地理科学 ›› 2017, Vol. 37 ›› Issue (7): 1014-1022.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2017.07.006

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中国地级以上城市创新能力的时空格局演变及影响因素分析

何舜辉1,2(), 杜德斌1,2(), 焦美琪1, 林宇1   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院,上海 200241
    2. 华东师范大学科技创新与发展战略研究中心,上海 200062
  • 出版日期:2017-07-20 发布日期:2017-07-20
  • 作者简介:

    作者简介:何舜辉(1988-),男,福建漳州人,博士研究生,主要从事科技创新与区域经济发展研究。E-mail:shhe126@126.com

  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41471108)资助

Spatial-Temporal Characteristics of Urban Innovation Capability and Impact Factors Analysis in China

Shunhui He1,2(), Debin Du1,2(), Meiqi Jiao1, Yu Lin1   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    2.Institute for Innovation and Strategic Studies, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062, China
  • Online:2017-07-20 Published:2017-07-20
  • Supported by:
    National Natural Sciences Foundation of China(41471108)

摘要:

基于中国287个地级以上城市的专利、论文数据测度中国城市创新能力,揭示2001~2014年中国创新格局的时空演变特征,并分析城市创新能力的影响因素。研究表明:中国创新格局刻有明显的经济地带性差异的烙印,呈“东–中–西”逐渐衰减的态势,且随着时间推移,东部的压倒性地位进一步强化。基尼系数呈现先增后降的倒U型变化趋势,反映了整体由极化增长向优化均衡发展的空间过程。东部地区基尼系数维持相对稳定;创新能力较弱的中西部地区,城市间的创新能力差异却在不断缩小。高水平和较高水平的创新城市分布具有很强的经济依赖性,广泛分布于发达城市,而中等水平以上的城市呈集聚分布态势,表现出明显的“集群化”特征,与中国主要城市群的分布高度吻合。Moran’s I值均为正,并呈不断上升之势,反映了城市间显著的空间相关性。高高集聚区主要分布于京津冀、长三角和珠三角地区,而中部和西部省会城市作为区域性的创新极,对周围城市的创新带动效应并不明显,辐射作用有限。经济基础、人力资本、教育水平、FDI规模、制度因素、基础设施6方面因素不同程度地影响城市创新能力的形成。其中经济基础和人力资本因素影响较大,教育水平和制度因素次之,而FDI规模和基础设施水平对区域的创新能力影响相对较小,但仍表现为正向影响。

关键词: 城市创新能力, 时空格局, ESDA, 溢出效应

Abstract:

Based on patent and dissertation database of China’s 287 cities, the evaluation system of urban innovation capability was established in the perspective of innovation output, which is concerning the temporal-spatial evolution of innovation in China during 2001-2014. Then the article constructed the spatial econometric model to analyze influencing factors. The results are as follows: from 2001 to 2014, there are great differences of regional innovation output in China, and the output weakened from east to west, which showed an obvious trend of strengthen of western. The Gini Index of regional innovation capability in China raised at first, then decreased, which indicated that the innovation spatial patterns has evolved from polarized development to balanced development. The Gini Index of eastern where innovation output mainly concentrated in showed little change, in contract, the Gini Index of western showed declined. High level innovation hotspots widely distributed in developed cities, and the cities in the innovation secondary level are distributed in the form of agglomeration. Spatial dependence characteristic of city innovation level was significant, and further strengthen over time. H-H cluster areas are mainly distributed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta, and the central and western provincial capital cities as regional innovation, didn’t have obvious driven effect to neighboring city and had limited radiation effect. Economic base, human capital, education level, FDI scale, institutional factors and infrastructure could promote the development of regional innovation. Especially, economic base and human capital were the most important factors, followed by education level and institutional factors.

Key words: urban innovation capability, spatial-temporal characteristics, exploratory spatial data analysis, spillover effect

中图分类号: 

  • F129.9