and inquire and analyze in different dimension and degree. From system requirement analysis, function design, system implementation and system operation example, this article expounds the fact that has merged the design philosophy of GIS, space OLAP and intellectual DSS of the space OLAM technology have emerged and key technology. This article proposed knowledge discovery mechanism based on spatial OLAP and the OLAM, establishes one kind to integrate GIS, the spatial data warehouse, spatial OLAP/OLAM and the decision support system—a new decision analysis tool.
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    基于SD和CA的城镇土地扩展模拟模型——以江苏省南通地区为例
    秦贤宏;段学军;李慧;卢雨田;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 439-444.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.439
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    基于SD和CA的城镇土地扩展模拟模型——以江苏省南通地区为例
    秦贤宏, 段学军, 李慧, 卢雨田
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 439-444.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.439
    摘要   PDF (347KB)
    充分利用系统动力学模型(System Dynamics,SD)在情景模拟和宏观因素反映上的优势和元胞自动机模型(Cellular Automata,CA)在微观土地利用空间格局反映上的优势,构建一个耦合SD和CA的城镇土地扩展模拟模型,并以江苏省南通地区为例,对模型的实证应用做了进一步的验证。结果表明,这种耦合模型不仅能够对研究区域未来城镇土地扩展数量给予一个比较好的预测,而且还对其空间分布效果做了一定精度上的模拟,这使得城市规划在土地利用预测方面有一个相对科学的依据。
    The system dynamics model which is called SD for short has an advantage on describing prospective sights and predicting urban land growth macroscopically, while the cellular automata which is called CA for short has an advantage on simulating urban land expansion microscopically. So this paper integrates their macro and micro advantages, designs an coupling model for the urban land expansion, and also does a case study in Nantong City of Jiangsu Province. The results show that this coupling model can not only predict a good amount on urban land growth in time, but also simulate urban land expansion with a relatively precision in space, thus urban planning has a relatively scientific basis on analyzing urban land expansion in future.
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    基于DEM数据的北天山地貌形态分析
    赵洪壮;李有利;杨景春;吕红华;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 445-449.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.445
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    基于DEM数据的北天山地貌形态分析
    赵洪壮, 李有利, 杨景春, 吕红华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 445-449.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.445
    摘要   PDF (1060KB)
    基于SRTM3-DEM数据,运用GIS空间分析技术,通过面积-高度积分、地形高程(平均高程、最大高程、最小高程)、地势起伏度及地形剖面线方法,对北天山的地貌特征进行了初步分析。结果表明,北天山山势险峻并且呈NW-SE走向,显示天山受南北向水平挤压隆升作用。近S形的面积-高度曲线、偏高的面积高度积分值表明北天山地区处于构造活跃时期,地貌发育属壮年期的早期阶段。地形高程剖面线揭示了北天山存在3级夷平面地貌特征,地势起伏度变化幅度最大地区则是受陆内挤压构造应力影响地形抬升最强的地区。
    The present topography and high elevation of the NW-SE-trending Tianshan Mountains are the direct result of north-south convergence driven by the India-Asia collision during the Cenozoic times. Based on SRTM3-DEM data, we analyze the geomorphic character of the northern Tianshan Mountains and the implications using GIS analysis including Hypsometric Integral, Average Elevation, Summit Level Elevation, Local Relief and Swath Profile. Hypsometric Integral (HI), after the method of Pike and Wilson (1971), is used to analyze tectonism of the northern Tianshan Mountains. The S-shaped Hypsometric curve significantly suggests the currently active tectonism and the mature period of geomorphic evolution in the northern Tianshan Mountains. We argue that, according to GIS analysis, 3 planation surfaces with different elevation have been developed within the northern Tianshan Mountains, and these three planation surfaces display the distinguished geomorphic character due to different erosion controlled by elevation, tecnonism and lithology.
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    上海市灾害综合风险定量评估研究
    殷杰;尹占娥;许世远;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 450-454.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.450
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    上海市灾害综合风险定量评估研究
    殷杰, 尹占娥, 许世远
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 450-454.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.450
    摘要   PDF (1840KB)
    城市灾害风险评估作为城市灾害风险管理的核心,已经成为灾害研究的热点问题。鉴于目前上海城市灾害特征,提出城市灾害综合风险评估的理念,从致灾因子、历史灾情、暴露-易损性和抗灾恢复力等方面选取指标,构建了上海城市灾害综合风险评估指标体系和评估模型。以上海市19个区县进行灾害综合风险评估实证研究,依据评估结果对上海市灾害综合风险特征及其空间分布规律进行深入探讨,为上海城市灾害管理提供科学依据。
    With global climate change and rapid urbanization process, disaster has been a great challenge of development of Shanghai.Risk assessment,as one of the vital tools of risk management,is considered much more important than ever before. In view of characteristic of disaster of Shanghai, this paper puts forward the concept of urban-disaster composite risk,and chooses indexes to build index systems from hazards,historic disasters,exposure & fragibility,resilience ability. And then taking the 19 localities of Shanghai as research examples, based on the result from above research,this paper analyzes the characteristic and distribution of urban-disaster composite risk of Shanghai,and give reasonable suggestions for government.
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    向日葵根分泌物对针铁矿吸附Cd~(2+)的抑制效应
    黄承玲;张道勇;潘响亮;
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (3): 455-460.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.455
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    向日葵根分泌物对针铁矿吸附Cd2+的抑制效应
    黄承玲, 张道勇, 潘响亮
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (3): 455-460.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.03.455
    摘要   PDF (885KB)
    向日葵根分泌物明显抑制针铁矿吸附Cd2+。随着pH的升高,针铁矿对Cd2+的吸附量升高,针铁矿对Cd2+的平衡吸附量pH在3~6时增长的幅度较大,pH>7后,对Cd2+的吸附量的增长趋于稳定。在溶液初始pH为3~8的范围内,向日葵根分泌物抑制针铁矿对Cd2+的吸附。针铁矿等温吸附Cd2+符合Langmuir方程和Freundlich方程,吸附动力学符合二级速率方程。根分泌物的存在明显抑制针铁矿对Cd2+的吸附强度和吸附速率。表明针铁矿对Cd2+的吸附是一个熵增的吸热反应;根分泌物的存在则降低了吸附反应的自发性。
    Goethite is one of the most important heavy metal host minerals. Root exudates are the active organic component in rhizosphere. The effect of root exudates on adsorption behavior of heavy metals on soil or minerals is still little known. The present study showed that adsorption of Cd2+was inhibited in the presence of Helianthus annuus. Adsorption capacity of Cd2+to goethite increased with increasing of the initial solution pH. Root exudates reduced Cd2+adsorption capacity at all experimental pH. Both the Langmuir and the Freundlich isotherms represented well the experimental data and the pseudo-second order equation described well the kinetic data. Isothermal and kinetic studies showed that root exudates inhibited adsorption strength and adsorption rate. Adsorption of Cd2+on goethite is a endothermic process whereas the spontaneity of the reaction was reduced in the presence of root exudates.
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