地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 339-346.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.03.003

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中国环境污染的健康压力时空差异特征

杨振(), 敖荣军, 王念, 丁启燕   

  1. 华中师范大学城市与环境科学学院/地理过程分析与模拟湖北省重点实验室, 湖北 武汉430079
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-13 修回日期:2016-08-04 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:杨振(1978-),男,山东菏泽人,博士,副教授,从事人口发展与健康地理研究。E-mail:yangzhen0971@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41301187,71103073)资助

Spatio-temporal Difference Characteristic of Pollution’s Health Stress of China

Zhen Yang(), Rongjun Ao, Nian Wang, Qiyan Ding   

  1. College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, Central China Normal University; Key Laboratory of Geological Process Analysis and Simulation of Hubei Province, Wuhan 430079, Hubei, China
  • Received:2016-04-13 Revised:2016-08-04 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Sciences Foundation of China (41301187, 71103073)

摘要:

构建基于环境污染的人口健康压力指数模型,引入空间集聚和收敛性检验方法,对中国各省区2005~2014年的污染健康压力的时空差异特征进行研究,结果表明:① 2005~2014年各省区的污染健康压力指数发生明显下降,省际差异程度有所降低,但“东高、西低、中部居中”的基本格局没有变化。② 各省区健康压力指数的空间分布在宏观上呈现出一定的空间集聚性,集聚趋势随时间有所弱化。③ 在控制城市化率、人均GDP、人口死亡率、森林覆盖率等变量的条件下,考察时段内各省区健康压力指数变化存在微弱的收敛性,各省区的健康压力预期将逐步趋同于某一较低水平。

关键词: 环境污染, 健康压力, 地区差异, 空间集聚, 收敛性检验

Abstract:

Health is the basic right of human beings, and is also one of the important goals of the construction of well-off society in China. Nowadays, the rapid urbanization and industrialization have resulted in serious environmental pollution, which did harm to human health. To harmonize the relationships between economic development, environmental conservation and population health, it is necessary to measure the health pressure caused by environmental pollution at macro level to explore the spatial distribution pattern and changing rules of pollution’s health pressure. This paper established the population health pressure model based on environmental pollution, and used the spatial agglomeration and convergence test model to study the temporal and spatial differences characteristics of health pressure caused by pollution in China in the recent decade. At first, this paper built the index system of pollution health pressure. And then, the analytic hierarchy process based on expert knowledge was employed to determine the weight of index. And the findings showed that: 1) The pollution health pressure of each province decreased from 2005 to 2014, as well as the provincial differences, while the spatial pattern of “high in the east, middle in the central and low in the west” still existed; 2) The spatial agglomeration was one of the main characteristics of health pressure distribution, which could describe the spatial relations of geographic position and pressure index. This paper used the spatial autocorrelation and the global exponential of Moran’s I to study the spatial agglomeration. The spatial distribution of provincial pollution health pressure was not completely random. But instead it present the trend of spatial agglomeration, which meant that the high (low) pressure provinces were tend to adjacent high(low) level provinces. And compared with 2005, the space agglomeration in 2014 of pollution health pressure decreased; 3) Studying the convergence of temporal and spatial changes of health pressure helped learning the changing trends of health pressure, which could provide references for the formulation of relevant optimization policy. And the statistical test shown that the provincial pollution health pressure in 2005-2014 present the weak convergence trend while controlling the variables (urbanization rate, per capita GDP, population mortality and the forest coverage rate). And it meant that the provincial health pressure would be tend to the low-level convergence, in accordance with the continual decrease of health pressure difference and the weaker tendency of spatial agglomeration. Obviously, this article aimed at exploring the temporal and spatial differences characteristics of health pressure caused by environmental pollution in China, and the findings could provide references for government to optimize and coordinate the complicated relationships between environment and health.

Key words: environmental pollution, health pressure, regional difference, spatial agglomeration, convergence test

中图分类号: 

  • X503.1