地理科学 ›› 2001, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (3): 230-235.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.230

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

清代科尔沁农耕北界的变迁

乌兰图雅1, 张雪芹2   

  1. 1. 北京大学城市与环境学系, 北京 100871;
    2. 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2000-05-09 修回日期:2000-07-22 出版日期:2001-05-20 发布日期:2001-05-20
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(49831080)和(49771006)联合资助

Changes of the Cultivation Norhtern Limit for Horqin Region in the Qing Dynasty

WULAN Tu-ya1, ZHANG Xue-qin2   

  1. 1.Department of Urban and Environment, Peking University, Beijing 100871;
    2. Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2000-05-09 Revised:2000-07-22 Online:2001-05-20 Published:2001-05-20

摘要: 根据清代对蒙政策及其对蒙旗土地垦殖的影响,结合当时科尔沁建置的时空特征,恢复了清代科尔沁土地垦殖典型时期的农耕北界,发现:清代科尔沁农耕北界具有两次显著的北跃。其中,农垦的第一次扩展是在18世纪末到20世纪初的"请旨招垦"时期,导致农耕北界从清代初期的"柳条边墙"北上至今长春-四平-昌图以及敖汉、翁牛特旗南部,哲里木盟东南部、卓索图盟大部以及昭乌达盟南部变成农牧并举、以农为主的交错区。农耕的第二次发展是在清末时期,农垦推到洮儿河下游及西辽河两岸地区,此时的农耕北界北起黑龙江大庆县,经白城西、通辽北、开鲁县到林西县。今吉林省西部、辽宁省北部以及西辽河沿岸地带发展成为以农为主的农牧交错区。事实证明:清朝对蒙政策及其变化是导致科尔沁农耕北界跃变的主要驱动因子之一,是科尔沁农牧交错区形成的重要人文条件。

Abstract: Based on the analysis of the Qing Dynasty polices towards the Inner Mongolian lands and its impacts on the cultivation, and the spatial-temporal characteristics of the organizational system in Horqin region, the cultivation northern limits of Horqin region within different stages in the Qing Dynasty are reconstructed. Analysis indicates that the cultivation northern limit jumped northward twice remarkably in Horqin region in the Qing Dynasty. (1) During the early Qing Dynasty, cultivation still confined in the lower reaches of the Liaohe River, and the "Wicker Frontier Wall" became obviously dividing line between agriculture and animal husbandry. (2) The first leaping of cultivation northern limit occurred within the period from the late 18th Century to the early 20th Century, namely, the period of "Presenting memorial to the Emperor for Cultivation the Inner Mongolian Lands". The northern limit moved northward from the "Wicker Frontier Wall" to Changchun City, Siping City-the southern Aohen and Ongniut counties. As a result, the plain regions of the eastern and southern Horqin region transferred to the transition zone between agriculture and animal husbandry with the animal husbandry as the dominant style. (3) The second leaping of cultivation northern limit happened within approximately decade at the end of the Qing Dynasty. At that time, the Qing Dynasty adopted series of policies by which quantities of population migrated from inland to Inner Mongolia to cultivation. The result was that the cultivation range extended to the hinterland of the Inner Mongolian lands. The cultivation region pushed northward to the lower reaches of the Taoerhe River Valley and both banks of the West Liaohe River. And the cultivation northern limit extended from the Daqing City, across western Baicheng City, northern Tongliao City and Kailu County to Linxi County. Seen from the changes of cultivation northern limit of Horqin region in the Qing Dynasty, it can be concluded that the Qing Dynasty policies towards the Inner Mongolian lands had dominated the direction and amplitude of the change of the northern limit. These policies not only controlled the amount of agricultural population, but also influenced the speed and scale of the agricultural development in the Inner Mongolia, which demonstrated as the appearance and enlargement of migration organizational agencies. In a word, the Qing Dynasty policies concerning the Inner Mongolia were the major driving force for the changes of cultivation northern limit in Horqin region, and were the important human dimensional factor for the formation of modern transition zone between agriculture and animal husbandry.

中图分类号: 

  • F319