地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 386-393.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.03.008

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中国三大旅游行业效率时空差异分析

胡宇娜1(), 梅林2, 陈妍2   

  1. 1. 鲁东大学商学院, 山东 烟台 264025
    2.东北师范大学地理科学学院, 吉林 长春 130024
  • 收稿日期:2016-05-18 修回日期:2016-08-02 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:胡宇娜(1980-),女,山东青岛人,讲师,博士,主要从事旅游规划和旅游电子商务研究。E-mail:huyuna0419@163.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41471111)资助

Spatial and Temporal Differentiation Analysis on the Efficiency of the Three Mainstays of Tourism Industry in China

Yuna Hu1(), Lin Mei2, Yan Chen2   

  1. 1.School of Business, Ludong University, Yantai 264025, Shandong, China
    2. School of Geography Science, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024, Jilin, China
  • Received:2016-05-18 Revised:2016-08-02 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Science Foundation of China (41471111)

摘要:

借助DEA模型和ArcGIS空间分析模块,对中国2002~2013年景区、酒店和旅行社三大行业效率的时序变化及空间格局演变过程进行系统分析。结果表明三大行业效率时空演变特征各不相同:① 无论是综合效率还是分解后的纯技术效率和规模效率,酒店行业平均效率值均最高,旅行社行业规模效率值最低,而景区行业纯技术效率值最低;② 从时序变化上看,酒店行业效率稳定性最高,景区行业波动性最强,旅行社行业最近几年下降趋势明显;③ 三大行业的旅游效率在空间分布上均存在东西差异,但酒店行业地区间差距在缩小,景区行业东西部间差异在缩小,而旅行社行业东西部间差距则在扩大。

关键词: 旅游业, 三大行业, 效率, 时空差异

Abstract:

Tourist attraction, travel agency and hotel are the three mainstays of the tourism industry. It is generally acknowledged that there should be a strong correlation between the three mainstays of tourism industry and a balanced, complementary relationship will benefit the overall development of regional tourism industry since every trip will inevitably involves the six elements which includes sightseeing, shopping, entertainment, food, accommodation and transportation. By using DEA model and ArcGIS spatial analysis model, this paper analyzes the spatial and temporal differentiation of efficiency of the three mainstays of tourism industry in 2002-2013. The results can be obtained as follows: 1) Tourist attraction industry has the lowest efficiency in the three mainstays, both in comprehensive efficiency, pure technological efficiency and scale efficiency. It shows that the input and output return of the Chinese tourist attraction industry is not stable and there is a certain investment risk on it. This is due to the large land area and higher initial infrastructure investment of tourist attraction. Therefore, more attention should be paid to avoid investment risks, and more effective benefit analysis should be done in the early stage of investment. 2) The spatial and temporal differentiation in the scale efficiency of the three mainstays is smaller than other two pieces of efficiency. This explains that the pure efficiency is still the dominant factor of the differentiation to comprehensive efficiency up to present. The benefits brought by technological innovation are still far smaller than the benefits of scale agglomeration. However, due to the decline in the scale efficiency in recent years, the technology innovation and application represented by information technology is very important to the future development of China’s tourism industry. 3) The spatial distribution of efficiency is different between east and west regions which shows that east regions are more efficient than west regions. The distribution of the standard deviation ellipse and the center of gravity are in favor of the eastern region, but differences between the three mainstays exists. The spatial pattern of attraction industry efficiency is influenced by the tourism resources and transportation factors. Its direction changes from northeast-southwest to the east-west, and further changes to the weak pattern of northwest-southeast direction. The spatial pattern of the hotel industry changes less because of its high stability. Affected by the overall economic and tourism industry development in the Midwest, the gap of hotel industry efficiency between west, middle and east is narrowing. Evolution of spatial pattern in travel agency industry efficiency shows the opposite trend. Middle and western regions are affected greatly by the changes in the demand for e-commerce and tourist demand compared with east part. The efficiency of travel agency industry has been impacted substantially and the gap is expanding between the three regions.

Key words: tourism industry, three mainstays of tourism industry, efficiency, spatial and temporal differentiation

中图分类号: 

  • F592.3