地理科学 ›› 2013, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (10): 1238-1244.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.010.1238

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淮南大通煤矿废弃地土壤重金属空间分布及变异特征

孙贤斌1(), 李玉成2,3()   

  1. 1.皖西学院资源环境与旅游管理学院,安徽 六安 237012
    2.安徽大学资源与环境工程学院,安徽 合肥 230601
    3.煤矿生态环境保护国家工程实验室,安徽 淮南 232001
  • 收稿日期:2013-04-26 修回日期:2013-06-22 出版日期:2013-10-20 发布日期:2013-10-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:孙贤斌(1970-),男,安徽含山人,博士,副教授,主要研究方向为环境生态与GIS应用。E-mail: sunxb98@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41172121)、淮南矿业集团项目(HKKY-STHJYJS-JS-(2012)-001)、安徽省人文地理学重点学科建设项目(皖西学院)资助

The Spatial Distribution of Soil Heavy Metals and Variation Characteristics of Datong Abandoned Coal Mine Area in Huainan City

Xian-bin SUN1(), Yu-cheng LI2,3()   

  1. 1.College of Resource Environment and Tourism Management, West Anhui University, Lu′an, Anhui 237012,China
    2.College of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Anhui University, Hefei, Anhui 230601,China
    3.National Engineering Laboratory of Ecological Environment Protection in Coal Mine,Huainan, Anhui 232001,China
  • Received:2013-04-26 Revised:2013-06-22 Online:2013-10-20 Published:2013-10-20

摘要:

通过对淮南大通煤矿废弃地土壤重金属元素含量采样分析,利用GIS技术分析其空间分布与变异特征,结果显示:从平均值来看,大通煤矿废弃地5种重金属超出背景值2.000~36.300倍,以Cd污染最为严重,其次是Hg、Cr、Pb,Cu,相对较小。化工厂及周围区域重金属严重污染,煤矸石堆及周围区域为重污染。Hg和Cd来源于化工厂废水和煤矸石,且均在底层土富集;Cr主要来源是化工厂废水,在表层土含量高;Pb和Cu来源于煤矸石和化工厂废水,分别在底层土和表层土富集。煤矸石释放的重金属在土壤底层富集,化工厂废水使表层土含量较高。多数重金属元素之间正相关关系显著,具有同源性;Hg和Cd与营养物质呈显著正相关关系,Cr和Pb与营养物质呈显著负相关关系。重金属污染存在受自然因素影响存在显著的较大结构性变异,空间变异均是微小尺度,空间变异特征与复杂的地物和人为干扰有关。

关键词: 土壤重金属, 空间分布, 变异特征, 大通煤矿废弃地

Abstract:

The ecological restoration of abandoned coal area in Huainan, Anhui has great significance. This article describes the analysis of heavy metals in soil sampled from Datong abandoned mining area in Huainan City. Spatial interpolation in GIS is applied to the revelation of spatial distribution of heavy metals. Results show that: 1) In average, concentration of 5 heavy metal elements exceed the background values by 2.000~ 36.300 times, in which Cd is the most significant, followed by Hg, Cr and Pb, and the concentration of Cu is relatively smaller. Soils of chemical plant and surrounding area were severely contaminated, and the soils of coal gangue pile and surrounding area were heavily polluted. 2) Wastewater of the former chemical plant and coal gangue were the main pollution sources of Hg and Cd, and they were both accumulated in soil depth of 20-30 cm. Wastewater of the former chemical plant was the pollution sources of Cr, and Cr was accumulated in soil depth of 0-10 cm. Wastewater of the former chemical plant and coal gangue were the pollution sources of Pb and Cu, and they were accumulated in soil depth of 20-30 cm and 0-10 cm respectively. 3) The heavy metals from coal gangue were accumulated in soil depth of 20-30 cm, and the heavy metals from wastewater of the former chemical plant were accumulated in soil depth of 0-10 cm. 4) Positive correlation between concentrations of most heavy metals was significant, it was speculated that most heavy metals were mainly from the same materials. There was a significant positive correlation between Hg, Cd and organic matter, nitrogen, available phosphorus, and a significant negative correlation between Cr, Pb and organic matter, nitrogen, available phosphorus. 5) Distribution of these heavy metals presented a stronger spatial relevance because their spatial pattern were mainly influenced by natural factors such as the soil parent material, climate, topography and other structural factors. All of spatial variability was small scale. Characteristic of spatial variation was relation with the complex distribution object.

Key words: soil heavy metal, spatial distribution, variation characteristics, abandoned coal mine in Datong area

中图分类号: 

  • X53