It is of great significance to study the temporal and spatial variation characteristics of ecosystem services value (ESV) and the trade-offs and synergies among various services to realize the coordinated development of regional ecology and economy. Based on the revised equivalent factor table and combined with the land use data of 7 periods from 1988 to 2020, the study of spatio-temporal evolution characteristics of ecosystem services value (ESV) in the peripheral region of the Poyang Lake is explored by data processing and spatial analysis of GIS technology. At the same time, the ecosystem service trade-offs and synergies model is introduced to analyze the trade-offs and synergies of seven ecosystem service functions. The results show that: 1) From 1988 to 2020, the ecosystem service value in the peripheral region of the Poyang Lake increased from 57.79 billion yuan to 59.25 billion yuan, showing the fluctuation characteristics of first increasing, then decreasing and then increasing. During the whole study period, ESV of water area is the largest, followed by woodland and arable land. The main contributing factors of ESV change are water area, grassland and woodland. From the perspective of single ecological service value, the regulation service value is the largest during the study period, accounting for more than 77% of the total ESV. 2) The spatial distribution characteristics of ecosystem service value in the study area are closely related to land use types. In recent 32 years, the spatial distribution of ecological service value in the study area has shown obvious imbalance. The area with the highest ecological service value is the area with abundant water resources, and the area with the lowest ecological service value is the contiguous area with concentrated construction land. ESV significantly decreased in areas with the greatest intensity of construction land expansion, including Nanchang urban area, Jiujiang urban area, and urban built-up areas of other districts and counties. The areas with increased ESV are evenly distributed in the northeast and northwest of the study area, as well as the southeast and southwest near the outside of the study area. 3) In the study period, the synergistic relationship is the dominant relationship among ecosystem services, while the number of the trade-off’s relationship is small and mainly existed between food production and other services. The results indicate that there is conflict between food production and environmental protection, and there is competition between cultivated land and other land use patterns in the study area. During 1988-1999 and 1999-2009, the other six ecosystem services showed synergistic relationship except for food production service. From 2009 to 2020, the degree and direction of interaction among ecosystem services have changed, and the maximum value of trade-offs and synergies have increased. The trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services has a profound impact on the balanced development of regional ecological environment protection and economy. Moreover, trade-offs and synergies play an important role in coordinating multiple goals, maximizing human well-being and supporting the sustainable use of social-ecosystems. The research results can provide reference information for promoting the coordinated development of ecological environment protection and economy in the peripheral region of Poyang Lake.