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Table of Content

    20 January 2011, Volume 31 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Modelling the Relationships between Urbanization and Economic Development Levels with Three Functions
    CHEN Yan-guang
    2011, 31 (1):  1-6.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.1
    Abstract ( )   PDF (780KB) ( )   Save
    Three functions can be employed to model the relations between the level of urbanization and that of economic development. The first is a logarithmic function, the second is the power function, and the third is the logistic function. The logistic model of the relationships between urbanization and economic development levels is equivalent in mathematics to the exponential model of the relationships between urban-rural ratio (URR) and per capita products such as GDP and GNP. The exponential model is a logit model since URR is defined as the ratio of the urban to the rural population. The logarithmic model suggests that economic variables are control variables of urbanization associated with economic development, the logistic model indicates urban variables are control variables of evolution of regional systems, and the power-law model implies that the ratio of urban variables to economic variables control the system development.The basic dynamical equations of the three models are derived, and the results showed physical properties of the three kinds of systems. The similarities and differences between the different kinds of dynamics are revealed by drawing a comparison between the three models. Among these models, the logistic function presented in this work is applied to the 31 administrative areas of China including provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government. The examples based on the data from 2000 to 2008 illustrated how to estimate the parameters of the models for the aims of scientific explanation and prediction. In practice, the models can be used to judge whether or not urbanization keeps in step with economic development in a region.
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    The Regional Differentiation of the Literary Inquisition in Shun-Kang-Yong-Qian Period of the Qing Dynasty
    ZHU Hong, AN Ning
    2011, 31 (1):  7-14.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.7
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1662KB) ( )   Save
    Despotic government on culture and ideological matters was shared among all types of dictatorships around the world. As one typical product of this philosophy of governance, Literary Inquisition deserves special attention within cultural geography scholarship. This research tries to approach the issue of Literary Inquisition from the perspective of regional differentiation, with solid empirical evidence from Shun-Kang-Yong-Qian period of the Qing Dynasty. The research finds that regional cultural backgrounds, local economic conditions and politics were the key determinants that gave rise to the regional differentiation of Literary Inquisition cases, specifically, these determinants included the concentration of literati, educational status of population, social environment, political events, personalities of the governors, ways of governing and political status. Generally, this study tried to cast light on the cultural autocratic governing in ancient China from the geographic perspective which was largely ignored by historians and sociologists. It is an valuable endeavor for its attempt in contributing to a deepened understanding of the issue of Literal Inquisition, and it also provides an enlightening lesson for the construction of a liberal cultural realm at present time.
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    Motivation for Firm Relocation: Research Based on Content Analysis
    YANG Ju-ping, JIA Sheng-hua
    2011, 31 (1):  15-21.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.15
    Abstract ( )   PDF (901KB) ( )   Save
    Based on Content Analysis of 116 firm relocations which are reported in China Core Newspapers Full-text Database between 2000 and 2009, the reasons for firm relocation in China and the importance for each of them were analyzed. Some results were founded. First, there were four types of reasons for firm relocation, executive, economic, strategic and sentimental motivations, which included 15 specific driving forces, such as environment regulatory and business adjustment etc.. Second, executive motivation showed to be the most important one among these reasons, and then were strategic and economic ones, and sentimental motivation was the least important one. Third, the difference of importance among reasons for relocation of different years, different subjects and different scopes were significant. Specifically, the importance of executive motivation was more and more increasing in resent years and superior to strategic and economic ones. At the same time, the most important reason for firm integral relocation and relocation within one region was executive motivation, and the most important one for partial relocation and relocation between different regions was economic ones.
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    Deconstruction and Quality Reconstruction of the Living Spatial Structure in Urban Community
    WANG Li, WANG Xing-zhong
    2011, 31 (1):  22-28.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.22
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1172KB) ( )   Save
    With the rapid development of cities and urbanization, the spatial structure of community life was short of the humanistic demands on different social strata in the city, what’s more, it became more and more conflicts and inequality. There were several points concerning the negative phenomena. First,in the process of social transformation, most cities had emerged Voice Missing in grass root and Centrifuge of the political-living space; Second,the differentiation of social class systems and sub-cultural groups, the discrimination and loss of living place,have become irresistible trend of history in city development. Third,in the academic study of urban space gradually turned to the field of urban social life, especially, the research on the justice structure of urban living space as well as humanistic demands on the various classes in city. For this phenomenon, the paper presented the framework of living space in urban communities from a new perspective. On that basis, the basic elements of overall architecture of the city was that it followed by city resources, community systems, community resources from the perspective of space systems and its components included social justice, space justice, cultural equality, respect for the value from point of the community of social space system. Therefore, that can be concluded that the quality of the living space in urban communities closely related to the two series of six factors , they are urban resources, community resources, community systems and social equity, spatial justice, respect for the value of different classes in city. The path on reconstruction of quality of urban community living space must be given sufficient attention to these factors.
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    Spatio-temporal Choice of Individuals' Shopping Behavior and Their Differences between Weekday and Weekend
    MA Jing, CHAI Yan-wei
    2011, 31 (1):  29-35.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.29
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1017KB) ( )   Save
    Since the 1980s, more researches have been carried out to study the spatio-temporal choices of individuals' shopping behavior, which is one of the most important topics in behavioural geography. However, these researches only considered shopping spatial choice or temporal choice separately, while ignoring their relationship or interaction. This paper puts forword a research framework which studies the shopping spatial choice and temporal choice at the same time. First of all, according to the shopping distance it defines spatial choice as three options, such as near, middle or far. Similarly, according to the shopping time it also defines temporal choice as three options, like morning, afternoon or evening. Then, multiplying the spatial choice and temporal choice it will get nine spatio-temporal options of individuals' shopping behavior. Based on an activity-travel daily survey conducted in Beijing in 2007, this paper takes multinomial logit model to analyze the influencing factors of spatio-temporal choice of individuals'shopping behavior, while it also explores their differences between weekday and weekend. The model results show that, first,the shopping spatio-temporal choice on weekend is dominantly influenced by very few factors significantly. That is to say, among some factors which influence shopping spatio-temporal choice significantly, the shopping duration is the most dominated factor. And with the increase of shopping duration, the probability of shopping in a shorter distance decreases. On the contrary, the probability that residents go shopping far away from their home increases.The main reason may be that on weekend residents are free of work to some extent, thus, they can select the shopping time and destination more freely. Besides, they tend to go shopping in a long distance and in the daytime. Second,the shopping spatio-temporal choice on weeday, however, can be concluded to a more complicated pattern. On weekday, many factors influence shopping spatio-temporal choice significantly, which indicate that individuals' shopping behavior is restricted a lot. And shopping spatio-temporal choices are apparently different between various groups and neighborhoods. In addition, with the comparison of that on weekend, it can be found that the influence of shopping duration is not that significant on weekday, on the contrary, the influences of shopping purpose and tour numbers become very significant. It is mainly because that on weekday people are constrained by some survival activities, such as work or study. Therefore, people can not choose shopping time and destination as freely as on weekend, and they tend to go shopping in a short distance and in a short time.
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    Spatio-temporal Characteristics of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions in Industry Sector during the Period of Economic Transition in China
    WANG Qiang, WU Shi-dai, LI Ting-ting
    2011, 31 (1):  36-41.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.36
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    The correlation changes between energy consumption and carbon emissions in the process of Chinese industrial economy transformation within the recent thirty years were analyzed in the paper. The results indicate that the growth of energy consumption and the rapid growth of carbon emissions have been affected predominantly by the energy consumption in industry production. In contrast with fast growth of industrial carbon emission, the carbon intensity has declined steadily. Among all the industrial sectors, the manufacturing has been the largest emitter of carbon emissions, which makes up 60% of the total emissions. Thus, reducing the traditional manufacturing's energy consumption and improving energy efficiency are the key links in the process of promoting the implementation of energy conservation and pollution reduction policy and the response of local government. The regions of high energy consumption are concentrated in the provinces around Bohai area; the regions of relatively high energy consumption are mainly located in central and eastern provinces of China; the regions of moderate energy consumption are largely centered in western provinces; the regions of low energy consumption are located in undeveloped provinces. The industrial carbon emission is affected not only by the regional industry consumption directly, but also by the energy consumption structure to some extent. Special attention should be paid to the fact that the areas of relatively high carbon emissions gradually formed "island" distribution pattern and the number of areas with low carbon emissions is going up.
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    Convergence Analysis of the Provincial Growth of Internet Users in China
    WANG Ming-feng, QIU Juan
    2011, 31 (1):  42-48.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.42
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1270KB) ( )   Save
    Since the late 1990s, Internet has maintained a dramatic growth in China. However, it is noticeable that disparities among regions in regard to Internet development are very distinguishing. This paper conducts research to explore from 1997 to 2008, how the process in regard to the growth convergence of Internet users among China's provincial areas ( Hong Kong, Maucao and Taiwan excluding) transformed, that is based on three measures, i.e., sigma convergence, beta convergence and club convergence. Moreover, the research adopts conditional beta convergence to examine the key factors which might have the influence on the utility of Internet among regions. The study suggests that during this period, distinct sigma and beta convergence exist in the growth of Internet users among China's provincial areas. By properly introducing an array of control variables, such as per capita GDP and the level of development in aspects of urbanization, infrastructure, education, openness, and geographical location, It's find out that the growth is less rapid in areas where the Internet has broadly been adopt, if in other less developing areas, vice versa. The result as well shows such growth can be categorized as conditional beta convergence. Furthermore, there is clear evidence of club convergence among the three regions of China. Each region demonstrates their capability to stable the convergence internally with the different speed. The growth in eastern regions is the least rapid while in western regions, the growth is the fastest.
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    Provincial Border Effect of China's Intercity Rail Flows —A Case Study of Passenger and Container Flows
    ZHANG Liang, DAI Te-qi
    2011, 31 (1):  49-54.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.49
    Abstract ( )   PDF (728KB) ( )   Save
    Administrative border effect is always an interesting topic for economic geography for its importance in economic space shaping. This paper deals with the border effect of 25 provinces of China by using rail traffic flows data between 227 cities from 1991 to 2000. The analysis on transport links reveals that the process of agglomeration and diffusion co-existed in 1990s, and the driven factors of such process are discussed under the context of globalization and China’s urbanization. As the hub cities expanded their effect beyond administrative borders, the space of passenger flows appeared a significant reconstruction and the border effect was weaken obviously during this process. However, the technical progress and competition between different local governments made the space of container flows more complicate, 11 provinces showed an opposite trend of stronger border effect. At last, this paper discussed the future trend of border effect and gave some policy implication according to our analysis.
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    Arctic Route Geopolitical Structure Based on Artificial Fish Swarm Clustering Algorithm
    LI Zhen-fu, MIN De-quan
    2011, 31 (1):  55-60.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.55
    Abstract ( )   PDF (801KB) ( )   Save
    For the melting of Northern Sea ice layer caused by the global warming, the anticipation of the navigation on the whole line of the Arctic Route draws near gradually, and the scrambling for the resource and the struggle about the geopolitical which target on the arctic will become a new important issue for the study of the geopolitics. For the specialist of the arctic geography and the importance of rights and interests of the route in scrambling of the arctic, the study of the arctic geopolitics should be start from the perspective of the arctic route, and the study of the geopolitical framework of Arctic Route would be helpful for the government to scramble for the deserved rights and interests of arctic and arctic route in the future. Based on putting forward the idea of geopolitical framework of Arctic Route and the importance of the research on it, using the method of artificial fish-swarm algorithm ,the framework of Arctic Route was analyzed. And the result indicates that there are 3 classes for the arctic route geopolitics, they are the national group which is formed by 27 nations and the main country is the USA, the national group which is formed by 19 nations and the main country is Russia, and the national group which is formed by other 47 nations includes UK. The simulation experience indicates that the method of artificial fish-warm algorithm is available for the analysis of geopolitical framework of Arctic Route and the result would provide references for the country to make the strategy on the arctic route geopolitics.
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    The Impact of Highway on the Structure Evolution of Urban Agglomeration—A Case of Urban Aglomeration of Shandong Peninsula
    WANG Cheng-xin, WANG Ge-fang, LIU Rui-chao, WANG Ming-ping, LI Xin-hua, YAO Shi-mou
    2011, 31 (1):  61-67.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.61
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1018KB) ( )   Save
    Transportation is just like the artery for regional development, it is also the basic fundation for the development of agglomeration. As the modern transportation, highway network in China generates an increasingly profound and long-term effect to the evolution of spatial structure of urban agglomeration. Taking urban agglomeration of Shandong Peninsula as an example, combining of qualitative and quantitative analysis, the impact of highway on urban agglomeration is strudied, including the urban agglomeration architecture, spatial structure and functions of the structure. Highway promotes the evolution of urban agglomeration system structure, and leads to the formation of a new model of urban spatial expansion named the merger and reorganization. By reducing the time distance among various cities, highway also promotes the rationalization of space layout in urban agglomerations which makes the mutual influence in urban agglomeration more profound. Because the intensity of the urban flow is greatly strengthened and the gravitation among cities increases, the space deprive effect aroused by that makes the constant change of the control border among the cities. Lastly, highway is becoming the important factor for the change of functional structure of urban cluster. In period of industrialization, the flow of fund, people and material is becoming increasingly strengthened by the quick channel of highway, and then urban agglomeration of Shandong Peninsula is gradually integrated into an organic system as a whole.
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    Relationship among Urbanization, Citizenization and Urban-rural Income Inequality: An Empirical Analysis Based on Time Series Data and Panel Data of Shandong Provience
    WU Xian-hua
    2011, 31 (1):  68-73.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.68
    Abstract ( )   PDF (788KB) ( )   Save
    Based on the distinguishment between the connotations of urbanization and citizenization, the article analyzed the relationship among urbanization, citizenization and urban-rural income inequality. Both the time series data and the panel data of Shandong Provience were used to set up models for the analysis. The results of the Granger causality test show that urbanization and urban-rural income inequality interacts as both Granger cause and effect, and the relationship between citizenization and urban-rural income inequality is similar. The regression analysis results based on the time series data show that urbanization and citizenization can reduce the gap between urban and rural incomes, but industrialization and the government finance investment can contribute to the increase the gap. More importantly, the last two contributing factors of the urban and rural income inequality are stronger than the first both factors. However, the analysis based on the panel data shows that there is a positive relationship between urbanization and urban-rural income inequality in the short term. In other words, urbanization can increase the gap between urban and rural incomes in short period. Nevertheless, citizenization can contribute to reduce the gap between urban and rural incomes. The analysis results give a new interpretation of urbanization and urban-rural income inequality. Therefore, an adventurous hypothesis is set forth that urbanization prompts citizenization, which will lead to reducing urban-rural income inequality in the long run. Two interpretations are provided that the hypothesis is logical. First, it’s possible that the urbanization may widen the gap between urban and rural income in statistical perspective, because the strict conditions of the household system make the rural wealthy much easier to become urbanized and counted as urban population than the rural poor. Second, the current urbanization mode in China contributes to widen the urban-rural income inequality, that is, the peasants move to cities seeking for jobs, bust they do not have all the rights that a usual city citizen have due to the household registering system and related institutions. As a result, the peasants in the rural could not achieve economies of scale on the limited arable land. In spite of the peasants moved to the cities could obtain higher income in cities than in the rural, more surplus value that they produced are occupied and shared by the urban people and the foreign investors. Because there is negative relationship between citizenization and urban-rural income inequality, to promote the citizenization of the rural people who live and work in cities will be an appropriate way for reducing the gap between urban-rural incomes and urban and rural overall planning development. At the same time, changing the irrational urbanization development mode needs to be taken into consideration.
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    Provincial Differences of Inbound Tourists' Shopping Expenditure in China and the Influencing Factors —Based on A Panel Data Model
    DAI Shan-shan, TANG Zhou-yuan, XU Hong-gang
    2011, 31 (1):  74-80.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.74
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1136KB) ( )   Save
    Shopping is a very important factor determining the multiplier effects of the tourism sector. A panel data model is selected to measure the impact of influencing factors on inbound tourists' shopping expenditure in each province of China based on data from 1999 to 2008 (Hongkong, Macau, Taiwan excluding). The influencing factors include economic development level, tourism accommodation development level, resource endowment, word of mouth and the location as border province. The result shows that the primary determinant factors are tourism accommodation development level and word of mouth. The tourism accommodation development level is more important than that of word of mouth. Meanwhile, other two factors' inter-provincial differentiations are discussed. Firstly,the location as border provinces has significant influence. Inbound tourists' shopping expenditure is highly dependent on the characteristics of their adjacent countries, since tourists from their adjacent countries account for a larger portion of their inbound tourists. Secondly, tourism resources do not always a determinant factor to enhance shopping expenditures. Policies are also suggested. The tourism shopping industry can not be developed separately from the regional economic and tourism development context. Due to the significance of the word of mouth, established reputation and appealing image should be maintained and managed to enhance the tourists shopping expenditures. The spatial dislocation of tourism resource indicates that a tourism destination with diversified attractions is more appealing to tourists than the one with homogeneous attractions. For border provinces, to make strategies corresponding to the characteristics of their adjacent countries is an efficient measure.
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    The Road Network Evolution of Guangzhou-Foshan Metropolitan Area Based on Kernel Density Estimation
    LIU Rui, HU Wei-ping, WANG Hong-liang, WU Chi, HE Jin
    2011, 31 (1):  81-86.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.81
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1303KB) ( )   Save
    Based on 1:50000 topographic maps of 1957 and 1983, and remote sensing images acquired in 1995 and 2008, the normalized thematic data of road network were extracted. These road network data were stored in database which was built up in ArcGIS. Using kernel density estimation and the road density,the road network spatial-temporal evolution was measured and discussed in the paper. The results show that in the past five decades, the road network development in Guangzhou-Foshan metropolitan area was dramatic, which can be characterized as an evolving pattern from single-core in 1957 to dual-core, and to poly-core in current time, while the road network density core area grew larger and larger. The road density has been in monotonic increasing, while it has a significant spatial balance growth status. From the spatial perspective, the density of road network in the north, southwest, and west dimensions of the study area is higher.
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    The Pattern Evoluation of Settlements in Jilin Province Over the Past 300 Years
    ZENG Zao-zao, FANG Xiu-qi, YE Yu
    2011, 31 (1):  87-94.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.87
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1588KB) ( )   Save
    As one of land use types, settlements, whose growth in new cultivated area can reflect the processes of migration, land cultivation and landscape change driven by human activities, and can be a useful source for studying the relationship between human and environment in the past. Based on the toponymy records, the settlement database of Jilin Province has been established, and temporal and spatial changes of settlements in Jilin Province over the past 300 years have been reconstructed in the paper. The results show that the increase of number of settlements occurred in the past 300 years can be recognized into four phases which were slow growth (1644-1735), accelerated growth (1736-1820), high-speed-growth (1821-1949) and slowdown-growth (1950-1990). The expansion of settlements had a process from central plains and tablelands to the western plains and eastern mountains, and the counties which had largest settlement density in every period had located in the central plains and tablelands. Growth of the settlements may be influenced by natural environmental condition, mitigation, garrison, land policy and some other political behaviors made by the government.
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    Spatial Pattern of Newly Built Housing's Price in Changchun City
    LIU Ying, ZHANG Ping-Yu, LI Jing
    2011, 31 (1):  95-101.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.95
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    Changchun has experienced many changes in housing price compared with other provincial capital cities in China. This paper examined the spatial pattern of housing price and its driving factors in Changchun City by the aid of spatial interpolation method and GIS technology. The results showed that the general spatial pattern of housing price in Changchun shows a series of circle layers with two cores in the centre. One core is located near Changchun Zoological and Botanical Garden and the other is located near the South Lake Square. The second-level circle layer of housing price covers the central areas of the city, including the area near South Lake and parts of the Yitong River. The spatial change rates of housing price in different directions are much different. Housing price declines much faster in the northeast-southwest direction than that in the southeast-northwest direction. Two regional housing price centers are found in the western and southern parts of the city. Several factors influenced the spatial pattern of Changchun City, such as residential environment, urban development strategy, public transportation services, land use and the income level of the main consumers. According to the development strategy of Changchun, the southern, western and northeast parts of the city will experience a rapid development in the near future, which will make the real estate market flourish. Based on the research, several advices are given to optimize the spatial structure of real estate development in Changchun City. The southern area of the city has better infrastructure conditions, thus high level of ecological community is suggested. In the northeastern part, it is much suitable to develop large areas of ecological community by the side of the North Lake Wetland Park; in the western and northern area, a combination of low and middle level housing should be developed after the large areas of slum clearance.
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    Evolvement of Spatial Pattern of Per Capita Grain Possession at County Level in the Area along Bohai Rim of China
    LIU Yu, LIU Yan-sui, GUO Li-ying
    2011, 31 (1):  102-109.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.102
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    The area along Bohai Rim, including Beijing, Tianjin, Liaoning, Hebei and Shandong, is one of the important grain production bases that guarantee food security in China. With the acceleration of area urbanization in the past 20 years, the grain production and consumption patterns along Bohai Rim have brought about significant changes. Agricultural statistics of the area along Bohai Rim at county-resolution level for the time period of 1990-2008 is collected and the GIS technique as well as other tools such as the Moran's I and the Getis-Ord are introduced to describe the spatial changes of per capita grain possession at county level in this area. The conclusions are as the follows. First, per capita grain possession at county level in the area along Bohai Rim shows a significantly trend of positive spatial correlation and similar areas cluster in space. LISA cluster map demonstrates that counties with higher per capita grain possession gathered in Liaohe plain, the Yellow River floodplain in western Shandong Province and alluvial plain of Haihe river, while the lower per capita grain possession gathered in mountainous-hilly areas, tableland areas and densely populated city area. Second,the spatial framework of per capita grain possession growth is likely to be more stochastic and unstable in the aspect of spatial distribution. Hotspot areas are changing frequently without obvious appearance of geographical concentration. Third, Per capita grain possession in most of the counties shows an upward trend, and lower production but faster growth is the main type. The grain production function has been improved significantly in plains and has been weakened as the implementation of Conversion of Cropland to Forest and Grassland Project in mountainous-hilly areas, and it has been shown a strong downward trend in cities and their surrounding counties as the sharp reduction of cultivated land and the swift growth of regional population. At last, the contributing factors for the variation of per capita grain possession are studied using Spatial Lag Model and Spatial Error Model. The empirical results show that the spatial structure of per capita grain possession is affected positively by the per capita grain possession in 1990, per capita cultivated land, multiple cropping indexes, cropping structure and input of agricultural machine power, while affected negatively by the quantity of agriculture labors and per capita GDP in 2007. The driving force of the evolvement of per capita grain possession framework can be identified through the following aspects: the basis of historical development, the policies on regional development and economic factors. Effective regulation and favorable policies can promote per capita grain possession and guarantee regional grain safety.
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    Impacts of Land Use Change on Ecosystem Services Value in Duolun County of Inner Mongolia Based on RS and GIS
    WU Hai-zhen, Aruhan, GUO Tian-bao, SUN Zi-ying
    2011, 31 (1):  110-116.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.110
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    Based on TM image data in 1987,1995,2000 and 2005 of Duolun County,Inner Mongolia, supported by RS and GIS technology, land use change of Duolun County in each year were extracted. The land use data was studied by using the evaluation method of China terrestrial ecosystem services value, and the change of ecosystem services value caused by the land use change of Duolun County was estimated. The results showed that the area of cultivated land, woodland, urban land use, water area had an increasing tendency while grassland, unused area decreased during 1987 to 2005. The land use types mainly shifted to woodlands, and cultivated land from unused land and grassland. The ecosystem services value of Duolun County had an increasing tendency in a state of sustainable development,it had a decreasing tendency during 1987 to 1995 and increased during 1987 to 1995. Cultivated land, woodland and grassland took the major part of the total ecosystem services value, the change of ecosystem services value of cultivated land, woodland and water area had a tendency of increasing while grassland and unused land declined. The ecosystem services value sensitivity index of each land use type is less than 1, indicates that the ecosystem services value of Duolun County lacks flexibility on its service value index.
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    Assessment on Potential Ecological Hazard and Human Health Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Soils of Daqing City
    TANG Jie, CHEN Chu-yu, LI Hai-yi, ZHANG Tian-qin, XIAO Rui
    2011, 31 (1):  117-122.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.117
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    Based on urban function zone divisions, 308 surface samples were collected from the urban soils of Daqing City, Heilongjiang Province, China, and determined in laboratory. The potential ecological hazard of heavy metals in the surface soils were assessed by using Hakanson’s potential risk index. The results show that the degrees of heavy metals pollution were lower in the surface soils of the study area, with lower potential ecological risk. As for the main hazard elements, Hg has higher ecological risk, of which 11.9% samples are above the heavy risk level; Cd has lower ecological risk, however, samples with middle risk level are widely distributed. In addition, the assessment results of human health risk show that the cancer and non-cancer hazard indexes of Cd and Hg are both below the threshold values, indicating that the effects of Cd and Hg pollution on human health are light in the urban area of Daqing City.
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    Ecological Security of Guanzhong Region Based on Gridding GIS
    XUE Liang, REN Zhi-yuan
    2011, 31 (1):  123-128.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.01.123
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1001KB) ( )   Save
    For recent years, there were still some deficiencies in the ecological security research. For example, the spatial scales were not quite reasonably selected and the thresholds of ecological security ranks were determined with the lack of practical significance. And all these maybe decrease the credibility of research results. Therefore, for the current lacks of ecological security research, choosing the Guanzhong region with accelerating the urbanization process as study area which is located in Shaanxi Province, this paper built up the regional ecological security evaluation system on the basis of "pressure-status-response" model and gridding methods. In support of the gridding GIS technology, this paper gave each index in the evaluation system the spatial expression of 1 km?1 km grid scale. Subsequently, using the spatial overlaying technology based on grid data, this paper achieved the modeling evaluation of ecological security and acquired the gridding spatial data of every ecological security indexes for Guanzhong region in the year of 1990, 2000 and 2007. With the software of GIS, the paper carried out the spatial overlay analysis based on raster data and acquired the gridding data of ecological security of Guanzhong region. Combined with the reality of Guanzhong region, and referred to the current situation and circumstances of national forest parks and nature reserves, the paper tried to determine the threshold used to classify the ranks of ecological security by means of qualitative and quantitative methods. The results show that there are three features of ecological security of Guanzhong region. First , the ecological security of Guanzhong region is overall becoming better and better, but it is still unsafe; Second, the ecological security changes have the significant differences within the region. Third, there are different factors of affecting ecological security in different years.
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