地理科学 ›› 2016, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (7): 1106-1114.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2016.07.018

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长白山玄武岩台地土壤动物多样性及其生态地理分布

殷秀琴1,2(), 薛文丽1, 马辰1   

  1. 1. 东北师范大学地理科学学院, 吉林 长春 130024
    2. 吉林省动物资源保护与利用重点实验室, 吉林 长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2015-08-25 修回日期:2015-11-03 出版日期:2016-07-20 发布日期:2016-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:殷秀琴(1951-),女,吉林长春人,教授,博士生导师,主要从事生物地理学和土壤动物生态学研究。E-mail: yinxq773@nenu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471211)资助

Diversity and Ecological Geographic Distribution of Soil Fauna in Basalt platform of the Changbai Mountains, China

Xiuqin Yin1,2(), Wenli Xue1, Chen Ma1   

  1. 1.School of Geographical Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
    2. Jilin Key Laboratory of Animal Resource Conservation and Utilization, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
  • Received:2015-08-25 Revised:2015-11-03 Online:2016-07-20 Published:2016-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Science Foundation of China(41471211)

摘要:

于2014年春、夏和秋季对长白山玄武岩台地原始针阔混交林、次生针阔混交林、次生落叶阔叶林及耕地土壤动物进行研究。结果表明:大型土壤动物的多样性,春季次生针阔混交林为最高,夏季和秋季原始针阔混交林为最高,耕地在3个季节均为最低;中小型土壤动物的多样性,春、秋两季原始针阔混交林为最高,夏季次生针阔混交林为最高,耕地在3个季节仍为最低。根据一维方差分析可知春、夏、秋3个季节原始针阔混交林、次生针阔混交林和次生落叶阔叶林土壤动物类群和平均密度均显著高于耕地(p<0.05);而各生境土壤动物的类群和平均密度季节变化差异不显著(p>0.05)。各生境土壤动物的多样性呈现出随土层深度的增加而降低的趋势。土壤温度、速效P、有机质和土壤湿度的变化是影响长白山玄武岩台地土壤动物多样性地理分布的主要因子。

关键词: 土壤动物, 多样性, 生态地理分布, 玄武岩台地, 长白山

Abstract:

Soil fauna play an important role in terrestrial ecosystems. They are closely connected with the above and under ground ecosystems. The effect of basalt platform on the diversity and ecological geographic distribution of the below ground soil fauna is unknown. In the present study, an investigation of diversity and ecological geographic distribution of the below ground soil fauna was conducted in the basalt platform of the Changbai Mountains with four habitats types (original conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary deciduous broadleaved forest and arable land). The plots (5 m×5 m) were established using permanent signs in each of the arable land. The plots (20 m×20 m) were established using permanent signs in each of the other three habitats types. Within each plot, five subplots were selected randomly, and 25 cm×25 cm and 10 cm×10 cm areas were collected from the litter layer, 0-10 cm, 10-20 cm and 20-30 cm soil layers in each subplot during spring, summer, and autumn 2014. Soil macrofauna and soil meso-microfauna were extracted from each of the soil samples using hand collection methods and Tullgren funnel extractor, respectively. The effects of habitat types, seasonal variations and soil layers on the abundance, richness of soil fauna were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and multivariate analysis. Indexes of diversity were calculated to describe the characteristics of the diversity of soil fauna. The influence of soil environmental factors on soil faunal diversity was examined using redundancy analysis (RDA). The results showed that the dominant groups were Isotomidae, Oribatida and Hypogastruridae. The common groups included Gamasida, Actinedida, Pseudachorutidae, Diptera larva, Sminthuridae and Tomoceridae. In spring, the secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest had the highest diversity of soil macrofauna among the four habitats. For soil macrofauna, in summer and autumn, original conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest had the highest diversity among the four habitats. However, in spring, summer, and autumn, the arable land had the lowest diversity among the four habitats. For soil meso-microfauna, in spring and autumn, original conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest had the highest diversity among the four habitats. In summer, secondary conifer and broad-leaved mixed forest had the highest diversity among the four habitats. However, in spring, summer, and autumn, the arable land had the lowest diversity of soil meso-microfauna among the four habitats. The one-way ANOVA showed that a significantly lower abundance and richness of soil fauna was evident in the arable land when compared to all other habitats in spring, summer, autumn (P < 0.05). However, abundance and richness of soil fauna did not respond significantly to variations in seasons (P > 0.05). From the vertical distribution, the diversity of soil fauna in each habitat was shown that it was decreased with the increasing soil depth. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that diversity and ecological geographic distribution of the below ground soil fauna was correlated significantly with soil temperature, available P, organic matter, soil moisture.

Key words: soil fauna, diversity, ecological geographic distribution, Basalt platform, Changbai Mountains

中图分类号: 

  • S154.5