地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (7): 973-979.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.07.002

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中国“出口世界工厂”的效率格局演变

宋涛1,2(), 唐志鹏1()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所/中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
    2.中国西南地缘环境与边疆发展协同创新中心,云南 昆明 650500
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-23 修回日期:2016-01-20 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:宋涛(1983-), 男,山西太原人,博士,助理研究员, 主要从事区域可持续发展与地缘政治等方面研究。E-mail:songtao@igsnrr.ac.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41530634,41201129)、中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院重大咨询项目(Y02015001)和2015年度北京现代产业新区发展研究基地开放课题资助

Efficiency and Spatial Evolution of Chinese Export-oriented Manufacturing Factory Model

Tao Song1,2(), Zhipeng Tang1()   

  1. 1. Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Institute of Geography Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
    2. Collaborative Innovation Center for Geopolitical Setting of Southwest China and Borderland Development, Kunming 650500,Yunnan, China
  • Received:2015-11-23 Revised:2016-01-20 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Sciences Foundation of China(41530634,41201129), Key Consulting Project of the Chinese Academy of Science and Technology Strategic Consulting(Y02015001),Open Project Funding of Beijing Modern Industrial New Area Development Research Base in 2015

摘要:

中国制造业已形成了工业制成品和加工贸易出口为主的“世界工厂”模式,该种模式的特征为依托低廉劳动力、附加值低的粗放型增长。选取2000~2013年中国出口世界工厂模式的资源、人力、资本投入及出口、经济和环境产出指标,对全国及分省的出口世界工厂模式效率进行了数据包络分析(DEA)测度。结果发现,2000~2013年,全国及分省的出口世界工厂模式效率整体有所提高,但受金融危机影响,2008年以后效率出现了波动。非DEA有效的年份及区域,其成因主要包括资源环境、人力资本的投入冗余;加工出口、环境产出冗余。未来随着世界市场低迷、部分产业产能过剩、人口红利的逐渐消失、资源环境的压力增大,加工产品出口的世界工厂模式亟需转型。转型发展的关键举措包括增强自主创新能力,加快产业结构调整等。

关键词: 出口, 数据包络分析, 效率分析, 制造业, 格局演变

Abstract:

China’s manufacturing industry has been formed a export-oriented model, also called ‘world factory’, characterized by export processing industry based on the cheap labor and low added value. The article selected the index system of resources, energy, human capital, capital investment, exports, economic and environmental outputs. Export efficiencies of China and 31 provinces since 2000 to 2013 had been analyzed by data envelopment analysis measure. It was found that from 2000 to 2013, the national and provincial exports’ efficiencies had increased. However due to the financial crisis, there had been fluctuations in the overall efficiency of the manufacturing export factory after 2008. In 2009, 2010 and 2012, national export efficiencies are non-DEA effective, with only 0.866, 0.958 and 0.944 , respectively. In terms of provincial effectiveness, 22 provinces reached DEA-effective in the world-export-plant-model, while 27 provinces effective in 2010, 29 provinces effctive in 2013. In 2005, Liaoning, Jilin and other nine provinces were non-DEA effective. In 2010, the number of non-DEA effective provinces dropped to four, namely Liaoning, Hubei, Sichuan and Gansu, respectively. In 2013, the number of non-DEA effective provinces reduced to 2, Shanxi and Hubei province, respectively. The causes of non-DEA effective regions include redundancies of resources inputs, investment in human capital, exports processing, as well as environmental outputs. The model of exports of processed products in the world factory pattern should be urgently restructured in the future, as the world’s market downturn, some industry overcapacity, gradually disappearance of demographic dividend, pressure of resource and the environment increasing. Key initiatives of restructuring include enhanced capability of independent innovation, speeding up industrial restructuring, transformation from the low end assembly stage to the improved quality phase characterized by high technology content, high added value , etc.

Key words: export, data envelopment analysis, efficiency analysis, manufacturing, pattern evolve

中图分类号: 

  • K902