Table of Content

    20 October 2017, Volume 37 Issue 10 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Orginal Article
    Regional Characteristics and Causes of Rural Poverty in Northeast China from the Perspective of Targeted Poverty Alleviation
    Shijun Wang, Junfeng Tian, Binyan Wang, Lisha Cheng, Guoming Du
    2017, 37 (10):  1449-1458.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.001
    Abstract ( 1914 )   HTML ( 15 )   PDF (676KB) ( 585 )   Save

    Based on the structured questionnaires, this article uses the methods of questionnaire investigation and interview to analyze the spatial pattern and regional characteristics of rural poverty in Northeast China, and then the formation mechanism of poverty problems in the typical rural poor areas is discussed and deconstructed. The main conclusions are as follows. 1) The rural poor population and poor counties in Northeast China are centrally distributed in the southern piedmont region of the Da Hinggan Mountains, the provincial boundaries between three provinces and the eastern part of Inner Mongolia, and the border areas of Sino-Korean and Sino-Russian. At the same time, there are 2 major poverty areas in the east and the west: the west area extends from north to south in a belt, and two mass poverty population concentrated areas are in the east area. On the whole, the poor population shows the spatial distribution characteristics of “big agglomeration and small dispersion”. 2) There are 5 high incidence areas of rural poverty in Northeast China, including the northern and eastern border of Sino-Russian, the Songnen Plain, the west, and the border areas of Sino-Korean. The incidence of poverty is high in the north and east, low in the south and west. 3) The poor are mainly consisted in the middle-aged and elderly people with a low educational level. At the same time, their food and clothing and medical security problems are severe. Disease, lack of cultivated land and low utilization rate of cultivated land, are the main causes of rural poverty in Northeast China, thus developing modern agriculture and going out to work are important ways to eliminate poverty. 4) In Northeast China, there are 3 typical rural poverty areas: the farming and pastoral transitional zone of the western region, Korean nationality community of the eastern border mountainous region, and the eastern plains and hills transition zone. The poverty in the western region is mainly affected by the single agricultural structure, low agricultural product market prices, backward farmers' understanding of their own ideas, weak infrastructure construction and harsh natural ecological conditions. While the rural poverty in the Korean nationality community in the eastern border mountainous areas is mainly caused by the continuous outflow of the working age population. And the emergence of rural poverty in the transition areas of the eastern plain and hilly areas is mainly affected by the remote location and complicated topography, which leads to natural disasters and the shortage of cultivated land resources.

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    Spatio-temporal Difference of Influencing Factors and Strength of Urban Space Response to the Transition of Industrial Structure in Xuzhou Metropolitan Area
    Fangdao Qiu, Na Jin, He Yuan, Yongbing Shan, Liangyu Bai
    2017, 37 (10):  1459-1468.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.002
    Abstract ( 564 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (693KB) ( 352 )   Save

    using the methods of Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA) and Geographical weighted regression model (GWR), the article analyzes the spatial-temporal characteristics of urban space response to industrial structure transformation and its influencing factors of Xuzhou metropolitan area, a growing metropolitan, from 2005 to 2014. There are five main findings: First, the strength of urban space response to industrial structure transformation showed an upward trend in Xuzhou metropolitan area, and the difference among the various counties increased continuously at the same time. Second, The difference pattern of the strength of urban space response to industrial structure transformation in Xuzhou metropolitan area had significant multi-scale characteristics. In urban and rural scale, it showed a circle distribution pattern which gradually reduced from the center of prefecture-level city to the surrounding country; in inter-provincial border region scale, South Shandong had the highest urban space response, followed by North Anhui, North Jiangsu and East Henan. Third, The counties with high urban space response mainly distributed along the Beijing-Shanghai Railway (Xuzhou-Jining), and urban space expansion axis was forming. The low urban space response area mainly agglomerated in the border between Anhui and Jiangsu, Henan and Anhui. Fourth, the H-H counties mainly distributed in the center of prefecture-level city and its surrounding area, and the L-L counties mainly located in the old course of Yellow River area through the North Jiangsu, East Henan and North Anhui, which showed that the difference between the South and the North of Xuzhou metropolitan area are becoming the main characteristics of urban space response level to industrial structure transformation. Finally, we found that the level of opening had the greatest effects on urban space response, followed by economic development, innovation ability and government management; furthermore, the spatial imbalance was significant.

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    Innovation Network of the Chinese Equipment Manufacturing Industry: Based on the Dichotomy of Innovation
    Lan Lin, Gang Zeng, Guoqing Lyu
    2017, 37 (10):  1469-1477.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.003
    Abstract ( 549 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (487KB) ( 176 )   Save

    Innovation network, which can utilize internal and external resources, has become the hot spot in the research field. From the perspective of economic geography, there are two main research branches, namely new regionalism and global production network. To be brief, the former emphasizes local network and the embeddness of innovation linkage, while the latter underlines the global connection and the great power of leading Multinational Corporation. Since 2000, more and more scholars have paid more attention to one-sidedness of single scale. Hence, some new theories on the dynamic and the spatial character of innovation network have begun to emerge, such as the “local buzz-global pipeline”, “beyond new regionalism”, “GPN2.0” etc. Most research, however, didn't notice the different composition and spatial of network derived from the diverse types of industry and their innovation mode. Inspired by the Innovation Dichotomy, namely STI (Science, Technology, Innovation) and DUI (Doing, Using, Interacting), which is related with different approaches, techniques, and scales where the partners located, this article takes China equipment manufacturing industry as the empirical case and focuses on how STI/DUI influences the construction of innovation network and the development of innovation capability. By means of 388 questionnaires, the article employs descriptive statistical analysis, clustering method and regression analysis to reach the following three conclusions: Firstly, as the typical producer-driven and technology-driven industry, DUI works as the dominant way on the construction of innovation network, which results in the industry partner is more important than knowledge one; The objective of a start-up firm is existence to choose DUI-mode partners, and the cooperation with STI-mode partners will rise along with its innovation development. Secondly, from the side of spatial scale, regional cooperation happens more frequent than local cooperation either in STI or DUI, and hence ‘cluster illusion’ exists; Meanwhile, national partners turn to be the optimal choice for the firms and the effect of administrative boundary, namely province and city is waning. Thirdly, state-owned and the big privately owned enterprises, generally speaking, can get the dominant or recessive government supports to be more innovative. The results of innovation atmosphere are consistent with the expectation that firms benefit from interacting with a wide range of trans-local partners, particularly international, both for scientific and technological network. While government support, the level of R&D investments or education in the city in which the firm is located are related with radical innovation, does not have any direct effect on its potential for innovation network. At last, the article raises some corresponding policy suggestions to optimize and enhance the innovation of China equipment manufacturing industry, which respectively are cultivating the superiority of DUI, weakening local networking while encouraging regional innovation cooperation, establishing the institution system to meet the need of the industry.

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    The Equalization of the General High School Education and Its Obstacle Factors in China
    Fei Su, Xiaohang Mo, Min Wei, Bo Li
    2017, 37 (10):  1478-1485.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.004
    Abstract ( 533 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (460KB) ( 227 )   Save

    This article established an index system for the equalization of the general high school education from four aspects, including education background, education investment, education process, and education outcomes. The equalization of the general high school education of China’s 31 provincial level administrative units was assessed by using set-pair analysis. The results show that: from the perspective of the overall equalization degree, provinces and regions with higher education equalization are concentrate in the central Bohai area and the southeast coastal areas, in which Beijing is the highest, and Henan is the lowest. The spatial distribution of the general high school education equalization level presents a decreasing trend from east to west part then to central. According to the factor analysis of obstacle degree of each provinces’ general high school education, P1 (high school gross enrollment rate), S3 (proportion of full-time teachers with senior title), S2 (Bachelor degree and above proportion of full-time teachers), and P2 (school number/ten thousand students) are the main four obstacles to affect the level of education equalization in the general high schools in all provinces. Finally, this article puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions to improve the level of equalization of the general high school education.

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    Temporal-spatial Pattern of Citizenization Demand Population at County Level in China
    Dongsheng Yan, Jin Yang
    2017, 37 (10):  1486-1496.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.005
    Abstract ( 1367 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (3916KB) ( 476 )   Save

    Since the reform and opening up, the process of urbanization in our country is accelerating, however the urbanization patterns which light the quality and weight the speed as well as inperfect household registration system and financial system or the like result in the process of rapid urbanization accompanied by a significant semi-citizenship and enlargement of the gap between urban and rural areas. In order to improve the quality of urbanization ,the State Council of our country promulgates “national new urbanization planning (2014-2020)” which devotes to promoting the “people-oriented” urbanization’ in 2014.The plan pointes out building the rural areas and promoting urbanization actively and steadily, and meeting the citizenization demand for floating population. Accurately grasping the temporal-spatial pattern evolution of citizenization demand population is the basis of promoting the construction of new urbanization. Based on the existing relevant research results, this article proposes a measurement of the citizenization demand population based on inflow population’s settlement willingness. We study the distribution evolution patterns of the citizenization demand population in county according to the fifth and sixth census data as well as the ESDA method. The results show that the distribution of inflowion population and the proportion of citizenization demand people accounting for the resident population performance that the east and west are higher than the central, as well the regional differences are significant and have a strong economic directivity. Spatial distribution patterns of the citizenization demand peopulation have a significant change from 2000 to 2010, and also significant differences among the east, the central and the west as well as the urban agglomerations. This research has some theoretical significances and can provide some references for the classification and difference construction of new urbanization.

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    Marine Resources Constraint and China’s Marine Economic Growth: Metrology Analysis Based on Marine Resources “Tail Drag”
    Zeyu Wang, Xuefeng Lu, Zenglin Han
    2017, 37 (10):  1497-1506.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.006
    Abstract ( 636 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (571KB) ( 158 )   Save

    Based on Romer’s ‘drag effect’ hypothesis and neo-classical theory of economic growth, the article puts forward the model of marine resources consumption drag with the growth of marine economy, and measured the influence degree of the marine resources on the growth of marine economy based on the model of marine resources consumption drag. The aim is to maintain the balance between sustainable development of marine economy and the lowest consumption of marine resources. It is of great and far-reaching significance to realize the sustainable utilization of marine resources, improve the quality of marine economic development and reduce the difference of regional marine economic development. The article has carried on the empirical research on the resources consumption drag of 11 coastal provinces (excluding Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) in China using the panel data analysis method and the GIS spatial analysis technology. The following conclusions can be reached: 1) The average of the marine resources consumption drag in China is 0.032 2, and the restraint of marine resources with marine economic growth is high. The utilization of resources presents the extensive investment on the whole. 2) The marine resources consumption drag has significant difference of 11 coastal provinces. The value of resources consumption drag of Guangdong and Shanghai is 0.009 4, 0.009 8 respectively. The smaller restriction of marine resources to marine economic growth is displayed in these provinces. The value of resources consumption drag of Shandong, Zhejiang, Jiangsu, Fujian, Tianjin, Liaoning and Hebei are between 0.010 0 and 0.050 0, they belong to high constraint. The most significant restriction of marine resources to marine economic growth is displayed in Guangxi and Hainan. The value of marine resources consumption drag of these provinces are greater than 0.050 0, they belong to strong constraint. 3) The labor growth rate, the growth rate of marine resource consumption, the output elasticity of marine resources, the capital elasticity are proportional to marine resources consumption drag. The faster the marine resource consumes, the greater the resistance of marine economic growth is. The capital and labor inputs will increase the hinder of marine resource consumption to economic growth. Therefore, using marine resources rationally and optimizing resource utilization, controlling population scale appropriately and improving the quality of the labor of marine economy, promoting the optimization adjustment of marine industrial structure is the key to reduce the marine resources consumption drag.

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    The Measurement and Spatial Differentiation Pattern of Traffic Accessibility in Hainan
    Jiehua Song, Minna Li, Shu Cai, Ping Wang
    2017, 37 (10):  1507-1516.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.007
    Abstract ( 693 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1946KB) ( 355 )   Save

    By constructing traffic accessibility index and three subindices (traffic location advantage, internal transport connectivity and external accessibility), this article makes a comprehensive measurement of the traffic accessibility levels of counties in Hainan Province in PRC (People's Republic of China). With the method of Global Moran’s I index, Getis-Ord Gi* index and global trend analysis method to find out the current spatial differentiation pattern of traffic accessibility in Hainan from multi-dimensions. The result shows that counties' traffic accessibility shows significant spatial differences. For Hainan, the traffic accessibility is different between coastland and inland, and presents similar U-shaped differentiation pattern in the north-south direction. The three subindices of traffic accessibility are significant spatial difference features, that is: the spatial difference pattern of traffic location advantage is similar to overall differentiation pattern of traffic accessibility; the internal traffic connectivity is relatively high in north coastland, but low from central region of inland to southwest coastland and southeast coastland is in the middle; the external accessibility is different between coastland and inland, and presents double similar u-shaped differentiation characteristics in north-south direction and east-west direction; Sansha, a special coastal city in Hainan, has a rather poor traffic accessibility. Topography, economic development level, population and political factors have significant impacts on the spatial differentiation pattern of traffic accessibility in Hainan. Specifically, the spatial differentiation pattern of Hainan Island's traffic accessibility level, the internal traffic connectivity and the external accessibility are significantly affected by the spatial differentiation pattern of topography, and the spatial differentiation of economic development level and population are closely related to the similar u-shaped pattern in north-south direction of traffic accessibility, and Shashi's poor traffic accessibility is mainly due to the small land area, sparse population and political factors. It is suggested to take full advantage of the traffic conditions to lead economic spatial layout and gradually enhance the traffic layout balance, so as to promote Hainan economic development. First, the construction of road network in the region from central inland to southwest coastland in Hainan Island should be strengthened so as to improve the internal traffic connectivity of this region. Second, the construction of major transportation facilities in the region along the line from Chengmai via Tunchang, Qiongzhong, Wuzhi Mountain to Baoting in Hainan should be strengthened so as to improve the external accessibility of this region. Third, the traffic accessibility of the Sansha should be strengthened, and an important measure that can be implemented at present is to promote the tourism traffic infrastructure construction and tourism transportation route development in Sansha so as to improve the air and sea traffic in Sansha.

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    The Spatial Organization Pattern and Its Complexity Characteristics of Cross-Border Production Networks of Taiwan-funded Enterprises in Mainland China: Based on Top 1 000 Taiwan-funded Enterprises in Mainland China
    Yanhua Chen, Suqiong Wei, Songlin Chen
    2017, 37 (10):  1517-1526.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.008
    Abstract ( 605 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (1670KB) ( 253 )   Save

    This article examines the spatial organization pattern and its complexity structure characteristics of cross-border production networks of Taiwan-funded enterprises in mainland China with the aid of GIS, Matlab and Gephi, based on firm-level data such as registration time, addresses, industry types, main businesses of Top 1 000 Taiwan-funded enterprises in mainland China during 1988-2014. The results show that: 1) There are obvious regional differences and industrial directivity in the spatio-temporal evolution pattern of Top 1 000 Taiwan-funded enterprises in 1988-2014, namely, “south dense north sparse” and “east high and west low” on the whole. They concentrate in the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, the West Sea, the West Triangle Economic zoo, respectively represented by electronic information, machinery and petrochemical industries in all the manufacturing industry and by the producer services industry such as wholesale and retail services and information transmission, computer services and software industry 2) Spatial structure features of cross-border production networks of Taiwan-funded enterprise in mainland China are showed as: a. Network contact covers a wide range; b. Network contact presents a three axis radial space structure which was taken Taipei as the core, along the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the West Triangle; c. The spatial heterogeneity of the network connection keys is significant; 3) The cross-border production network of Taiwan-funded enterprises in mainland China is in transition from the random network to the scale-free one, characterized by small world network, and forms six big city communities. But there are still some shortcomings, which are also our further research direction.

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    The Composition and Important Research Issues of Human-Ocean Regional System
    Tianbao Liu, Zenglin Han, Fei Peng
    2017, 37 (10):  1527-1534.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.009
    Abstract ( 507 )   HTML ( 1 )   PDF (536KB) ( 227 )   Save

    As a part of general human-land relation, human-ocean relation is becoming more complicated and important, requiring basic theoretical understanding to guide specific researches in the field. Human-ocean regional system is composed of three basic parts, human, ocean and land. Human attribute includes natural and social aspects. Human participates in, affects and even dominates the development of human-ocean regional system through four types of human activities, namely safety, reproduction, gaining surplus and developing culture. Ocean and land have three kinds of attributes, natural attribute includes material resources, space and landscape; social attribute includes knowledge system, science & technology and population size; relational attribute includes political & military relation, economic & business relation and social & cultural relation. The interactions between human and ocean, human and land, ocean and land form the basic relationships in human-ocean regional system. Their different combinations and evolutions produce concrete and diverse human-ocean regional systems. According to the spatial attribute of human activities, human-ocean regional system can be divided into four types, namely local human-ocean regional system, land-open human-ocean regional system, ocean-open human-ocean regional system and total-open human-ocean regional system. At present stage, important research issues concerning human-ocean regional system include ocean view, ocean development and protection, ocean-land relation, ocean society and international ocean relationship.

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    Spatially Non-stationary Analysis Between Commercial Land Price and Driving Factors in Hefei City
    Ai Wang, Lin Lu, Shanju Bao
    2017, 37 (10):  1535-1545.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.010
    Abstract ( 523 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (4522KB) ( 222 )   Save

    Land is a kind of scarce non-renewable natural resources. Price mechanism plays a key role in the rational allocation and effective utilization of land resources, especially in the rapid development of large cities where land use changes frequently. Therefore, quantitative study on the spatial characteristics between land price and its driving factors is critical. Based on the perspective of micro driving factors of land price, the spatial pattern and spatial heterogeneity of commercial land price in Hefei are analyzed by Inverse Distance Weighted(IDW) and Geographically Weighted Regression(GWR). The study shows that: 1) The spatial pattern of commercial land price presents a multi-center structure, the peak district of land price in the central area of the city, and the low value area outside the second ring road in the city. 2) The GWR model based on the local statistical analysis can clearly reflect the spatial difference of the influence of driving factors on land price. Floor area ratio, Dtraf, Dpark and DCBD are the key driving factors of commercial land price in the study area. 3) Compared with the external driving factors of commercial land price, the marginal effect of internal factors on commercial land price is greater, especially the influence of the floor area ratio on commercial land price is the most prominent. 4) Compared with the less developed areas, the effect of floor area ratio in highly developed areas enhancing the land price is more significant. However, the role mechanism of Dtraf and DCBD on commercial land prices is just the opposite. In addition, business development and construction are more willing to pay a higher price for a small park. However, the infrastructure’s imperfection, as well as ecological conservation requirements(close to some large parks) will have a negative impact. The outputs of this article, that provide detailed information on the relationships between commercial land price and driving factors in study areas, are promising for urban planners to scientifically evaluate land price and make area-specific strategies.

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    Regional Differences of Farmers' Income in China and Analysis of Influencing Factors
    Huiming Jiang, Yu Sun, Jian Wang, Yuqin Ji
    2017, 37 (10):  1546-1551.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.011
    Abstract ( 703 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (501KB) ( 335 )   Save

    Based on the data of 31 provinces (cities) farmers' income from 2004 to 2015, this article uses the Theil Index to measure the income gap of farmers in China, divides China into the main grain producing areas, the main grain sales area, grain production and marketing balance area. The article decomposes the gap between the three functional regional groups, and calculates the gap between the group and the gap within the group on the total income gap contribution rate. The results show that the income gap between the peasants in the provinces of China was increasing from 2004 to 2006, and in 2007-2015 it is gradually reduced. After further calculation, the contribution rate of gap between the groups to the national income gap is 70%, and that of the gap within the group to the national income gap is 30%. It can be seen that the gap of China's farmers’ income among the main grain producing areas, grain sales area, grain production and marketing balance area is much larger than the regional internal gap. The article analyzes the influencing factors of the income gap of the peasants by using the multiple regression model. It is concluded that the indicators of the primary industry, such as the proportion of GDP, the urbanization rate and the scale of rural financial development, are negatively correlated with the Theil Index, while the industrialization rate, the comparative labor productivity are positive. For this reason, the government for the policy formulation should coordinate the main grain producing areas and the main sales area, enhance the support for the development of the main grain producing areas, improve the strong agricultural policy further to the main grain producing areas, to accelerate the urbanization and industrialization process of main grain producing areas, develop the modern agriculture and industrialization, urbanization.

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    Spillover Effects and Spatial Differences of Inbound Tourism on Economic Growth in China
    Qiuyu Li, Linqi Zhu, Jisheng Liu
    2017, 37 (10):  1552-1559.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.012
    Abstract ( 620 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (461KB) ( 230 )   Save

    This article explores the tourism spillover theory and summarizes its generating mechanism into three aspects, respectively, knowledge spillover, market spillover and competitive effect. In empirical analysis, this article constructs a framework including inbound tourism, human capital, material capital, technology innovation and opening to analyze the spillovers of tourism on economic growth, and the empirical test is carried out by using the panel data of 31 provinces in mainland China from 2000 to 2014. Global analysis reveals that the inbound tourism in the neighboring provinces is mainly concentrated and in cooperation state, with a significantly positive spillovers on local economic growth, and the spatial spillover effect is greater than the direct effect; the economic growth effect of inbound tourism is greater in inbound tourism industry developed area than less developed area. Local analysis finds that, the economic growth effect of inbound tourism is constantly strengthened with the development of inbound tourism, the largest increase appear in part of central region. Then, we imply heterogeneous production functions geographically weighted regression model to analyze spatial difference for the impact of inbound tourism on economic growth. It can be learned that the impact of inbound tourism on economic growth has spatial difference. It can be divided into four intervals and presents spatial distribution law of gradient decrement from the East to the West, of which the contribution of eastern coastal area is largest, and the northwest region is relatively small. At last, based on the above conclusions, we promote the corresponding policy recommendations for strategies of China’s inbound tourism and regional economic growth. For the future development of inbound tourism, on one hand the government should continue to vigorously develop inbound tourism, improve the tourism industry development level and the level of entry tourism development, accelerate transformation and upgrading of the structure of inbound tourism industry, and further reform to stimulate its huge development potential. It should be done to encourage inbound tourism from the fusion industry to cross-border integration, through integration with other industries to absorb new mode of operation, management ideas and capital strength, break the traditional profit pattern of only relying on the internal tourism. At the same time, we should encourage strong tourism enterprises, travel management company and tourism brand to carry out provincial operations, improve inter product competitiveness of provincial tourism and comprehensive strength, and make more contribution to economic growth in China. On the other hand, the development of Chinese inbound tourism must be carried out to a more comprehensive and in-depth analysis from the perspective of new economic geography, further eliminate market barriers between different provinces, accelerate cooperation and docking of China's inbound tourism market, and open up more space for the rise of spatial spillover effect of inbound tourism.

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    On Value Evaluation of Tourism Resource of Cross-regional Linear Cultural Heritage: Taking the Routes Network of Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor in China as an Example
    Huanlin Ren
    2017, 37 (10):  1560-1568.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.013
    Abstract ( 492 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (589KB) ( 310 )   Save

    The cross-regional linear cultural heritage is a kind of important tourism resource, as well as a special kind of tourism resource. But the whole value of the heritage tourism resource is difficult to evaluation, and hard to avoid fuzzy, so that the evaluation is lack of practical significance, because of the scattered resources, internal differences, and relatively loose connection between the heritage sites. Based on the particularity of cross-regional linear cultural heritage and the core resource meaning of its heritage sites, this article regards the value of its heritage sites as the value of the entire heritage from a certain extent. That is to say, “the Cultural Route recognizes and emphasizes the value of all of its elements as substantive parts of a whole”. The Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor Routes Network of Silk Road formed in the 2nd century BC ( Some people think that it had formed before Shang Dynasty ), and still in use to the 16th century. The Routes Network, span nearly 5 000 km, had played a very important role in business trade and cultural exchanges, and leaves a large number of cultural relics and remains. In June 2014, the heritage of the Routs Network with a total of 33 heritage sites, including 22 heritage sites in China, was included in the World Heritage List, as one of the longest linear cultural heritages in the world. Therefore, it is typical significance in exploring the value evaluation of tourism resource of cross-regional linear cultural heritage. The value evaluation of resource is the evaluation of connotation value, application value, social impact and so on from the feature, function of the resource itself and so on, not the comprehensive evaluation including resource environment and development condition. The article, with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Fishbein M- Rosenberg M Model, builds a model, which sets the score standards and evaluation grades, for the value evaluation of tourism resource of cross-regional linear cultural heritage. The empirical analysis shows that the proposed research method and evaluation model can more accurately evaluate the resource value. The value of heritage sites of Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor Routs Network in China is in good grade and above. The 5th grade resource, also known as special grade resource, accounts for 27.3% of the all resources, the 4th grade and 3rd grade resource account for 59.1% and 13.6% respectively. Those strategies, such as leading development, key project development and strengthening the historical culture mining and popularization of heritage sites, should be taken in tourism development of the Routs Network of Chang’an-Tianshan Corridor in China.

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    Religious Cultural Heritage Tourism Impacts on Tourists: A Case Study of Taosim Tourism in the Wudang Mountain of China
    Shaowen Cheng, Yan Li, Xiaomei Zhang, Zhaohong Li
    2017, 37 (10):  1569-1576.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.014
    Abstract ( 608 )   HTML ( 3 )   PDF (524KB) ( 364 )   Save

    International tourism academic community has been increasingly interested in studying tourists’ experience and benefits, as well as tourists’ perception, cognition, attitudes or behavior changes due to tourist-host social interaction and their experience. Scholars have also paid much attention to cultural tourism impacts on tourists’ values, cultural cognition and cultural difference tolerance, attitudes towards destination countries and destination people, emotional, psychological and behavior patterns. Religions have greatly impacted people’s ideology, thoughts, life styles even social systems. Religious tourism has developed dramatically all in the world, being regarded as the best way for disseminating religious culture and religious doctrine. But the research on religious tourism impacts on tourists still lags behind the impact research on destinations, as well as religious tourism practice. Taoism is China’s traditional culture and philosophy, and it has greatly impacted Chinese people for long years; but its impact has experienced dramatic decline in modern society, with the only exception of Taoism wellness culture. The increasing serious environmental and moral issues have provoked Chinese into rethink of Taoism philosophy. The Wudang Mountain is now the most sacred Taoism holy site in China. It is also a popular Taoism tourism destination and World Cultural Heritage site for its sizable Taoism temples, historical constructions and wise Taoism culture by UNESCO in 1994. To explore the cultural, psychological, ideological impacts of Taoism tourism on tourists, face to face questionnaire survey and tourist interview were conducted for data collection during July to August in 2014 in the Wu dang Mountain. And statistical analysis including descriptive analysis, paired T test and factor analysis via SPSS software was then fully used to quantitatively analyze different impacts of Taoism tourism on tourist groups with different motivations. And it concluded that: 1) Tourists to Wudang Mountain are more likely to be young or middle-aged adults with good education background, and four groups including pilgrim, cultural tourists, pleasure-seekers, and affection-maintainers can be recognized based on their primary travel motivation to Wudang Mountain; 2) Tourists have different experiences and cognitions in Wudang destination by different travel motivations; and their image perceptions and cognitions of Wudang are intensified after their tourism experience here. But pilgrims to the Wudang Mountain perceive more on Wudang’s Taoism cultural landscape and Taoism doctrine rather than natural landscape; meanwhile the pleasure-seekers and cultural tourists have deeper perception on Taosim temples, and they both regard Wudang as a Taoism wellness destination. Besides, all non-pilgrim groups have great impression of the desirable weather in hot summer; 3)Taoism tourism experience in Wudang destination impact different tourist groups in different ways to different extents. Part of interviewed tourists admit that their values have been greatly changed by their tourism experience in Wudang Mountain. And pilgrims are proved to be most dramatically and positively impacted by their tourism experience in Wudang, followed by cultural tourists and affection-maintainers. And pleasure-seekers get least changes in their values, understanding and attitudes to Taoism doctrine and China’s traditional culture, as well as Taoism-style simple living patterns. This research offers a meaningful hint for traditional religious cultural diffusion and the significance of Taoism cultural tourism on reshaping people’s values and behaviors.

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    Mountain Attitude Classification Indexes Adjustment Based on Multi-Source Data in China
    Xiaojun Long, Xiaojian Li
    2017, 37 (10):  1577-1584.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.015
    Abstract ( 713 )   HTML ( 2 )   PDF (4582KB) ( 303 )   Save

    Because of the complicated mountain land types in China, it is often difficult for the existing mountain land classification indexes to take all morphogenetic zones into account. As a result, indexes lose indicative significance in local regions. In order to establish altitude classification indexes with clear geographical significance, the altitude characteristics of index surface features that could distinguish between mountain land level was analyzed in the paper through multi-source data, including SRTM, DEM, land cover, freeze-thaw erosion and river valleys. Based on the average altitude of index surface features, the classification planes with equal attitude were formed through classification index objects (such as glacier and forest line) distribution elevation coincidence or adjacent multi-contour line circles. Besides, the mountain land was cut and divided. The values that each group of index object deviated from the plane with equal attitude were considered as the controlled quantity (control points). The classification reference surface was remonstrated via interpolation. The research highlighted the geographical significance of the indexes to the largest degree. The obtained results of mountain land classification was the most close to the distribution characteristics of mountain resources and environment system in China. It is hoped that the research can provide basic reference for the regionalization of mountain land that is oriented from the characteristics resource distribution.

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    Environmental Features of the Micro-landforms of the Spatial Distribution of the National Rare Species of Firmiana danxiaensis on the Danxiashan Mountain
    Jie Ouyang, Hua Peng, Xiaoying Luo, Zaixiong Chen, Anxin Zhang, Yuxuan Ma
    2017, 37 (10):  1585-1592.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.016
    Abstract ( 1205 )   HTML ( 4 )   PDF (29433KB) ( 404 )   Save

    The core areas Shiziyan-Yangyuanshan of Danxiashan of Guangdong Province are selected to study the spatial distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis which are the national rare and endangered plants. The micro-landforms environmental features of spatial distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis are summarized through the data (longitude, altitude, slope and aspect) which obtained by the investigation on-the-spot, and the space analysis on the DEM terrain data with 1 m resolution by using ArcGIS10.0. From the spatial distribution and slope morphology of Danxia, the Firmiana danxiaensis in the study areas are mainly distributed at the Danxia cliffs with vertical joints or horizontal beddings and the altitude of 180 m or so and the 60oslope with relative barren soil where always can be found some plants such as Osteomeles subrotunda, Lycoris aurea, Selaginella (revive grass), etc. They all belong to drought to lerant plants. The spatial distribution of Firmiana danxiaensis is not restricted by the factor of the aspect, but the slope and the altitude are the two important influencing factors. According to the above distribution rules, the Firmiana danxiaensis presumably distribute at the cliffs of the Danxiashan outside of the study areas with the altitude of 180 m and the slope 60o. We actively recomned that it is necessary to establish the important protected belt for the Firmiana danxiaensis of the national rare and endangered plants in the southeast of Shiziyan of Danxiashan as early as possible. Our study is useful for comparing with the other five China Danxia World Natural Heritage sites (Taining of Fujian Province, Chishui of Guizhou Province, Longhushan-Guifeng of Jiangxi Province, Langshan of Hunan Province, Jianglangshan of Zhejiang Province). We can analyze and summarize the spatial distributions and environmental characteristics of micro landforms related to the national rare and endangered plants, and establish China Danxia World Natural Heritage key protection belts in the future.

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    Spatial-temporal Analysis of the Tidal Flat Ridge Lines Change of Radial Sandbanks in the South Yellow Sea Since 1979
    Ke Cao, Fei Li, Ning Gao, Zipeng Zhang, Xin Wen
    2017, 37 (10):  1593-1599.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.017
    Abstract ( 984 )   HTML ( 5 )   PDF (7632KB) ( 258 )   Save

    The tidal flat ridge line is the typical geomorphic feature line of the tidal flat area in radiation sandbank, and it is important for understanding the temporal and spatial changes of the tidal flat with the analysis of the beach ridge lines changes. Based on remote sensing and GIS technology, the tidal flat ridges of radiation sandbank in 1979, 1990, 2002 and 2014 were extracted, and the spatial-temporal changes were systematically analyzed. The study shows that, the ridge lines of radiation tidal flat can be divided into main line and branch line, the main line of tidal flat ridge is the Tiaozini-Gaoni-Dongsha tidal flat ridge, the branch lines are located on both sides of the main line. The spatial pattern of the tidal flat ridge line is generally stable. The main line of Tiaozini section is generally east-west, Dongsha section is north-south, Gaoni section connects the Tiaozini and Dongsha. The ridge line evolution has significant spatial differentiation, the main line of Tiaozini section migrated southward obviously, Dongsha and Gaoni section mainly migrated eastward. The migration distance of the main tidal flat ridge line showed as Tiaozini section > Gaoni section and Dongsha section, the middle part >both ends in the main line of Tiaozini section, northern > southern in the main line of Dongsha section. The morphological and positional changes of branch lines in Tiaozini were more obvious than that in Dongsha.

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    Cooling Effect of Green Patche Based on TM Image in Harbin Downtown City
    Zhen Yuan, Xiangli Wu, Shuying Zang, Changshan Wu, Miao Li
    2017, 37 (10):  1600-1608.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.10.018
    Abstract ( 535 )   HTML ( 0 )   PDF (7117KB) ( 344 )   Save

    In this study, four years TM images(2001, 2005, 2013 and 2015) were selected as the data and the single window algorithm was employed to study the surface temperature of Harbin downtown city. 30 pieces urban green patches were extracted by using SPOT image. Surface temperature spatial pattern and urban green patches coupling relationship were analyzed, which revealed green patches have an interference effect on the surface temperature spatial pattern of the urban heat island. The results show that: Spatially, the heat island effect was significant in Harbin downtown city, the large area of high temperature region and second-rate high temperature region were distribution in downtown, and extremely high temperature region have point, planar or ribbon distribution characteristics. The urban heat island presents gradually from the old town to the new development and construction characteristics of regional extension from the dynamic. It indicated that the inner average temperature of green patches is associated with its own characteristics, and it have a certain relationship with the space layout and the surrounding landscape pattern. Green patches cooling level and green patches cooling range are positively correlated relationship with green patches area. Green patches cooling level and green patches cooling range are negatively correlated relationship with green patches shape index. Green patches cooling range are positively correlated relationship with green patches perimeter. When green patches area was 0.055 km2, make green patches for cooling efficiency of the surrounding temperature is better; When green patches area was 0.070 km2, make green patches for area efficiency of the surrounding cooling is better.

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