地理科学 ›› 2009, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (4): 470-476.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.470

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

过去20年中国耕地生产力区域差异变化研究

方修琦1, 殷培红2,1, 陈烽栋1   

  1. 1. 北京师范大学地理与遥感科学学院, 北京 100875;
    2. 环境保护部环境与经济政策研究中心, 北京 100029
  • 收稿日期:2008-07-16 修回日期:2008-10-19 出版日期:2009-07-20 发布日期:2009-07-20
  • 作者简介:方修琦,吉林省前郭县人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事环境演变影响与适应研究,E-mail: xfang@bnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    十一五科技支撑项目(2007BAC03A11)和自然科学基金项目资助(项目号:40571165)

Changing Regional Differences of Grain Productivity in China

FANG Xiu-qi1, YIN Pei-hong2,1, Feng-dong Chen1   

  1. 1. School of Geography, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, 100875;
    2. Policy Research Center for Environment and Economy of State Environmental Protection Administration, Beijing, 100029
  • Received:2008-07-16 Revised:2008-10-19 Online:2009-07-20 Published:2009-07-20

摘要: 依据县域农业统计数据,以单位耕地面积的粮食产量作为衡量耕地基本生产力的指标,对比分析了1985~1987和 2002~2004两个时段的耕地生产力空间变化情况。结果表明:① 过去20年全国大部分地区耕地生产力普遍提高,在农牧交错带及其以西地区耕地生产力增加幅度尤为显著,这些地区耕地生产力的提高对全国粮食总产量增加具有重要意义;② 受中国降水空间分异影响,耕地生产力的东西差异依然显著,农牧交错带耕地生产力最低;农牧交错带以东,自西北向东南耕地生产力逐渐增高,耕地生产力区内差异在2002~2004年已表现得不明显;农牧交错带以西,耕地生产力相对增长速度明显快于东侧和农牧交错带;东部地区,由于北方耕地生产力增幅明显,以温度为主导的南北差异已经缩小。

Abstract: Based on the statistic data of agriculture in county-resolution for the time period of 1985-1987 and 2002-2004, the changing regional distribution of grain productivity in China in recent 20 years has been examined in this paper. It is found that, 1) grain productivity indicated by grain yield per unit cropland has increased in most parts of China, especially in the west to the farming-grazing transitional zone, which has played more important role on total grain yield increase in the past 20 years in China. 2) the differences of a grain productivity dominated by rainfall between the eastern and western China have remained obviously up till now. But the south-north difference of grain productivity dominated by temperature in the eastern China has reduced for the sensitive increase in grain productivity in the northern China. The lowest grain productivity zone is located in the farming-grazing transitional zone where the precipitation is 250-400 mm. East to the lowest zone, grain productivity has raised gradually from the northwest to the southeast which may be divided in higher grain productivity zone and the highest grain productivity zone. But the gradation of grain productivity in the east became less obvious in the period of 2002-2004. West to the lowest zone, named the lower grain productivity zone, the relative increase of grain productivity was faster than that in the lowest zone and east to the lowest zone. 3) The area of cultivated land has expanded obviously in the western China, where the grain productivity is lower but increased fasty. While high quality cultivated lands reduced. There are positive impacts of climate change on the increase of grain productivity in Gansu and Xinjiang region, the middle-east of Inner Mongolia and Northeast China, where the temperature has risen significantly and the precipitation in most regions of western China has increased slightly in recent 20 years. 4) The regions, of which the grain productivity ranks the top and bottom in China, both have the higher decrease of the cultivated land and the multi-cropping index as well. The average annual decrease of multi-cropping index is more than 1%-2%. The reduction of multi-cropping index went with the decrease of the cultivated land in the middle-down stream and the southward region of the Changjiang River of the highest grain productivity region implies the lost of the highest quality cultivated lands and the increase of food security risk. While in the lowest grain productivity region, especially in ecological sensitivity regions, such as the region along the Great Wall and the western Sichuan, the implement of the policies for recovering forest and grass in the cultivated land is attributed to the decrease of cultivated lands and it would benefit to ecosystem health and soil protection.

中图分类号: 

  • F199