地理科学 ›› 2014, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (10): 1254-1261.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2014.010.1254

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黑河中游绿洲化过程中不同开垦年限农田大型土壤动物群落特征

董炜华1(), 王子婷2, 李锋瑞3, 刘继亮3   

  1. 1.长春师范大学城市与环境科学学院,吉林 长春 130032
    2.甘肃省林业科学研究院,甘肃 兰州 730020
    3.中国科学院寒区旱区环境与工程研究所 临泽内陆河流域研究站,甘肃 兰州 730000
  • 收稿日期:2013-09-30 修回日期:2013-12-17 出版日期:2014-10-10 发布日期:2014-10-10
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:董炜华(1978-),女,河北唐山人,副教授,博士研究生,研究方向为自然地理及土壤动物生态。E-mail:dongwh78@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(31200407;41201248)、国家自然科学基金项目( 91025021 )、吉林省科技厅自然科学基金项目(20130101109JC)和长春师范大学科研创新团队项目(T2013-3)资助

Characteristics of Soil Macrofauna Community at An Age Sequence of Cultivation in Process of Oasification in the Middle Heihe River Basin

Wei-hua DONG1(), Zi-ting WANG2, Feng-rui LI3, Ji-liang LIU3   

  1. 1.Urban and Environmental Sciences, Changchun Normal University, Changchun, Jilin 130032, China
    2. Gansu Academy of Forestry Science,Lanzhou,Gansu 730020, China
    3. Linze Inland River Basin Research Station, Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou,Gansu 730000, China
  • Received:2013-09-30 Revised:2013-12-17 Online:2014-10-10 Published:2014-10-10

摘要:

对不同开垦年限绿洲农田大型土壤动物群落结构特征进行研究,探讨绿洲化过程中农田大型土壤动物群落对土壤环境演变的响应及适应机制。天然荒漠草地开垦为绿洲农田后,新垦绿洲农田大型土壤动物密度和类群丰富度增加为天然荒漠草地的1.95倍和1.54倍,百年绿洲农田土壤动物密度和类群丰富度增加为天然荒漠草地的3.54倍和3.00倍;但群落多样性和均匀度指数变化较小。不同动物类群随着绿洲农田开垦年限增加,其变化规律也存在较大差异,如地蜈蚣科(Geophilidae)、线蚓科(Enchytraeidae)、正蚓科(Lumbricidae)和蝇科幼虫(Muscidae)个体密度逐渐增加,拟步甲科(Tenebrionidae)和象甲科(Curculionidae)个体密度显著降低,而平腹蛛科(Gnaphosidae)、夜蛾科(Noctuidae)幼虫和蚁科(Formicidae)受农田开垦以及开垦年限的影响较小。RDA分析结果表明绿洲化过程中不同开垦年限绿洲农田的土壤温度、pH、土壤粘粉粒、土壤含水量、土壤有机碳和全氮的变化是导致绿洲化过程中绿洲农田大型土壤动物群落演变的主要影响因素,而随着绿洲农田开垦年限增加,土壤含盐量、土壤粗砂粒和细砂粒的变化是导致不同开垦年限绿洲农田大型土壤动物群落演变的主要影响因素。

关键词: 黑河中游, 绿洲化, 绿洲农田, 开垦年限, 大型土壤动物

Abstract:

Age sequence in the process of oasification changes soil conditions and affects on soil fauna community. Up to now, few research has explored soil macrofauna community composition and diversity at an age sequence of cultivation in process of oasification. We investigated the composition and diversity of soil macrofauna communities using hand sorting method in both early May, mid July and September in native sandy shrubland, 27-year and 100-year oasis farmland. The results showed age sequence of cultivation had significantly affected on density, group richness, diversity and evenness index of soil macrofauna community. The density and groups of soil macrofauna community were strongly influenced by age sequence of cultivation in contrast to the modest change of diversity and evenness index. 27-year oasis farmland supported nearly 1.95 and 1.54 times higher of density and group richness soil macrofauna community than native sandy shrubland. 100-year farmland supported nearly 3.54 and 3 times higher of density and group richness soil macrofauna community than native sandy shrubland. The density of Geophilidae, Enchytraeidae, Lumbricidae and Muscidae larvae increased with oasis farmland cultivated, but the density of Tenebrionidae and Cicindelidae distinctly decreased with oasis farmland cultivated, and the density of Gnaphosidae, Noctuidae larvae and Formicidae had no obviously changed with oasis farmland cultivated. RDA analyses showed that the distribution of soil macrofauna community between native sandy shrubland and 27-year oasis farmland was clearly affected by soil temperature, pH, soil moisture, soil silt and clay content, total nitrogen and soil organic carbon. However, soil salinity, soil coarse content, soil fine sand content were the most important factors in shaping the spatial distribution pattern of soil macrofauna community between 27-year and 100-year oasis farmland.

Key words: middle Heihe River Basin, oasification, oasis farmland, cultivatied age, soil macrofauna

中图分类号: 

  • Q958