地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (7): 989-997.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.07.004

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中国环境污染的时空差异与集聚特征

周侃1()   

  1. 1.中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所/中国科学院区域可持续发展分析与模拟重点实验室,北京100101
  • 收稿日期:2015-11-23 修回日期:2016-06-18 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:周侃(1986-),男,云南丽江人,博士,助理研究员,主要从事资源环境承载能力与区域可持续发展研究。E-mail:zhoukan2008@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41530634, 41501139 )和中国科学院科技服务网络计划项目(KEJ-EW-ZY-004)资助

Spatial-temporal Differences and Cluster Features of Environmental Pollution in China

Kan Zhou1()   

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Regional Sustainable Development Modeling, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Geography Science and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2015-11-23 Revised:2016-06-18 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Sciences Foundation of China(41530634, 41501139)and Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KEJ-EW-ZY-004)

摘要:

通过地市单元和主体功能区单元的定量分析,研究2005~2012年中国环境污染物排放的时空变化和空间集聚格局,提出降低污染物排放强度的对策建议。结果表明:环境污染物排放强度呈优化开发区域-重点开发区域-农产品主产区-重点生态功能区依次递减态势,各类主体功能区水环境面临的污染物胁迫程度持续加剧,且以农产品主产区和重点生态功能区最为突出,尽管优化开发区域和重点开发区域的大气污染物排放量呈现小幅下降,但仍然是大气污染物胁迫程度最高的地区。地市单元水环境受污染物胁迫态势“总体在加剧、局部有缓解”,东北、东部、中部板块的大部分区域以及西部板块的成渝、新疆中部、呼包鄂等地区呈高排放区连片分布格局;大气环境受污染物胁迫态势“总体较稳定、局部有缓解”,高排放区主要位于山西、内蒙古中西部、陕甘宁豫沿黄地带、环渤海、长三角等地区。中国环境污染排放具有显著的空间集聚效应且呈现增强趋势,其中,华北地区已经成为高污染物排放的主要集聚区,并表现出较强的路径依赖与空间锁定。

关键词: 污染物排放, 时空差异, 空间集聚, 空间自相关, 主体功能区

Abstract:

Based on the multi-scale analysis of cities at the prefecture level and major function oriented zones (MFOZ), the process of spatial-temporal changes and spatial cluster of major pollutant emissions during 2005 to 2012 in China are analyzed in this article. The results show that: Firstly, the emission intensities of major pollutants present a decreasing trend in the order of optimized zones, prioritized zones, food stuff-security zone sand ecological safety zones,and the emission intensities in urbanized areas is significantly higher than that in restricted development areas. In 2012, the emission intensities of water pollutant in various types of MFOZ continues to strengthen compared to 2005, the rapid growth of emission intensitiesin food stuff-security zones and ecological safety zone sare more prominent.Secondly, the overall emission intensities of water pollutant is still on the rise at the national level, although the emission intensities decrease gradually in partial areas of prefecture-level cities in China. High COD emission areas distribute in the most areas of the East, Northeast and Central China, and show the pattern of continuous distribution in Chengdu-Chongqing region, Hohhot-Baotou-Ordos region of Western China. The nationwide emission intensities of atmospheric pollutantre main relatively stable, and the emission intensities in partial areas of China has alleviated. High SO2 emission areas is mainly located in Shanxi, Midwest Inner Mongolia,Shaanxi-Gansu-Ningxia-Henan region along the the Changjiang River,Bohai Rim region and the Changjiang River delta.Thirdly, the emissions of major pollutants have significant agglomeration effects which show a trend of increase since 2005, and theNorth China not only has become the high emission agglomeration, but also presented stronger path dependence and effect of spatial locking. Finally, some measures to reduce pollutants emission intensity are put forward,which should include in the transformation of the pattern of economic development, the establishment of control systemof environmental “red line” and the enrichment of environmental comprehensive treatment tools.

Key words: pollutant emission, spatial-temporal differences, spatial cluster, spatial autocorrelation, Major Function Oriented Zone (MFOZ)

中图分类号: 

  • K902