地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (3): 416-425.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.03.012

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山西省古村落的空间分布与演化研究

龚胜生1,2(), 李孜沫1,2, 胡娟2, 魏幼红2   

  1. 1.华中师范大学可持续发展研究中心,湖北 武汉 430079
    2.华中师范大学地理过程分析与模拟湖北省重点实验室,湖北 武汉 430079
  • 收稿日期:2016-03-24 修回日期:2016-07-13 出版日期:2017-03-20 发布日期:2017-03-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:龚胜生(1965-),男,湖南涟源人,博士,教授,博导,主要从事历史地理、医学地理和可持续发展研究。E-mail:shshgong@mail.ccnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    山西省住建厅重大委托项目资助

The Spatial Distribution and Evolution of Ancient Villages in Shanxi Province

Shengsheng Gong1,2(), Zimo Li1,2, Juan Hu1, Youhong Wei1   

  1. 1. Research Institute of Sustainable Development, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei, China
    2. Key Laboratory for Geographical Process Analysis & Simulation, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, Hubei, China
  • Received:2016-03-24 Revised:2016-07-13 Online:2017-03-20 Published:2017-03-20
  • Supported by:
    Commission Project in Department of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of Shanxi Province

摘要:

以山西省303个国家级和省级历史名村和传统村落为研究对象,采用历史时间断面方法、历史文献分析方法与GIS空间分析方法,对其空间分布与演化进行分析,结果表明:山西省古村落的形成与区域开发进程密切相关,宋代以前形成的主要分布在晋南,宋元时期形成的主要分布在晋中,明清时期形成的仍以晋中为主但晋北比重明显上升,整个历史时期总体上有由南向北推进的时序。山西古村落具有“聚盆、近水、沿边、偏中南”的空间分布特征,63.70%分布于盆地地区,67.66%分布于距河流10 km的地域,50.50%分布于省界四边的县域,晋中、晋南又分别集中了41.58%和43.89%。山西古村落主要有农耕、商贸、军事、工矿4种类型,农耕型和商贸型的分布由晋南向晋北递减,军事型的分布由晋北向晋南递减,工矿型集中分布于晋南。303个古村落中,46.53%在历史时期发生过转型,转型主要发生在明清时期,转型方式主要是农耕型转商贸型、军事型、工矿型以及军事型转商贸型、农耕型。总之,山西古村落的时空演化揭示了其由晋南向晋北、由平原向山区、由中原向塞外的区域开发过程。

关键词: 古村落, 分布变迁, 村落类型, 区域开发, 山西省

Abstract:

Shanxi is one of the provinces with the highest density of ancient villages in China, and the spatial-temporal process of its ancient villages has typical meaning for research. This article studied the distribution and evolution of Shanxi’s ancient villages (303 famous traditional villages approved by national and provincial departments) by using such methods as historical time section analysis, historical documental analysis and GIS spatial analysis. We obtained the following conclusions: 1) The formation of Shanxi’s ancient villages has closely relationship with its regional development process, in which, the villages formed before the Song Dynasty (i.e. before A.D.960) mainly distributed in southern Shanxi, those formed during the Song and Yuan Dynasties (A.D.960-1368) mainly distributed in the central Shanxi, and those formed during the Ming and Qing Dynasties (A.D.1368-1911) still mainly distributed in central Shanxi but significantly increased in the northern Shanxi. Overall there was a trend of regional development from south to north. 2) As for the spatial characteristics of 303 ancient villages of Shanxi, of them, 63.70% located in basins; 67.66% distributed within the range of 10 km away from the rivers; 50.50% distributed along provincial boundaries; 41.58% and 43.89% respectively gathered in central Shanxi and the southern Shanxi. 3) Shanxi’s ancient villages could be divided into 4 types: agricultural, commercial, military and mining. Both the agricultural and commercial ones had the similar spatial distribution quantitatively decreased from the southern Shanxi to the northern Shanxi, instead, the military ones had a spatial distribution decreased from the northern Shanxi to the southern Shanxi, and mining ones were mainly distributed in the southern Shanxi. Of 303 ancient villages, 46.53% have been transformed, which mainly happened in the Ming and Qing Dynasties. And the most transformation happened from agricultural to commercial, military and mining as well as from military to commercial and agricultural. 4) In brief, the spatio-temporal evolution of Shanxi’s ancient villages revealed the regional exploiting and developing process of Shanxi Province from south to north, from plains to mountains and from the Central plains to beyond the Great Wall of China.

Key words: ancient villages, distributional change, villages type, regional development, Shanxi Province

中图分类号: 

  • K928