地理科学 ›› 2013, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (10): 1166-1172.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.010.1166

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中国非物质文化遗产的空间分布特征及影响因素分析

程乾(), 凌素培   

  1. 浙江工商大学旅游与城市管理学院, 浙江 杭州 310008
  • 收稿日期:2012-11-19 修回日期:2013-03-08 出版日期:2013-10-20 发布日期:2013-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介: 程 乾(1968-),男,河北易县人,博士,教授,主要从事生态旅游与空间信息化相关研究。E-mail: qiancheng525@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    浙江省哲学社会科学规划项目(13NDJC041YB)和教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金(11YJAZH017)资助

Geographical Distribution and Affecting Factors of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in China

Qian CHENG(), Su-pei LING   

  1. College of Tourism & City Management, Zhejiang Gongshang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310008,China
  • Received:2012-11-19 Revised:2013-03-08 Online:2013-10-20 Published:2013-10-20

摘要:

研究中国非物质文化遗产的空间分布特征及影响因素, 是提高非物质文化遗产的管理和保护水平的重要路径。通过GIS空间分析技术研究了2 376项中国国家级非物质文化遗产项目(台湾地区除外)。研究表明:非物质文化遗产呈带状、组团状分布, 分布不均衡。从全国看,非物质文化遗产呈组团状分布在东部(尤其是东部沿海地区)和中部地区, 而西部相对稀少,呈现西疏东密的空间分布;从南北看, 南方分布数量与密度均大于北方,且主要分布于长江流域带。影响空间分布的主要原因: 一是受地理大环境的影响,物产丰富和人类活动较多的地区非物质文化遗产较多; 二是与人类的宜生环境和民族性地域性有关;三是少数民族聚居区,由于地处边疆,较少受到外来文化的入侵,文化传统不易被破坏。

关键词: 非物质文化遗产, 空间分析, 地域分布, 影响因素

Abstract:

:Intangible cultural heritage is defined as a spectral cultural heritage that has important historical and art values. Research on the geographical distribution and affecting factors of the intangible cultural heritage in China is important for the improvement of heritage protection and management. Data from 2 376 items concerning intangible cultural heritage in China are collected on a national level and analyzed based on the Geographic Information System. Research shows that the structural types of intangible cultural heritage in China can be divided into three classes. The first class includes traditional craft and traditional opera. This class is considered the most predominant class among the intangible cultural heritage classes in China. The second class, which is less predominant, includes traditional music, customs, dancing, art, and literature. The third class, which is the least predominant among the classes, includes traditional physical education, medicine, and drama. Numerous types of intangible cultural heritage exist in China that were influenced by the nationality and rationality of the population. Most of these types of heritage can be found in the rich history, popular culture, and minority regions of China. The structural level of the heritage is unbalanced and exhibits zone and block shapes. The intangible cultural heritage in China is mainly distributed in the Eastern and Middle regions, whereas only a few are distributed in the Western region. The number and density of intangible cultural heritage in Southern China are bigger than that in Northern China. Intangible cultural heritage in China is also preserved by communities along the Changjiang River. Heritage distribution has a certain correlation with big river systems. The number and density of intangible cultural heritage is greatly unbalanced in the Eastern, Middle, and Western regions of China. Eastern China has the highest density of intangible cultural heritage followed by Middle China and Western China. Intangible cultural heritage is highly dense in Eastern China and sparse in Western China. The factors that affect the distribution of intangible cultural heritage are as follows. First is the geographic environment. More intangible cultural heritage can be found in areas rich in products and human activities. Second, the distribution of intangible cultural heritage has certain correlations with livable environmental conditions and minority regions because these areas are characterized by long histories and rich cultures. Third, minority regions along border areas are subjected to less cultural invasion. Although intangible cultural heritage items are divided in this paper to assess their precise spatial distributions, distinguishing these items is difficult because of carrier movement. The evaluation of intangible cultural heritage by the National Cultural Relics Administration is also limited. Thus, research on evaluation of intangible cultural heritage should be reinforced in the future.

Key words: intangible cultural heritage, spatial analysis, geographical distribution, affecting factor

中图分类号: 

  • K903