地理科学 ›› 2005, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 310-316.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2005.03.310

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

渭河(陕西段)河道自净需水量研究

宋进喜1,2, 曹明明2, 李怀恩3, 马俊杰2, 陈大年2   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学水科学研究院教育部水沙科学重点实验室, 北京 100875;
    2. 西北大学环境 科学系, 陕西 西安 710069;
    3. 西安理工大学水利水电学院, 陕西 西安 710048
  • 收稿日期:2004-06-16 修回日期:2004-10-29 出版日期:2005-05-20 发布日期:2005-05-20
  • 基金资助:
    教育部优秀青年教学科研奖励计划(青年教师奖)项目(2001-282)、陕西省教育厅专项科研计划项目(01JK215)。

Water Requirements of the Stream's Self Purification of the Weihe River in Shaanxi Province

SONG Jin-Xi1,2, CAO Ming-Ming2, LI Huai-En3, MA Jun-Jie2, CHEN Da-Nian2   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Water and Sediment Science, Ministry of Education, College of Water Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 1000875;
    2. Northwest University, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710069;
    3. Xi'an University of Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710048
  • Received:2004-06-16 Revised:2004-10-29 Online:2005-05-20 Published:2005-05-20

摘要: 建立了河段自净最小需水量计算模型。为了使研究区段内的水质达标,该区段内的自净需水量应该是从区段内所有河段最小需水量中取其最大量。应用该方法分达标排污和现状排污对渭河(陕西段)河道自净需水量做了计算。结果分析表明:渭河河道自净需水量随年径流流量变化不大,自净缺水严重,主要出现在非汛期,达标排污较于现状排污,自净需水量大幅度下降,自净缺水主要出现在1,2,12三个月。

Abstract: The ecological status of rivers is determined mainly by pollution levels, which are increasing under conditions of enhanced low flow. It is therefore very important to determine those volumes of low flow that will maintain good water quality, such flows can be termed water requirement for the stream's self purification. Based on the water environmental function division of the river, the water quality should meet the stream's environmental quality standard of the surface water so as to keep in good utilization. If only considering water pollutants from point source, the river can be divided into several reaches marked by each sewage discharge port. Taking into account of the degradation of pollutant substance along the stream, it proposes that minimum stream flow requirement of each should be ascertained according to the environmental quality standard of the surface water, the instant it is mixed with the pollutants at the discharge port. Then, one of the calculation methods of water requirement for the stream's self purification is set up. It further considers that water requirement for the stream's self purification of the study zone should choose the maximum among the reach's self-purification water requirements so as to meet water quality standard of each reach. Using the method, the water requirement for the stream's self purification of the Weihe River is calculated on the basis of BOD5 influx along 85 point source discharge ports. The investigative spatial scale is instream inside; the temporal scale is multi-even year (from year 1995 to 2000) and representative years which include P=25%( year 1963), P=50%( year 1990), P=75%( year 1982), P=90%( year 1979) and even every month of each year. The result shows that the water requirement for the stream's self purification varies little with annual stream flow, the degree of water requirement shortage for stream's self purification is severe, most of which appears in non-flood season. Estimated by even flow year (P=50%), the water requirements for the stream's self purification of Linjiacun, Weijiabao, Xianyang, Lintong and Huaxian sections are 29.4?108 m3/a,34.93?108 m3/a,54.80?108 m3/a,45.00?108 m3/a,42.09?108 m3/a respectively as sewage discharge at present, while that are 10.79?108 m3/a,13.19?108 m3/a,31.24?108 m3/a,26.57?108 m3/a,31.04?108 m3/a as sewage inpour at discharge standard. Compare sewage inpour at discharge standard with that at present, on the one hand, the water requirement for the stream's self purification declines in the gross according to the pollutant discharge concentration decrease as sewage inpour at discharge standard. On the other hand, the degree of water requirement shortage for the stream's self purification is still severe as sewage inpour at discharge standard, which appear in January, February and December.

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