地理科学 ›› 2019, Vol. 39 ›› Issue (1): 89-97.doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2019.01.010

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

基于运单数据的中国快递型物流网络格局、结构与功能——以宅急送为例

李鲁奇1,马学广2()   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学城市与区域科学学院, 上海 200241
    2. 中国海洋大学国际事务与公共管理学院, 山东 青岛 266100
  • 收稿日期:2017-12-08 修回日期:2018-02-03 出版日期:2019-01-10 发布日期:2019-01-10
  • 作者简介:李鲁奇(1991-),男,山东宁阳人,博士研究生,主要从事城市地理研究。E-mail: liluqi@outlook.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社会科学基金项目(18BJL092);山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2018MD005);教育部人文社会科学研究规划基金项目资助(17YJA630071)

Pattern, Structure and Function of China’s Express Logistics Network Based on Waybill Data: A Case Study of ZJS Express

Luqi Li1,Xueguang Ma2()   

  1. 1. School of Urban and Regional Science, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China
    2. School of International Affairs and Public Administration, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, Shandong, China
  • Received:2017-12-08 Revised:2018-02-03 Online:2019-01-10 Published:2019-01-10
  • Supported by:
    National Social Science Fundation of China(18BJL092);Natural Science Foundation of Shandong Province(ZR2018MD005);Funding Project of Education of Ministry for the Development of Liberal Arts and Social Sciences(17YJA630071)

摘要:

物流联系是城市间联系的重要形式,能够反映城市网络的格局、结构和功能。当前研究主要借助引力模型、企业分支、货运班次等对物流联系进行间接估算,常常难以准确反映货物流通的实际格局。因此以宅急送为例,直接基于快递运单提取微观物流数据,探讨中国物流网络的空间格局、结构特征和功能组织。研究表明,物流网络呈现高度不均衡的空间格局,区域尺度上轴辐结构明显;在结构特征上具有较强的时空衰减效应,并呈现幂律分布特征;在功能组织上由少数中转枢纽和主干联系所支撑,对网络效率影响较强的枢纽呈点状分布。

关键词: 物流网络, 城市联系, 快递运单, 宅急送, 中国

Abstract:

Logistics connection is an important form of interurban connections. Thus it could be applied to the analysis of the pattern, structure and function of urban network. In order to calculate the strength of interurban logistics connections, a variety of data and methods are used by researchers, which include gravity model, interlocking model, freight traffic, etc. Nevertheless, these data and methods could only partly reflect the “actual” logistics flow among cities. Therefore, this study aims to extract the microscopic logistics data directly from the express waybill and subsequently apply the data to the analysis of spatial pattern, structural characteristics and functional organization of China's logistics network. The results can be summarized as follows. 1) The network presents a highly uneven spatial pattern, with two major belts at the national scale and hub-and-spoke systems at the regional scale. In terms of flow directions, the one-way connections are relatively scattered while the two-way connections are relatively concentrated. In terms of primate connections, the output network presents a long distance and fan-shaped spatial structure, and the input network presents a relatively short distance and radial structure. 2) As for the structural characteristics, the logistics network has an obvious distance and temporal decay effect. In terms of concentration, the rank-size distribution of nodes presents a power law characteristics and, specifically, a double fractal structure, with the lower-grade cities lagging far behind the high-grade cities. 3) With regard to functional organization, the logistics hubs present an obvious core-periphery structure. Certain logistics hubs and backbone connections both play supporting roles in the network. In terms of functional vulnerability, the nodes that have greater influence on the network’s fragility are mostly located in areas with intensive branches of ZJS Express. Compared with the previous studies, the innovation of this research is to extract the logistics information directly from the express waybill, and analyze the spatial pattern, structural characteristics and functional organization of the logistics network based on this microscopic data. Therefore, the data and methods used in this study could directly reflect the pattern and nature of China’s interurban logistics network, thus reducing the deviation caused by factors such as index selection and weight distribution.

Key words: logistics network, interurban connection, express waybill, ZJS Express, China

中图分类号: 

  • K902