地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 997-1005.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.07.004

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地方因素对流动人口城市融入的影响研究

田明()   

  1. 北京师范大学社会发展与公共政策学院,北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2016-10-08 修回日期:2017-02-04 出版日期:2017-07-20 发布日期:2017-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:田明(1974-),男,河北康保人,教授,博导,主要从事城市研究和流动人口研究。E-mail:tianm@bnu.edu.cn

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41371165)、国家社科基金重大项目(16ZDA026)资助

Local Factors Effects on the Urban Integration for the Floating Population

Ming Tian()   

  1. School of Social Development and Public Policy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2016-10-08 Revised:2017-02-04 Online:2017-07-20 Published:2017-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Nature Sciences Foundation of China (41371165),Major Projects of National Social Science Foundation (16ZDA026)

摘要:

利用东部和中部地区9个城市的流动人口问卷调查,采用多水平回归模型,分析了城市差异对流动人口城市融入的影响机制。研究发现:流动人口城市融入过程存在南北差异,并呈相同地域较接近的特征。城市区位、经济发展水平、以房租为代表的物价水平、以方言为主的地域文化、流动人口占比,社会保障的落实程度等地方因素,对流动人口城市融入产生显著影响,但城市人口规模影响不显著。地方因素对流动人口城市融入的影响效应是复杂的、多向的,即使同一因素既有积极的方面,也存在消极的方面。推动流动人口的城市融入,必须正视城市差异,因地制宜地提出包容性的社会政策。方言重的城市,尤其是这些城市的公共场所和公共办事窗口要推动普通话的普及,鼓励使用普通话;降低城市社会保障的准入门槛;房租高的城市,保障房建设要以公租房建设为主,把流动人口纳入公租房保障范围;要本着先易后难,同步推进的原则,优先推进省域内流动人口市民化,城镇化转移支付应向流动人口比例高的城市倾斜。

关键词: 流动人口, 社会融入, 城市, 地方因素

Abstract:

Based on a survey of 2 496 migrant workers in 9 cities of the eastern and central China, this article investigated the impact of local factors on social integration of migrant workers. A multiple-level regression model was applied to analyzing and revealing the differential impact of local factors, including level of economic development, intelligibility of local dialect, population share of migrants, and cost of rent. The cities, with more difficulties to join the local endowment insurance, the better the economic development, the greater gap between the earnings of the migrant workers and urban capita income, the higher rent, the more difficult urban dialect to master and the higher proportion of urban immigrant population, have a lower integration. The results find: 1) each city’s uniqueness produces some specific positive and negative effects. The positive effects can reduce the social distance between the migrant population and the urban residents. The sense of inclusion may become a source of pride in promoting the effective integration of migrants. However, the negative effects may serve to marginalize and alienate the migrant population. In cities that are not conducive to social integration, the migrants have a lower degree of recognition. 2) the differences between cities are selective in attracting migrant populations. Different cities attract different types of migrants, so that their migrant populations are structurally different. The abilities of the migrant populations to adapt and integrate are also different in different cities. Therefore, cities differ significantly in their levels of social integration. Recognition of these differences is an important basis for making urbanization policies that fit the local conditions. Given the large variety of cities, it was suggested that localized social policies are promoted to ease the integration of migrant workers in urban communities. To facilitate migrant workers’ social integration, priority should be given to promoting social integration within a province and at cities with high proportion of migrant population. Migrant workers should also be given the benefits of local social programs such as public housing rental assistance, especially in cities with a high level of rental cost.

Key words: floating population, social integration, urban, local factors

中图分类号: 

  • K901.3