地理科学 ›› 2013, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (6): 724-734.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2013.06.724

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基于土壤因素耦合的喀斯特流域水文干旱模拟——以贵州省为例

贺中华1,2(), 陈晓翔1()   

  1. 1.中山大学地理科学与规划学院,广东 广州 510275
    2.贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院,贵州 贵阳 550001
  • 收稿日期:2012-08-13 修回日期:2012-11-23 出版日期:2013-08-20 发布日期:2013-08-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:贺中华(1976-),男,贵州兴义人,副教授,博士研究生,研究方向:环境遥感。E-mail:zhonghuahe@gznu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    贵州省水利厅自然科研基金((KT201105,KT201010,KT200802)、贵州省科技厅自然科研基金(黔科合J字[2010]2026号)、贵州省教育厅自然科研基金(黔教科 2009(0039)和黔教科2006307)资助

The Hydrological Drought Simulating in Karst Basin Based on Coupled Soil Factors ——Taking Guizhou Province as A Case

Zhong-hua HE1,2(), Xiao-xiang CHEN1()   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Planning,Sun Yat-sen University,Guangzhou ,Guangdong 510275,China
    2. School of Geographic and Environmental Science, Guizhou Normal University,Guiyang, Guizhou 550001,China
  • Received:2012-08-13 Revised:2012-11-23 Online:2013-08-20 Published:2013-08-20

摘要:

在贵州省选择40个典型流域为研究样区,根据地物光谱特征,构建土壤粗糙度指数(SRI)、土壤水体指数(SWBI)、土壤相对湿度(SRH);利用面向对象分类技术,提取土壤类型、土壤相对覆盖度、土壤相对粗糙度、土壤相对湿度的遥感信息;从土壤系统结构与土壤系统功能的关系角度,首先,分析土壤单因素单因子储水空间对流域储水能力的影响、单因素双因子耦合生成新的储水空间对流域储水能力的影响,建立单因子、双因子耦合与径流深的拟合模型;其次,分析土壤双因素耦合、三因素耦合以及四因素耦合生成新的储水空间对流域储水能力的影响,建立土壤单因素、多因素耦合与径流深的拟合模型。研究表明:① 土壤储水空间是流域储水能力的综合体现,且深受土壤类型、土壤覆盖度、土壤粗糙度、土壤湿度影响;② 土壤四因素对流域水文干旱影响从大到小排序:土壤相对粗糙度(R=0.968)>土壤相对覆盖度(R=0.56)>土壤相对湿度(R=0.558)>土壤类型(R=0.464);③ 无论是双因素耦合,还是三因素、四因素耦合,耦合生成新的土壤因素对流域水文干旱影响特别显著,且可用线性模型拟合。

关键词: 因素耦合, 系统结构, 系统功能, 土壤储水空间, 流域水文干旱

Abstract:

In this article, 40 typical watershed in Guizhou Province were selected as the sample areas to build the soil roughness index (SRI) ,soil water body index (SWBI) and soil relative humidity (SRH) according to the spectral characteristics. The remote sensing information of soil type, soil relative coverage, soil relative roughness, and soil relative humidity were extracted using the object-oriented classification techniques. From the relationship perspective between the soil-system structure and function, firstly, the influences of the soil water-storage space of the single-factor and the generating-newly soil water-storage space of two-factor coupled of the single factor on the watershed-storage capacity were analyzed, and the fitted models between the single-factors, two-factors coupled and runoff depths were build up respectively. Secondly, the impacts of the generating-newly soil water-storage space of the double factors coupled, three factors coupled and four factors coupled on the watershed-storage capacity were analyzed, and the fitted models between the single factor, multi-factors coupled and runoff depths respectively were build up. Studies have shown that: 1)The soil water-storage space is a comprehensive reflection of the basin water-storage capacity, affected deeply by the soil type, soil coverage, soil roughness and soil moisture content. 2) The descending order of the influences of the four factors on wartershed hydrological droughts is the soil relatively roughness (R=0.968)>soil relative coverage (R=0.56)>soil relative humidity (R=0.558)>soil type (R=0.464). 3) Whether the double factors coupled, or three factors coupled and four factors coupled ,the influences of the coupled generating-newly factors on wartershed hydrological droughts are particularly significant, and be fitted by a linear model.

Key words: factor coupled, system structure, system function, soil water storage space, wartershed hydrological drought

中图分类号: 

  • TV211.1